Aurora, a suburb of Chicago, is a city in DuPage, Kane and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located in DuPage and Kane counties, it is an outer suburb of Chicago and the second most populous city in the state, the 114th most populous city in the country; the population was 197,899 at the 2010 census, was estimated to have increased to 200,965 by 2017. Once a mid-sized manufacturing city, Aurora has grown since the 1960s. Founded within Kane County, Aurora's city limits and population have expanded into DuPage and Kendall counties. Between 2000 and 2003, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Aurora as the 34th fastest-growing city in the United States. From 2000 to 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked the city as the 46th fastest growing city with a population of over 100,000. In 1908, Aurora adopted the nickname "City of Lights", because in 1881 it was one of the first cities in the United States to implement an all-electric street lighting system. Aurora's historic downtown is located on the Fox River, centered on Stolp Island.
The city is divided into three regions, the West Side, on the west side of the Fox River, the East Side, between the eastern bank of the Fox River and the Kane/DuPage County line, the Far East Side/Fox Valley, from the County Line to the city's eastern border with Naperville. The Aurora area has some significant architecture, including structures by Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Bruce Goff and George Grant Elmslie. Aurora is home to a large collection of Sears Catalog Homes and Lustron all-steel homes; the Hollywood Casino Aurora, a dockside gaming facility with 53,000 square feet and 1,200 gaming positions, is located along the river in downtown Aurora. Before European settlers arrived, there was a Native American village in what is today downtown Aurora, on the banks of the Fox River. In 1834, following the Black Hawk War, the McCarty brothers arrived, they owned land on both sides of the river, but sold their lands to the Lake brothers on the west side. The Lake brothers opened a mill on the opposite side of the river.
The McCartys operated their mill on the east side. A post office was established in 1837 creating Aurora. Aurora was two villages: East Aurora, incorporated in 1845, on the east side of the river, West Aurora, formally organized on the west side of the river in 1854. In 1857, the two towns joined incorporated as the city of Aurora; as representatives could not agree which side of the river should house the public buildings, most public buildings were built on or around Stolp Island in the middle of the river. As the city grew, it attracted numerous jobs. In 1856, the Chicago and Quincy Railroad located its roundhouse and locomotive shop in Aurora, becoming the town's largest employer, a rank it held until the 1960s. Railroad restructuring in the railroad industry resulted in a loss of jobs as the number of railroads reduced and they dropped lines for passenger traffic. Aurora at one time had scheduled passenger trains to Chicago; the heavy industries on the East side provided employment for generations of European immigrants, who came from Ireland, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Germany and Italy.
Aurora became the economic center of the Fox Valley region. The combination of these three factors—a industrialized town, a sizable river that divided it, the Burlington railroad's shops—accounted for much of the dynamics of Aurora's political and social history; the city supported abolitionism before the American Civil War. Mexican migrants began arriving after the Mexican Revolution of 1910; the town was progressive in its attitude toward education, religion and women. The first free public school district in Illinois was established in 1851 here and the city established a high school for girls in 1855; the city developed as a manufacturing powerhouse and continued until the early 1970s, when the railroad shops closed. Soon many other factories and industrial areas went out of business. By 1980, there were few industrial areas operating in the city, unemployment soared to 16%. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, development began of the Far East side along the Eola Road and Route 59 areas.
While this was financially beneficial to the city, it drew off retail businesses and manufacturing from downtown and the industrial sectors of the near East and West Sides weakening them. In the mid-1980s crime rates soared and street gangs started to form. During this time Aurora became a much more culturally diverse city; the Latino population began to grow in the city in the 1980s. In the late 1980s, several business and industrial parks were established on the city's outskirts. In 1993, the Hollywood Casino was built downtown, which helped bring the first redevelopment to the downtown area in nearly twenty years. In the late 1990s, more development began in the rural towns outside Aurora. Subdivisions sprouted up around the city, Aurora's population soared. Today, Aurora is a culturally diverse city of around 200,000 residents. Historic areas downtown are being redeveloped, new developments are being built all over the city. Aurora is at 41°45′50″N 88°17′24″W. According to the 2010 census, Aurora has an area of 45.799 square miles, of which 44.94 square miles is land and 0.859 square miles is water.
While the city has traditionally been regarded as being in Kane County, Aurora includes parts of DuPage and Will counties. Aurora is one of only three cities in Illinois. (The others are Barrington Hills and Centr
Des Plaines River
The Des Plaines River is a river that flows southward for 133 miles through southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois in the United States Midwest meeting the Kankakee River west of Channahon to form the Illinois River, a tributary of the Mississippi River. Native Americans used the river as transportation portage; when French explorers and missionaries arrived in the 1600s, in what was the Illinois Country of New France, they named the waterway La Rivière des Plaines as they felt that trees on the river resembled the European plane tree. The local Native Americans showed these early European explorers how to traverse waterways of the Des Plaines watershed to travel from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River and its valley. Parts of the river are now part of the Chicago Area Waterway System; the slow-moving Des Plaines River rises in southern Wisconsin just west of Kenosha and flows southward through marshland as it crosses into Illinois. The river turns to the east and flows through woodland forest preserve districts in Lake and Cook counties, northwest of Chicago.
Numerous small fixed dams have been built on the river starting in central Lake County and continuing through Cook County. The river turns to the southwest and joins with the Sanitary and Ship Canal in Lockport before flowing through the city of Joliet. Here it becomes part of the longer Illinois Waterway. In the industrialized area around Joliet, dams control the river. Just west of Joliet, the Des Plaines converges with the Kankakee River to form the Illinois River; those parts of the Des Plaines River preserved in a natural state are used for conservation and recreation, while altered sections serve as an important industrial waterway and drainage channel. The original course of the riverbed was moved to the west at the town of Lockport during the construction of the Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1905. According to Chicago Wilderness Magazine, as the Des Plaines River runs 95 miles through four Illinois counties, it "changes from prairie creek to a suburban stream, to a large urbanized river, to a major industrial waterway."Sections of the river in the Lake County and Cook County Forest Preserve districts in Illinois create "a nearly continuous greenway though all of Lake County and the northern section of Cook County."
While canoe launching ramps are available, "The lack of ramps for trailered boats makes this long river a quiet, family-friendly river." This greenway supports the Des Plaines River Trail, a multi-use trail that follows the course of the Des Plaines River through Lake County and into Cook County. The Des Plaines River was named by early French coureurs de bois sometime between the 17th and 18th centuries, after the trees lining the banks of the river; the word la plaine, in the 18th-century Mississippi Valley dialect of French spoken at the time, referred to either the American sycamore or the red maple, both of which resembled the European plane tree either in their palmate leaves or similar bark. This meaning of plaine survives in Canadian French: Plaine or Plaine rouge refers to an Acer rubrum and Acer saccharinum is sometimes named a plaine blanche; the English word for the plane tree came from the 14th century Old French word la plane. Since the 18th century, the French word for the plane tree has evolved into le platane.
As the Latin name for the plane tree is platanus, this transformation was done as a part of the attempts by late 18th-century French academics to change the spelling of many French words to what was perceived as their Latin origins. A side effect of such action was that the original French meaning of the name applied to the Des Plaines River was obscured. Today, des Plaines in modern Parisian French means "of the plains" or "of the prairie"; this has led to confusion about the meaning of the original French name for the Des Plaines River. Many people today believe that the river was named after the plains and prairies through which the river flows. But, in the 18th-century French dialect, it was more common to use the word "prairie" to indicate a plain, such as Prairie du Rocher in Illinois and Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin; as noted above, it is more that the river was named in reference to the trees rather than the land. The French, like the Native Americans, traveled by waterways rather than overland.
The view of the prairie was nearly always blocked by trees. To this day a large number of both maples and sycamores grow along the Des Plaines River. Although the original French name for the river has survived, its pronunciation has been altered. Today, locals pronounce it in an anglicized way, rather than according to the French pronunciation; the Des Plaines River Bridge in Joliet is a cantilever bridge, six lanes wide—three lanes traveling eastbound and westbound. The bridge is signed as part of Interstate 80; the bridge is located on the south side of Joliet. A Tunnel and Reservoir Plan to reduce the harmful effects of floods and the flushing of raw sewage into Lake Michigan is semi-operational, it diverts storm sewage into temporary holding reservoirs. The megaproject is one of the largest civil engineering projects undertaken in terms of scope and timeframe. Commissioned in the mid-1970s, the project is managed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Completion of the system is not anticipated until 2029, but substantial portions of the system have opened.
A modern flood control study stated that flooding on the Des Plaines River has caused signific
Woodford County, Illinois
Woodford County is a county located in the state of Illinois. The 2010 United States Census listed its population at 38,664, its county seat is Eureka. Woodford County is part of IL, Metropolitan Statistical Area, its name comes from General William Woodford, an officer of the American Revolutionary War who served at the brutal military encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Woodford County is part of what was the homelands of several Native American peoples, including the Potawatomi, the Meskwaki, the Sauk peoples, it was located just south of the land of the Illiniwek. The western portion of the county in particular shows extensive archeological evidence of supporting extensive First Nations populations. At the time of the American Revolutionary War, three competing American colonies — Massachusetts and Connecticut — claimed part of what is today the state of Illinois; the matter was solved in 1778 when Virginia amalgamated lands in the region into a massive county called Illinois, borrowing the name of a native people.
Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 with William Henry Harrison as Governor. It was not until 1809 that Illinois Territory was formally established as an official territory of the United States of America. Statehood followed in December 1818; the first organized Anglo settlements in the future Woodford County region appeared in the 1820s. First settlement in the county came at Spring Bay, with pioneers managing to select the same ground occupied by an ancient Indian burial site which ran north-and-south through the entire settlement; the location was chosen due to its proximity to the Illinois River. In the 1870s, an early historian of Woodford County wrote: There were a few Indians in the county at the time of settlement by the whites, but the two races did not come into conflict to any extent; the advancing wave of civilization seemed to follow up the retreating wave of barbarism. The first settlers encountered a few Indians...and in 1832 were involved to some extent in the Black Hawk War, but the active operations were further north than Woodford County.
The current boundaries of the county were not those drawn. In 1827 new lines were drawn and Tazewell County was established, including all of today's Woodford County. Settlers began arriving from neighboring territories during the early 1830s; this led to the formal creation of Woodford County along its current boundaries in February 1841. The County was named for Woodford County, in turn named after General William Woodford, who served with General George Washington at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania during the brutal winter of 1777-78; the first post office in today's Woodford County was established in 1836 at Partridge township, named for local tribal leader Black Partridge. In 1836, the area's first school was founded, by Miss Betsy Page; the first public school followed shortly thereafter. The first Sunday school was established in 1837 in the home of Parker Morse in Cazenovia; the first settlers of Woodford County occupied crude log cabins. Windows were covered with oiled papers. Construction of the cabins was primitive, with the floor plan involving a single room heated with a fireplace.
Meat was roasted on a spit. A common staple of pioneer life was waffles, baked from batter in a folding iron mold three or four feet long. Modern canning processes were unknown and the wintertime larder consisted of bread and meat. Vegetables were consumed seasonally, with pumpkin, red peppers and venison dried for use. Clothing was made at home of linen made from homegrown flax. In addition, other heavier compound fabrics known as "linsey," made of linen or cotton with woolen filling, "jeans," made of an heavier material and dyed brown with walnut bark, were used. Prior to 1831 all preparation of wool had to be done by hand at home, with the raw fiber "carded" between pairs of thin, metal spiked boards about 4 inches wide and a foot long; the resulting rolls of wool were spun into thread upon a spinning wheel and thereby prepared for the loom. A sexual division of labor was practiced, with women engaged in home manufactures and food preparation while men were occupied with agriculture and construction.
Since a great percentage of the land of Woodford County was tillable, farming was the principal occupation of the early settlers. Plowing was by means of wooden plows with iron shares. Hay using wild rather than cultivated grass, was cut with a scythe and taken up with rakes and pitchforks. With the advent of timber milling in the area, frame houses became possible. Settlers cooperated in construction, helping one another raise barns; the latter could be 30 feet in length and width with walls 16 feet high. "It was heavy and dangerous work, the raising of a large barn required the united energies of a whole community," one settler recalled. Other buildings constructed included stables, corn-cribs and ash-hoppers. Plank fences began to appear in the 1850s. Governance by the early settlers was not by voice vote. By 1850, Woodford County was well settled. Illinois settlers were
Livingston County, Illinois
Livingston County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 38,950, its county seat is Pontiac. Livingston County comprises the Pontiac, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, combined with the Bloomington–Normal metropolitan statistical area as the Bloomington-Pontiac, IL Combined Statistical Area. Livingston was established on February 27, 1837, it was formed from parts of McLean, LaSalle, Iroquois counties, named after Edward Livingston, a prominent politician, mayor of New York City and represented New York in the United States House of Representatives and Louisiana in both houses of Congress. He served as Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and as Minister to France. Although he had no connections to Illinois, the General Assembly found him accomplished enough to name a county after him. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,046 square miles, of which 1,044 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water.
It is the fourth-largest county in Illinois by land area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Pontiac have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1927 and a record high of 108 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.44 inches in February to 4.11 inches in June. Interstate 55 U. S. Highway 24 Illinois Route 17 Illinois Route 23 Illinois Route 47 Illinois Route 116 Grundy County - north Kankakee County - northeast Ford County - southeast McLean County - southwest Woodford County - west LaSalle County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,950 people, 14,613 households, 9,741 families residing in the county; the population density was 37.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,895 housing units at an average density of 15.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.8% white, 4.9% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 36.6% were German, 17.2% were Irish, 11.2% were American, 10.7% were English, 5.1% were Italian. Of the 14,613 households, 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families, 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 40.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,500 and the median income for a family was $60,933. Males had a median income of $44,639 versus $32,234 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,259. About 9.1% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Fairbury Pontiac Streator Chatsworth Livingston County is divided into thirty townships: The Illinois Department of Corrections operates two prisons in the county.
Pontiac Correctional Center is located in Pontiac. Pontiac houses the male death row. Prior to the January 11, 2003 commutation of death row sentences, male death row inmates were housed in Pontiac and Tamms correctional centers. Dwight Correctional Center is within Nevada Township in an unincorporated area in the county; the Dwight Correctional Center is unoccupied and was closed in 2013. Although it was solidly Democratic before 1856, Livingston has since always been a powerfully Republican county; the solitary Democrat to win a majority of the county’s vote since the Civil War has been Franklin D. Roosevelt in his 1932 landslide triumph over Herbert Hoover. Apart from that and the 1912 election when Woodrow Wilson won against a mortally divided Republican Party, Livingston has always voted Republican since that party was founded in 1856. Since 1940, only Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide victory over the conservative Barry Goldwater has won more than forty percent of the county’s vote. Donald Attig and adventurer.
Calistus Bruer, Illinois state representative and farmer Moira Harris and wife of Gary Sinise. William Harris, first President of the Illinois Senate. Irene Hunt, Newbery Medal-winning author. Francis Townsend and political activist whose advocacy for an old age revolving pension influenced the creation of the U. S. Social Security program. Skottie Young, comic book artist known for the Oz series, he was raised in Fairbury. National Register of Historic Places listings in Livingston County, Illinois The History of Livingston County, Illinois: Containing a History of the County — Its Cities, Etc..
Kendall County, Illinois
Kendall County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois, within the Chicago metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 114,736, its county seat is Yorkville, its most populous municipality is Oswego. Kendall County is part of the IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it was the fastest-growing county in the United States between the years 2000 and 2010. Kendall County was formed in 1841 out of Kane counties; the county is named after Amos Kendall. Kendall was the editor of the Frankfort, Kentucky newspaper, went on to be an important advisor to President Andrew Jackson. Kendall became the U. S. Postmaster General in 1835. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 322 square miles, of which 320 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Kendall County is a small but growing county that has the majority of its population in the northeast, along the Fox River which runs through the county's northwestern section. Many new subdivisions have been constructed in this county, which has produced considerable population growth.
Southern Kendall still remains agricultural. Kendall County has two primary ranges of low-lying hills formed by. Ransom, the more predominant of the two moraines, runs through the west and north-central part of the county; this moraine has created elevations of over 800 feet, in contrast to elevations in southern Kendall County that drop to the lower 500 feet range. Minooka, the other major end moraine ridge in Kendall County, runs along its entire eastern border with Will County; the two moraines intersect at a right angle in the township of Oswego. The county's only designated state park is Wildlife Area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Yorkville have ranged from a low of 10 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.52 inches in February to 4.39 inches in July. Interstate 80 U. S. Highway 30 U. S. Highway 34 U.
S. Highway 52 Illinois Route 25 Illinois Route 31 Illinois Route 47 Illinois Route 71 Illinois Route 126 Kane County - north DuPage County - northeast Will County - east Grundy County - south LaSalle County - west DeKalb County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 114,736 people, 38,022 households, 30,067 families residing in the county; the population density was 358.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 40,321 housing units at an average density of 125.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 83.6% white, 5.7% black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 5.0% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.0% were German, 16.0% were Irish, 9.5% were Polish, 9.4% were Italian, 7.5% were English, 3.2% were American. Of the 38,022 households, 47.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.9% were non-families, 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.41. The median age was 32.9 years. The county's median household income was $79,897 and the median family income was $87,309. Males had a median income of $64,048 versus $42,679 for females; the county's per capita income was $30,565. About 2.9% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. It is one of seven out of the 364 largest counties in the United States that has a higher median income for African Americans than White Americans. Kendall County was listed as the fastest-growing county in the US from 2000 to 2009, experiencing a population growth rate of 110.4% in this period. The reason for this growth is heavy suburbanization from the metropolitan Chicago area. Aurora Joliet Plano Sandwich Yorkville Boulder Hill Bristol Helmar Little Rock The county is an 18-mile square, divided up into 9 townships; each township is divided into 36 1 mile square sections, except that the Fox River is used as a Township border, resulting in Bristol being the smallest township with the extra area being assigned to Oswego and Kendall Townships.
There are two exceptions to the section grid to reflect Indian land grants under the Treaty of Prairie du Chien in 1829: the Mo-Ah-Way Reservation in Oswego Township and the Waish-Kee-shaw Reservation in Na-Au-Say Township. These areas were sold to European settlers. County Board members run in two districts. All other officers run county-wide: County Board Members: John P. Purcell, Judy Gilmour, Matthew G. Prochaska, Robert "H. D." Davidson, Audra Hendrix, Elizabeth Flowers, Lynn Cullick, Scott R. Gryder, Matt Kellogg, Tony Giles County Board Chairman – Scott R. Gryder Forest Preserve President – Judy Gilmour Clerk of the Circuit Court – Robyn Ingemunson Coroner – Jackie Purcell County Clerk and Recorder – Debbie Gillette Sheriff – Dwight Baird State’s Attorney – Eric Weis Treasurer – Jill Ferko Kendall County’s political history is typical of the “collar counties” and more of Yankee-settled Northern Illinois. In its early elections Kendall was a stronghold of the Free Soil Party and was one of nine Illinois counties that gave a plurality to Free Soil nominee and former Democratic President Martin van Buren in the 1848 pre
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located in Lemont, outside Chicago. It is the largest national laboratory by scope in the Midwest. Argonne was formed to carry out Enrico Fermi's work on nuclear reactors as part of the Manhattan Project, it was designated as the first national laboratory in the United States on July 1, 1946. In the post-war era the lab focused on non-weapon related nuclear physics and building the first power-producing nuclear reactors, helping design the reactors used by the USA's nuclear navy, a wide variety of similar projects. In 1994 the lab's nuclear mission ended, today it maintains a broad portfolio in basic science research, energy storage and renewable energy, environmental sustainability and national security. UChicago Argonne, LLC, the operator of the laboratory, "brings together the expertise of the University of Chicago with Jacobs Engineering Group Inc."
Argonne is a part of the expanding Illinois Research Corridor. Argonne ran a smaller facility called Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho next to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. In 2005, the two Idaho-based laboratories merged to become the Idaho National Laboratory. Argonne has five main areas of focus; these goals, as stated by the DOE in 2008, consist of: Conducting basic scientific research. Argonne began in 1942 as the "Metallurgical Laboratory" at the University of Chicago, which became part of the Manhattan Project; the Met Lab built Chicago Pile-1, the world's first nuclear reactor, under the stands of a University of Chicago sports stadium. Considered unsafe, in 1943, CP-1 was reconstructed as CP-2, in what is today known as Red Gate Woods but was the Argonne Forest of the Cook County Forest Preserve District near Palos Hills; the lab was named after the surrounding Argonne Forest, which in turn was named after the Forest of Argonne in France where U.
S. troops fought in World War I. Fermi's pile was going to be constructed in the Argonne forest, construction plans were set in motion, but a labor dispute brought the project to a halt. Since speed was paramount, the project was moved to the squash court under Stagg Field, the football field on the campus of the University of Chicago. Fermi told them that he was sure of his calculations, which said that it would not lead to a runaway reaction, which would have contaminated the city. Other activities were added to Argonne over the next five years. On July 1, 1946, the "Metallurgical Laboratory" was formally re-chartered as Argonne National Laboratory for "cooperative research in nucleonics." At the request of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, it began developing nuclear reactors for the nation's peaceful nuclear energy program. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the laboratory moved to a larger location in unincorporated DuPage County and established a remote location in Idaho, called "Argonne-West," to conduct further nuclear research.
In quick succession, the laboratory designed and built Chicago Pile 3, the world's first heavy-water moderated reactor, the Experimental Breeder Reactor I, built in Idaho, which lit a string of four light bulbs with the world's first nuclear-generated electricity in 1951. A complete list of the reactors designed and, in most cases and operated by Argonne can be viewed in the, "Reactors Designed by Argonne" page; the knowledge gained from the Argonne experiments conducted with these reactors 1) formed the foundation for the designs of most of the commercial reactors used throughout the world for electric power generation and 2) inform the current evolving designs of liquid-metal reactors for future commercial power stations. Conducting classified research, the laboratory was secured; such alluring secrecy drew visitors both authorized—including King Leopold III of Belgium and Queen Frederica of Greece—and unauthorized. Shortly past 1 a.m. on February 6, 1951, Argonne guards discovered reporter Paul Harvey near the 10-foot perimeter fence, his coat tangled in the barbed wire.
Searching his car, guards found a prepared four-page broadcast detailing the saga of his unauthorized entrance into a classified "hot zone". He was brought before a federal grand jury on charges of conspiracy to obtain information on national security and transmit it to the public, but was not indicted. Not all nuclear technology went into developing reactors, however. While designing a scanner for reactor fuel elements in 1957, Argonne physicist William Nelson Beck put his own arm inside the scanner and obtained one of the first ultrasound images of the human body. Remote manipulators designed to handle radioactive materials laid the groundwork for more complex machines used to clean up contaminated areas, sealed laboratories or caves. In 1964, the "Janus" reactor opened to study the effects of neutron radiation on biological life, providing research for guidelines on safe exposure levels for workers at power plants and hospitals. Scientists at Argonne pioneered a technique to analyze the moon's surface using alpha radiation, which launched aboard the Surveyor 5 in 1967 and analyzed lunar samples from the Apollo 11 mission.
In addition to nuclear work, the laboratory maintained a
2000 United States presidential election
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas and the eldest son of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, won the election by defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president, it was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, is considered one of the closest elections in US history. Vice President Gore secured the Democratic nomination with relative ease, defeating a challenge by former Senator Bill Bradley. Bush was seen as the early favorite for the Republican nomination and, despite a contentious primary battle with Senator John McCain and other candidates, secured the nomination by Super Tuesday. Bush chose former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney as his running mate, while Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his; the left-wing Green Party nominated a ticket consisting of political activists Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke.
Both major party candidates focused on domestic issues, such as the budget, tax relief, reforms for federal social insurance programs, although foreign policy was not ignored. Due to Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and subsequent impeachment, Gore avoided campaigning with Clinton. Republicans denounced Clinton's indiscretions. On election night, it was unclear who had won, with the electoral votes of the state of Florida still undecided; the returns showed that Bush had won Florida by such a close margin that state law required a recount. A month-long series of legal battles led to the contentious, 5–4 Supreme Court decision of Bush v. Gore, which ended the recount. With the end of the recount, Bush won Florida by a margin of or 537 votes; the Florida recount and subsequent litigation resulted in a major post-election controversy, various individuals and organizations have speculated about who would have won the election in various scenarios. Bush won 271 electoral votes, one more than was necessary for the majority, despite Gore receiving 543,895 more votes.
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Bill Clinton, a Democrat and former Governor of Arkansas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment.
In accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at 12:00 noon EST on January 20, 2001. Democratic candidates Al Gore, Vice President of the United States Bill Bradley, former U. S. Senator from Connecticut Al Gore from Tennessee was a consistent front-runner for the nomination. Other prominent Democrats mentioned as possible contenders included Bob Kerrey, Missouri Representative Dick Gephardt, Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, famous actor and director Warren Beatty, who declined to run. Of these, only Wellstone formed an exploratory committee. Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the alternative to Gore, a founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While former basketball star Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas"; the focus of his campaign was a plan to spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control.
Gore defeated Bradley in the primaries because of support from the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore painted Bradley as aloof and indifferent to the plight of farmers. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched the Democratic nomination. None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was nominated for vice president by voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American to be chosen for this position by a major party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, John Kerry, House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen. Delegate totals: Vice President Albert Gore Jr. 4328 Abstentions 9 Republican candidates John McCain, Senator from Arizona Alan Keyes, former U. S. ECOSOC Ambassador from Maryland Steve Forbes, businessman from New Jersey Gary Bauer, former Undersecretary of Education from Kentucky (withd