Evgraf Semenovich Sorokin
Evgraf Semenovich Sorokin, or Yevgraf Semyonovich Sorokin was a Russian artist and teacher, known for historical and genre paintings. His first exposure to art came from a painter in Yaroslavl. This painting was presented to the Tsar, who was impressed to issue an order that Sorokin should study at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. In 1841, he entered the Academy under the supervision of Alexey Tarasovich Markov, the following year, he was already receiving praise from the Academy Council. He won several medals and, in 1847, was awarded a gold medal for his rendering of Daniel in the lions den. Two years later, his painting of the hero, Ian Usmovets, won him a gold medal. He was in Spain from 1851 to 1854 and Italy from 1855 to 1859, in between, he toured Western Europe, visiting Egypt and Syria as well. Some of the works he created in Spain are among his best-known, in 1859, he returned home and was appointed a teacher at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture, where he remained until his death.
In 1861, he was named an Academician and created an iconostasis for the new Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris, later, he worked at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, where he created an iconstasis and completed some images that had been left unfinished by Fyodor Bruni. For that work, he was promoted to Professor in 1878 and his exact date of death is apparently unrecorded. Media related to Evgraf Semenovich Sorokin at Wikimedia Commons
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is a cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few blocks southwest of the Kremlin. With an overall height of 103 metres, it is the tallest Orthodox Christian church in the world, the current church is the second to stand on this site. The original church, built during the 19th century, took more than 40 years to build and it was destroyed in 1931 on the order of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. The demolition was supposed to make way for a colossal Palace of the Soviets to house the countrys legislature, construction started in 1937 but was halted in 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union during World War II. Its steel frame was disassembled the year, and the Palace was never built. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the current church was rebuilt on the site during 1995–2000, the original church was the scene of the 1882 world premiere of the 1812 Overture composed by Tchaikovsky, which became internationally famous.
It took some time for work on the cathedral to get started. The first finished architectural project, by Aleksandr Lavrentyevich Vitberg, was endorsed by the Tsar in 1817 and it was a flamboyant Neoclassical design full of Freemasonic symbolism. Construction work was begun on the Sparrow Hills, the highest point in Moscow, in the meantime Alexander I was succeeded by his brother Nicholas I. Profoundly Orthodox and patriotic, the new Tsar disliked the Neoclassicism and he commissioned his favorite architect Konstantin Thon to create a new design, taking as his model Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, Turkey. Thons Russian Revival design was approved in 1832, a new site closer to the Moscow Kremlin was chosen by the Tsar in 1837. A convent and church on the site had to be relocated, the cathedral took many decades to build, the scaffolding was not taken down until 1860. Its painting was overseen by Evgraf Sorokin, and thereafter some of the best Russian painters continued to embellish the interior for another twenty years, the cathedral was consecrated on 26 May 1883, the day before Alexander III was crowned.
Although Tchaikovskys 1812 Overture was written with the completion in mind. The inner sanctum of the church was ringed by a gallery, its walls inlaid with rare sorts of marble, granite. The ground floor of the gallery was a dedicated to the Russian victory over Napoleon. The walls displayed more than 1,000 square metres of Carrara bianca marble plaques listing major commanders, the second floor of the gallery was occupied by church choirs. The giant dome of the cathedral was gilded using the new technique of electroplating, replacing the older
Sergey Konstantinovich Zaryanko was a Russian portrait painter and art teacher of Belarusian ancestry. He was the son of a serf on the estate of the Lubomirski family, after his father received his freedom, they moved to Saint Petersburg and entered the employ of Alexander Golitsyn, who would be a government minister. He showed an aptitude for art and received his first lessons from Vasily Avrorin. In 1834, thanks to a recommendation from Alexey Venetsianov, he was able to begin auditing classes at the Imperial Academy of Arts, at first, he painted interiors rather than portraits and studied landscape painting with Maxim Vorobiev. In 1836, he was awarded a silver medal, two years later, he received the title of Artist and was awarded another silver medal in 1841. In 1843, he was named an Academician and went to Moscow, beginning in 1846, he gave classes at the Moscow Palace Architectural School, but soon returned to Saint Petersburg and began doing portraits. In 1849, his paintings of General Pyotr Karlovich Lomnovsky and the singer, Osip Petrov.
The following year, his portrait of Fyodor Tolstoy earned him the title of Professor and he painted little during the 1860s, focusing instead on teaching. Having suffered from eyestrain for many years, it is believed that he may have lost his sight in one eye and he is said to have died suddenly
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Kaluga Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga, established in 1944, Kaluga Oblast is located in the heart of the European part of Russia. It has well-developed transportation and utility infrastructure, the oblast has been demonstrating high economic growth rates, has substantial human reserves, and is one of the largest cultural and scientific centers of Russia. Kaluga Oblast lies in the part of the East European Plain. The oblasts territory is located between the Central Russian Upland, the Smolensk–Moscow Upland and the Dnepr-Desna province, most of the oblast is occupied by plains and forests with diverse flora and fauna. The administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain, the western part of the oblast - located within the drift plain - is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south of it is a plain that is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands. From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30 to 55°30 northern altitude, the oblasts territory is crossed by major international motor and railways, linking Kaluga with Moscow, Kiev and Warsaw.
Some glacial lakes have been preserved, like the oblasts deepest lake – the Bezdon, the oblast is located between the Central Russian upland and the Smolensk-Moscow upland. There are both low plains elevating to 200 m above sea level, and high plains rising above 200 m, the southeastern part of the oblast is occupied by the Central Russian upland, and extreme northwest – by the Spas-Demensk ridge. The uplands are separated by the Yugorsk-Protvino lowland, in the extreme southwest, the oblast is covered by Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, and in the central part – by the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The highest point of the oblast is located on the Spas-Demensk ridge at 279 m, thus the amplitude of the terrain is 160 m. Kaluga Oblast is situated in the part of the East European Platform. The depth of the top stage is 400–500 m in the south. Most of the sheath was formed by Devonian deposits. Their share in the south exceeds 80% of the entire aqueous depth, there are four geo-economic districts in Kaluga Oblast, North-East, Central and North-West.
The specific value of Kaluga Oblasts deposits is over RUR8 million per m2,550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources,131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblasts territory. There are 24 deposits with industrial reserves of clay exceeding over 220 million m3,14 of which are currently in intensive development, the Ulyanovo deposit of fire and ceramic clays is one of the biggest in Russia, and one that has not yet been developed industrially
Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin was a leading Russian Impressionist painter. Konstantin was born in Moscow to a merchant family officially registered as peasants of Vladimir Gubernia and his father, Aleksey Mikhailovich Korovin, earned a university degree and was more interested in arts and music than in the family business established by Konstantins grandfather. Konstantins older brother Sergei Korovin was a notable realist painter, Konstantins relative Illarion Pryanishnikov was a prominent painter of the time and a teacher at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. In 1875 Korovin entered the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture and his brother Sergei was already a student at the school. During their student years, the Korovins became friends with fellow students Valentin Serov and Isaac Levitan, in 1881–1882, Korovin spent a year at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, but returned disappointed to the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture. He studied at the school under his new teacher Vasily Polenov until 1886, in 1885 Korovin traveled to Paris and Spain.
Paris was a shock for me … Impressionists… in them I found everything I was scolded for back home in Moscow, Polenov introduced Korovin to Savva Mamontovs Abramtsevo Circle, Viktor Vasnetsov, Apollinary Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, Mark Antokolsky and others. The groups love for stylized Russian themes is reflected in Korovins picture A Northern Idyll, in 1885 Korovin worked for Mamontovs opera house, designing the stage decor for Giuseppe Verdis Aida, Léo Delibes Lakmé and Georges Bizets Carmen. In 1888 Korovin traveled with Mamontov to Italy and Spain, where he produced the painting On the Balcony, Konstantin traveled within Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia and exhibited with the Peredvizhniki. He painted in the Impressionist, and in the Art Nouveau, in the 1890s Korovin became a member of the Mir iskusstva art group. Korovins subsequent works were influenced by his travels to the north. In 1888 he was captivated by the northern landscapes seen in The Coast of Norway. His second trip to the north, with Valentin Serov in 1894, Korovin painted a large number of landscapes, Norwegian Port, St.
Triphons Brook in Pechenga, Aurora Borealis, The Coast at Murmansk and others. The paintings are built on a web of shades of grey. The etude style of works was typical for Korovins art of the 1890s. Using material from his trip, Korovin designed the Far North pavilion at the 1896 All Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod and he painted ten big canvasses for the pavilion as well, depicting various aspects of life in the northern and Arctic regions. After the closure of the Exhibition, the canvasses were eventually placed in the Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal in Moscow, in the 1960s, they were restored and transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery. In 1900 Korovin designed the Central Asia section of the Russian Empire pavilion at the Paris World Fair and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government, in the beginning of the 20th century, Korovin focused his attention on the theater
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Vasily Grigorevich Perov was a Russian painter and one of the founding members of Peredvizhniki, a group of Russian realist painters. Although the parents married soon after his birth, there was no way to inherit his fathers name. He was written under the godfathers surname — Vasiliev and he changed his surname to Perov — a nickname given by his teacher who taught him calligraphy as a child. After completing a course at Arzamas uezd school, he was transferred to the Alexander Stupin art school located in Arzamas. In 1853 he was admitted to the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture, in 1856 he was awarded with a minor silver medal for his sketch of a boys head, presented to the Imperial Academy of Arts. After receiving the right to a trip abroad together with a golden medal, in 1862 Perov went to Western Europe, visiting several German cities. In 1866 he received the title of an academician, and in 1871 the position of a Professor at Moscow School of Arts and it was around this period that he joined the Peredvizhniki.
Perov died on 10 June,1882 in the village Kuzminki from tuberculosis and his body was interred at the Donskoe Cemetery. Perov at Olgas Gallery Artists Illustrating Boys Fashions, Vasily Perov Vasily Perov at Tanais Gallery
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality