Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Brittany. Ille-et-Vilaine is a part of the current region of Brittany and is bordered by the departments of Manche to the north-east, Mayenne to the east, Maine-et-Loire to the south-east, Loire-Atlantique to the south, Morbihan to the south-west, Côtes-d'Armor to the west and north-west; the English Channel borders the department to the north. The department is named after its two main rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, whose confluence is in Rennes, the capital of the department and of the region. Other important rivers include: the Rance, that borders the department in the north-west and flows to the north, creating a deep fjord before reaching the English Channel on the western part of the coast between the cities of Dinard and Saint-Malo).

The department is moderately elevated above the level of the sea, with many hills. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood; the basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance. In the extreme south of the department the Vilaine goes through a slower decrease in elevation in a small corridor in the area of the city of Redon. To avoid these hazards within inhabited cities, some natural fields bordering the Vilaine in the south of the department are now left floodable, works for regulating the level have been done including, small artificial lakes with derivation channels, replanting trees in the basin, better management of forests, regulating the artificial drains made for agriculture; the population has grown over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,051,779 in January 2016. Population development since 1801: Gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany.

Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes. The Breton language was little spoken in the eastern part of Brittany, this was one of the first regions where the language disappeared such that Breton was not spoken for many centuries. Today, Breton is again spoken due to schools teaching Breton, due to a small immigration from Western Brittany to Eastern Brittany, where there are more cities with growing industries and external investment and therefore more work. A recent study shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3.3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12.7% of the total number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are few elder speakers but many people are learning the language; the study says. The President of the General Council is the Socialist Jean-Louis Tourenne since the 2004 French cantonal elections; the city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department.

The city has been governed by Socialist Mayors since 1977, notably by Edmond Hervé between 1977 and 2008. Since the growth of middle-class suburbs have helped the Socialists, who have been gaining strength in those right-leaning areas; the right remains strong in a Catholic area from outside Redon to Vitré or Fougères. In addition, the right is strong in the wealthy coastal area of Dinard. Cantons of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Arrondissements of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Prefecture website General Council website Ille-et-Vilaine at Curlie Cultural Heritage City of Rennes website

Murad Alam

Physician and author. Is a cited expert in the area of cosmetic dermatology, noted for his research in areas of cosmetic repair and barbed suture use, his work has extended to serving on expert panels such as those dedicated to merkel cell cancer and guidelines of care. He is the current president of the Blade and Light Society for dermatologic surgeons and serves as the Chief of the Section of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. Serves as a regular figure, in local and national news outlets, on discussions of skin care and skin cancer, he is an outspoken advocate of skin health. Alam has both an undergraduate and MD degree from Yale University, he did his medical residency at Columbia University

Marianne Frommer

Marianne Frommer is an eminent Australian geneticist. She was born in Hong Kong and educated at the University of Sydney – BSc 1969 and PhD in 1976, she is best known for developing a protocol to map DNA methylation by bisulphite genomic sequencing. Early in her career Frommer investigated the molecular biology of "satellite DNAs" in the human genome, she and her colleague Jane Prosser showed that classical satellites were all A+T-rich simple repeated sequences. Another important result was the identification of an Alu sequence as part of the repeat unit in Satellite 1, thereby showing that SINEs could be a repeated component of centromeric heterochromatin. Frommer determined the chromosomal locations of the major simple-sequence repeats by devising a new method of non-radioactive labelling, based on incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into single-stranded probes; the method was used to localise satellite repeats precisely. This research led to the observation of methylation patterns at CpG dinucleotides in sequenced genomic repeated DNA.

In 1984, Frommer was fortunate to spend a study leave in the laboratory of Dr Adrian Bird, took part in the characterisation of what were termed HTF islands in mammalian genomes. She and her PhD student Margaret Gardiner-Garden were able to identify these genomic components by DNA sequence characteristics alone, without prior knowledge of methylation status, gave them the name "CpG islands, they showed that CpG islands are a distinct feature of vertebrate genomes and that CpG islands are associated with genes. They showed that the majority of neural and neuroendocrine genes were associated with CpG islands and therefore proposed that CpG islands facilitate regulated transcription from neural precursors and developing neural tissue in the early embryo. In 1998 Frommer realised that it should be possible to amplify the products of a DNA deamination reaction and distinguish methylated and unmethylated molecules by dideoxy-sequencing. Frommer's protocol yielded a clear positive display of methylcytosine residues.

The PCR products of bisulphite reactions could be sequenced directly to measure the extent of methylation at any CpG site in a population of DNA molecules. The particular strength of the method was that cloning and sequencing of the PCR products yielded methylation patterns or "maps" of single DNA molecules. Frommer and her colleagues have developed an extraordinarily powerful model system to study the molecular biology of behavioural characteristics and evolutionary processes using native Australian fruit flies. Frommer is a role model for women scientists, she was elected as a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 2010. An outstanding feat - because she did not have a traditional research trajectory, she worked part-time for two periods of her career. Frommer is most proud of her students and having run a lab with a substantial proportion of part-time women scientists, at a time when, something of a no-no. Outside of her university life, Frommer is the coordinator of'Friends of the Billabong', a group responsible for re-vegetating an important local area just off the River Torrens in Adelaide.

Frommer is interested in houses and design in energy and water conservation aspects