National Gallery (Athens)
The National Art Gallery–Alexandros Soutzos Museum is an art museum in Athens devoted to Greek and European art from the 14th century to the 20th century. It is directed by Marina Lambraki-Plaka and it was established in 1878 as a small collection of 117 works exhibited at the Athens University. In 1896, Alexandros Soutzos, a jurist and art lover, bequeathed his collection, the museum opened in 1900 and the first curator was the famous Greek painter Georgios Jakobides from Munich. After World War II the works began for a new building, after relocating the sculptures in the new National Glyptotheque, there is a discussion to renovate the main building and to build a new wing. The gallery exhibitions are mainly focused on post-Byzantine Greek Art, the gallery owns and exhibits an extensive collection of European artists. Particularly valuable, is the collection of paintings from the Renaissance, approximately four million people have visited the National Gallery in the last fourteen years. Its exhibition activity is supported by sponsorships that cover up to half of its budget.
The National Gallery has opened the last years branches in Nafplion, the gallery is situated on Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, opposite the Hilton Athens. It can be reached with the Athens Metro at the Evangelismos station, the National Glyptotheque is situated at the Alsos Stratou in Goudi, near Kanellopoulou Avenue and can be reached with the Athens Metro at the Katehaki station. National Glyptotheque Art in modern Greece Greek Art List of museums in Greece Foros Timis Ston Greco Cretan School National Gallery of Athens Official website
Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is a figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon. Platos dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is hidden behind his best disciple, nothing written by Socrates remains extant. As a result, information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary sources, close comparison between the contents of these sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question, to understand Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative source about Socrates life and philosophy, and Xenophon. These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates, as for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon.
There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time, a corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan. For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament, historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent, amid all the disagreement resulting from differences within sources, two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to Socrates. It would seem, that he was ugly, Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. It is a matter of debate over which Socrates it is whom Plato is describing at any given point—the historical figure. As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it, the idealist, offers an idol, a Saint, a prophet of the Sun-God, a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic.
It is clear from other writings and historical artefacts, that Socrates was not simply a character, nor an invention, the testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes work, is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Platos work. The problem with discerning Socrates philosophical views stems from the perception of contradictions in statements made by the Socrates in the different dialogues of Plato and these contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other individuals. Aristotle, in his Magna Moralia, refers to Socrates in words which make it patent that the virtue is knowledge was held by Socrates. Within the Metaphysics, he states Socrates was occupied with the search for moral virtues, however, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon. Also, in Platos Apology and Symposium, as well as in Xenophons accounts, more specifically, in the Apology, Socrates cites his poverty as proof that he is not a teacher.
Two fragments are extant of the writings by Timon of Phlius pertaining to Socrates, although Timon is known to have written to ridicule, details about the life of Socrates can be derived from three contemporary sources, the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of Aristophanes
Cephissus (Athenian plain)
Cephissus is a river flowing through the Athens agglomeration, Greece. The Bibliotheca declares that Erechtheus wife Praxithea was daughter of Phrasimus by Diogenia daughter of Cephissus, the source of the river is in the saddle between the Parnitha and Penteli mountains. From there it flows generally southwest until it reaches the Phaleron Bay between Neo Faliro and Moschato, today the river flows near or under the Motorway 1 linking Athens and Thessaloniki for much of its length. This section of Motorway 1 is named Kifissou Avenue, and is home to the Kifissos Bus Terminal
Hilton Athens is a hotel in Athens, Greece. It is on Vassilissis Sofias Avenue within the Hilton Area, near Syntagma Square, the hotel stands opposite the National Gallery of Athens and Evangelismos station. The hotel has an restaurant and bar which are used as meeting places by local Athenians as well as visitors to the city. It has a spa and a 25m by 15m outdoor swimming pool, the hotel officially opened on April 20th,1963, as Athens first international chain hotel. Conrad Hilton was present at the opening ceremony, guests at the hotel have included Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis, singer Frank Sinatra, director Ingmar Bergman and actor Anthony Quinn. Hilton Athens was the headquarters for the International Olympic Committee during the 2004 Summer Olympics, in 2011 the organizing committee of the 2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games took the hotel as their base of operations. The hotel hosted Athens’ first contemporary art gallery, the Hilton Gallery, from 1968 until 1972 the Hilton Gallery was responsible for various historical exhibitions.
Nowadays the hotel displays artworks and invests regularly in exhibitions of artists from Greece. The hotel was designed by a team of architects including Emmanuel Vourekas, Prokopis Vasileiadis, Anthony Georgiades, artist Yiannis Moralis, inspired by Greek themes, designed the reliefs of the building’s façade. The hotel was constructed in the period between 1958 and 1963. In 2003, anticipating the 2004 Summer Olympic Games, Hilton Athens was renovated by Greek architects Alexandros Tombazis and Charis Bougadelis, the establishment was refurbished, and a new seven-storey northern wing was added. The completed new wing contains 74 rooms and suites, which add up to a total of 506 available hotel rooms, with its current 15 floors above ground, the building is 65 meters high
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens
The Temple of Olympian Zeus, known as the Olympieion or Columns of the Olympian Zeus, is a monument of Greece and a former colossal temple at the centre of the Greek capital Athens. It was dedicated to Olympian Zeus, a name originating from his position as head of the Olympian gods, during the Roman period the temple -that included 104 colossal columns- was renowned as the largest temple in Greece and housed one of the largest cult statues in the ancient world. The temples glory was short-lived, as it fell into disuse after being pillaged during an invasion in the 3rd century AD. It was probably never repaired and was reduced to ruins thereafter, in the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, it was extensively quarried for building materials to supply building projects elsewhere in the city. Despite this, a part of the temple remains today, notably sixteen of the original gigantic columns. The temple is located approximately 1640 feet south-east of the Acropolis and its foundations were laid on the site of an ancient outdoor sanctuary dedicated to Zeus.
An earlier temple had stood there, constructed by the tyrant Peisistratus around 550 BC, the building was demolished after the death of Peisistratos and the construction of a colossal new Temple of Olympian Zeus was begun around 520 BC by his sons and Hipparchos. They sought to two famous contemporary temples, the Heraion of Samos and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. It was to be flanked by a colonnade of eight columns across the front and back and twenty-one on the flanks. The work was abandoned when the tyranny was overthrown and Hippias was expelled in 510 BC, only the platform and some elements of the columns had been completed by this point, and the temple remained in this state for 336 years. The temple was left unfinished during the years of Athenian democracy, in the treatise Politics, Aristotle cited the temple as an example of how tyrannies engaged the populace in great works for the state and left them no time, energy or means to rebel. The design was changed to have three rows of eight columns across the front and back of the temple and a row of twenty on the flanks.
The columns would stand 17 m high and 2 m in diameter, the project ground to a halt again in 164 BC with the death of Antiochus. The temple was still only half-finished by this stage, serious damage was inflicted on the partly built temple by Lucius Cornelius Sullas sack of Athens in 86 BC. While looting the city, Sulla seized some of the columns and transported them back to Rome. In 124-125 AD, when the strongly Philhellene Hadrian visited Athens, a walled marble-paved precinct was constructed around the temple, making it a central focus of the ancient city. Cossutiuss design was used with few changes and the temple was dedicated by Hadrian in 132. The temple and the precinct were adorned with numerous statues depicting Hadrian
Poseidon was one of the twelve Olympian deities of the pantheon in Greek mythology. His main domain was the ocean, and he is called the God of the Sea, additionally, he is referred to as Earth-Shaker due to his role in causing earthquakes, and has been called the tamer of horses. He is usually depicted as a male with curly hair. The name of the sea-god Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology, both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon. According to some folklore, he was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have birth to a colt. There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, according to the references from Plato in his dialogues Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was the chosen domain of Poseidon. The form Ποτειδάϝων appears in Corinth, the origins of the name Poseidon are unclear. Walter Burkert finds that the second element da- remains hopelessly ambiguous, another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϝον dâwon, this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters.
There is the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin, Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two alternative etymologies, either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a foot-bond, or he knew many things. If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja. A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is found, indicating a lost consort goddess. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld, the chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos, a powerful attribute. In the cave of Amnisos Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia and she was related with the annual birth of the divine child. During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax was her companion in Mycenean cult. It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription, in Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter.
Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for the Two Queens, the Two Queens may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in periods. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys, in Arcadia, Demeters mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, a Medusa type with a horses head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water
Pangrati or Pagrati is a neighborhood in the Municipality of Athens, Greece. It is not to be confused as a suburb, as it is part of the City of Athens proper. However, it is mistaken as such, possibly because of it bordering the actual suburbs of Vyronas. One of the most important landmarks of Pangrati is the Panathinaiko Stadium that hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, the First Cemetery of Athens, the official cemetery for the City of Athens, lies within Pangrati. Pangrati has numerous squares, Pangratiou, Proskopon, Profitis Ilias, Plyta, Pangratiou Square is home to the Pangratiou Park, together with a major street named Spirou Merkouri, which runs into Konstandinou Ave and up towards Evangelismos Metro Station. The Arcadia Center, a cultural institution, is located in Pangrati. The center operates study-abroad programs through the College of Global Studies at Arcadia University, Pangrati is served by buses #054,203,204,209,732 and trolleys #2,4 and 11
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Platos entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Along with his teacher and his most famous student, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Alfred North Whitehead once noted, the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. In addition to being a figure for Western science, philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche, amongst other scholars, called Christianity, Platonism for the people, Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy, which originate with him. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied, few other authors in the history of Western philosophy approximate him in depth and range, perhaps only Aristotle and Kant would be generally agreed to be of the same rank.
Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Platos early life, the philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens. Ancient sources describe him as a bright though modest boy who excelled in his studies, the exact time and place of Platos birth are unknown, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BCE. According to a tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus. Platos mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker, besides Plato himself and Perictione had three other children, these were two sons and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus. The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, and presumably brothers of Plato, but in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato.
Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, went to Euclides in Megara, as Debra Nails argues, The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato left immediately for Megara and implies the very opposite. Thus, Nails dates Platos birth to 424/423, another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping, an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy. Ariston appears to have died in Platos childhood, although the dating of his death is difficult. Perictione married Pyrilampes, her mothers brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, who was famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes second son, the half-brother of Plato and these and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Platos family tree
Platanus /ˈplætənəs/ is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the living members of the family Platanaceae. All members of Platanus are tall, reaching 30–50 m in height, all except for P. kerrii are deciduous, and most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane has proved tolerant of urban conditions. They are often known in English as planes or plane trees, some North American species are called sycamores, although the term sycamore refers to the fig Ficus sycomorus, the plant originally so named, and to the Sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus. The flowers are reduced and are borne in balls, 3–7 hairy sepals may be fused at the base and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant. The number of heads in one cluster is indicative of the species, the male flower has 3–8 stamens, the female has a superior ovary with 3–7 carpels. Male flower-heads fall off after shedding their pollen, after being pollinated, the female flowers become achenes that form an aggregate ball.
The fruit is a multiple of achenes, the core of the ball is 1 cm in diameter and is covered with a net of mesh 1 mm, which can be peeled off. The ball is 2. 5–4 cm in diameter and contains several hundred achenes, each of which has a seed and is conical. There is a tuft of many thin stiff yellow-green bristle fibers attached to the base of each achene and these bristles help in wind dispersion of the fruits as in the dandelion. The leaves are simple and alternate, in the subgenus Platanus they have a palmate outline. The base of the stalk is enlarged and completely wraps around the young stem bud in its axil. The axillary bud is exposed only after the leaf falls off, the mature bark peels off or exfoliates easily in irregularly shaped patches, producing a mottled, scaly appearance. On old trunks, bark may not flake off, but thickens, within subgenus Platanus, genetic evidence suggests that P. racemosa is more closely related to P. orientalis than it is to the other North American species. There are fossil records of plane trees as early as 115 million years, despite the geographic separation between North America and Old World, species from these continents will cross readily resulting in fertile hybrids such as the London plane.
The following are recognized species of trees, Planes are susceptible to plane anthracnose. The most severe infections are associated with cold, wet spring weather, P. occidentalis and the other American species are the most susceptible, with P. orientalis the most resistant
Attica is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea, the modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes the Saronic Islands and the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland. The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi long Cithaeron mountain range, to the west, it is bordered by the sea and the canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and the island of Euboea lies off the north, mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias and Thriasion. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the portion of the Geraneia, the Parnitha, the Aigaleo. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha and Hymettus —delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus metroplex now spreads, Athens water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial lake created by damming in 1920.
Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha, Penteli and Laurium are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery. The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica, according to Plato, Atticas ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right, during antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being autochthonic, which is to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place. The traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. Supposedly, the Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect.
Many Ionians left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, during the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Nea Makri, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Menidi, Spata, all of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period. According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Epacria, Eleusis, Thoricus, Cytherus, Sphettus and possibly Phaleron. These were said to have been incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus. Modern historians consider it likely that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th. Until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs, only after Peisistratoss tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens
Kallithea is the 8th largest municipality in Greece and the 4th biggest in the Athens urban area. Additionally, it is the most densely populated municipality in Greece, the municipality has an area of 4.749 km2. Actual the community reports a number of close to 200.000 inhabitants, the center of Kallithea lies at a distance of 3 km to the south of the Athens city center and 3 km to the north-east of the Piraeus. Kallithea extends from the Filopappou and Sikelia hills in the north to Phaleron Bay in the south, its two other sides consist of Syngrou Avenue to the east, and the Ilisos River to the west. The site on which the city was developed covers the biggest part of the area to the south of Athens, protected in ancient times by the Long Walls to the west, somewhere within this area the ancient town of Xypete lay. The town and its citizens are mentioned, among other places, the plans for the establishment of the new city of Kallithea were officially approved in December 1884. On the longitudinal axis of the town, the Athens to Phaleron tramway once ran, from the beginning to, between the first modern games and the recent Olympic Games in the city, Kallithea grew significantly.
Initially the tramway depot and workshop were built here in 1910, followed by the Harokopios Graduate School, in the 1920s the town was flooded by thousands of refugees following the Greco-Turkish War, the Asia Minor Catastrophe, and the Treaty of Lausanne. Black Sea immigrants of Greek origin settled in Kallithea in the 1930s, after its evacuation the building bound with the shooting range served as a school, until the Nazi Occupation of 1941, when it was converted to a prison. The prison of Kallithea was demolished in 1966, among others, fighters of the Greek Resistance and victims of the Greek Civil War had been jailed there, south Kallithea, is associated with the development of Greek folk music, particularly rebetiko and laïkó). An even notable school in Kallithea is Sivitanidios School, one of the oldest technical school in Greece, until 2004, south Kallithea housed the only horse track in Greece, which moved to Markopoulon, near Eleftherios Venizelos Airport. Kallithea had another important club, Esperides Kallithea with many titles in women basketball and this club merged to Ikaros Kallithea in 2012.
The main roads of Kallithea are Andrea Syngrou Avenue towards eastern Athens and Poseidonos Avenue towards Piraeus, harokopio University Panteion University Municipal Gallery, housed in the Laskaridou building, one of the first dwellings in the city. Aghia Eleousa church of the late Byzantine period, Kallithea monument, a 4th-century BC family tomb, one of the most impressive exhibits of the Piraeus Archaeological Museum. Argonauts-Comnenus fraternity of the Pontus Greeks, aiming at the study and preservation of the history, monument in memory of the Pontus Greeks in the center of the city. Faliro Coastal Zone Olympic Complex on Kallithea beach from the Sports Pavilion to the Olympic Beach Volleyball Center, grigoris Lambrakis Stadium, home to Kallithea FC since 1972