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Illinois Central Railroad

The Illinois Central Railroad, sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, with New Orleans and Mobile, Alabama. A line connected Chicago with Sioux City, Iowa. There was a significant branch to Omaha, west of Fort Dodge and another branch reaching Sioux Falls, South Dakota, starting from Cherokee, Iowa; the Sioux Falls branch has been abandoned in its entirety. The Canadian National Railway acquired control of the IC in 1998; the IC was one of the oldest Class I railroads in the United States. The company was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly on January 16, 1836. Within a few months Rep. Zadok Casey introduced a bill in the U. S. House of Representatives authorizing a land grant to the company to construct a line from the mouth of the Ohio River to Chicago and on to Galena. Federal support, was not approved until 1850, when U. S. President Millard Fillmore signed a land grant for the construction of the railroad.

The Illinois Central was the first land-grant railroad in the United States. The Illinois Central was chartered by the Illinois General Assembly on February 10, 1851. Senator Stephen A. Douglas and President Abraham Lincoln were both Illinois Central men who lobbied for it. Douglas owned land near the terminal in Chicago. Lincoln was a lawyer for the railroad. Illinois legislators appointed Samuel D. Lockwood retired from the Illinois Supreme Court, as a trustee on the new railroad's board to guard the public's interest. Lockwood, who would serve more than two decades until his death, had overseen federal land monies shortly after Illinois' statehood helped oversee early construction of the completed Illinois and Michigan Canal. Upon its completion in 1856, the IC was the longest railroad in the world, its main line went from Cairo, Illinois, at the southern tip of the state, to Galena, in the northwest corner. A branch line went from Centralia, to the growing city of Chicago. In Chicago its tracks were laid along the shore of Lake Michigan and on an offshore causeway downtown, but land-filling and natural deposition have moved the present-day shore to the east.

In 1867 the Illinois Central extended its track into Iowa, during the 1870s and 1880s, the IC acquired and expanded railroads in the southern United States. IC lines crisscrossed the state of Mississippi and went as far as New Orleans, Louisiana, to the south and Louisville, Kentucky, in the east. In the 1880s, northern lines were built to Dodgeville, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Omaha, Nebraska. Further expansion continued into the early twentieth century; the Illinois Central, the other "Harriman lines" owned by E. H. Harriman by the 20th century, became the target of the Illinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911. Although marked by violence and sabotage in the south and western states, the strike was over in a few months; the railroads hired replacements, among them African-American strikebreakers, withstood diminishing union pressure. The strike was called off in 1915; the totals above do not include the Waterloo RR, Batesville Southwestern, Peabody Short Line or CofG and its subsidiaries. On December 31, 1925, IC/Y&MV/G&SI operated 6,562 route-miles on 11,030 miles of track.

At the end of 1970, IC operated 11,159 of track. On August 10, 1972, the Illinois Central Railroad merged with the Gulf and Ohio Railroad to form the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. On October 30 that year the Illinois Central Gulf commuter rail crash, the company's deadliest, occurred. At the end of 1980 ICG operated 8,366 miles of railroad on 13,532 miles of track. In that decade, the railroad spun off most of its east–west lines and many of its redundant north–south lines, including much of the former GM&O. Most of these lines were bought by other railroads, including new railroads such as the Chicago and Western Railway and Louisville Railway, Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad and MidSouth Rail Corporation. In 1988 the railroad's then-parent company IC Industries spun off its remaining rail assets and changed its name to the Whitman Corporation. On February 29, 1988, the newly separated ICG dropped the "Gulf" from its name and again became the Illinois Central Railroad. On February 11, 1998 the IC was purchased for $2.4 billion in cash and shares by Canadian National Railway.

Integration of operations began July 1, 1999. The Illinois Central was a major carrier of passengers on its Chicago to New Orleans mainline and between Chicago and St. Louis. IC ran passengers on its Chicago to Omaha line, though it was never among the top performers on this route. Illinois Central's largest passenger terminal, Central Station, stood at 12th Street east of Michigan Avenue in Chicago. Due to the railroad's north-south route from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes, Illinois Central passenger trains were one means of transport during the African American Great Migration of the 1920s. Illinois Central's most famous train was the Panama Limited, a premier all-Pullman car service between Chicago and New Orleans, with a section breaking off at Carbondale to serve St. Louis. In 1949, it added the City of New Orleans. In 1967, due to losses incurred b

Trinity & St. Philip's Cathedral (Newark, New Jersey)

Trinity & St. Philip's Cathedral is a historic church at Broad and Rector Streets in Newark, Essex County, New Jersey, United States, it is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Newark. The first services for colonists who had settled in Newark were conducted by visiting priests starting in 1729, they organized Trinity Church and built a small stone church building with a steeple in 1743. A charter was granted by King George II in 1746; the building was used as a hospital for both British and American troops during the American Revolutionary War. It sustained damage during the conflict and the present building was planned and built, it was completed in 1810. A chancel and sanctuary were added to the east end in 1857. Trinity Church was elevated to cathedral status in 1944. St. Philip's Church, a predominately African American parish on High and West Market Streets, was destroyed in a fire in 1964. Two years the two congregations were merged; the Very Rev. Dillard Robinson was elected dean in 1968, he was the first African American.

The church building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The name "St. Philip's" was added to the cathedral name in 1992. List of the Episcopal cathedrals of the United States List of cathedrals in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, New Jersey

Possessed (2000 film)

Possessed is a 2000 Showtime original film starring Timothy Dalton, based on events appearing in the book Possessed by Thomas B. Allen, inspired by the exorcism case of Roland Doe; the film was released on DVD in the United States on October 2, 2001. William S. Bowdern is a World War II veteran, affected by a bad experience in France on All Saints’ Day in 1944. In the first scene of the film, we flash-back through one of Bowdern's dreams to where he was trying to escape from a German advance as Schutzstaffel soldiers execute wounded American soldiers. A wounded soldier calls the chaplain, to give him the Last Rites. Bowdern is bayonetted by an SS soldier, he becomes an alcoholic, tormented by his injuries and the guilt of refusing a dying man's last wish. Years Bowdern is teaching his students at St. Louis University when, at the end of the lecture, an angry mob smashes the classroom's windows; when Bowdern gets out, he discovers that there is a demonstration against the school's recent racial integration.

When the police arrive, he asks them to arrest "those people" — meaning the protestors — but the police arrest the black students instead. Angered, Bowdern physically attacks the cops. Father Raymond McBride pays his bail, drives him to the Alexian Brothers Hospital to show where the church places hopeless alcoholics and the mentally ill. Robbie Mannheim is sitting with his aunt, teaching him how to contact the ‘other world’. Robbie's mother discovers the two at the Ouija board, she scolds Aunt Hanna for disregarding her request. Robbie disobeys his mother's demands that he stay away from the supernatural, as he enjoys the contacts; when Aunt Hanna dies, Robbie continues trying to reach the other world. One day one of Robbie's classmates during school is wounded in the hand when a desk falls on top of him. Robbie is blamed, he is expelled from school. His father demands to know; when Robbie explains to his father that he did not deliberately do that and the desk moved itself, his father does not believe him.

During their conversation, the chair on which Robbie is sitting moves out from under him, making Robbie crash to the floor. Robbie's parents feel something is trying to harm their child, they feel he may be ‘possessed’. They take him to the Lutheran Pastor Reverend Eckhardt, who understands what is happening to Robbie and takes him to his house to put him under exact monitoring. During Robbie's stay, several things occur that convince Pastor Eckhardt that Robbie is being afflicted by demons: strange noises are made in the house, the wall clock is smashed, Robbie falls into fits of rage and hysteria; when Pastor Eckhardt tells his wife that Robbie should be treated by the Catholics, Robbie attacks him. McBride visits the family in their house to check on Robbie after his parents go to the university requesting help. During one of Robbie's fits of hysteria, the parents find; when McBride enters his room, he is attacked and becomes convinced that the child is endowed with some sort of supernatural power.

He convinces Bowdern to visit the family. Bowdern visits Robbie in his room. Bowdern notices that Robbie is interested in ventriloquism, while Robbie notices that Fr. Bowdern is affected by his collection of toy soldiers that sets off a post traumatic stress disorder event; when Father Bowdern tries to convince the parents that there is nothing wrong with Robbie, the boy becomes hysterical, speaking in Latin as things fly across the room. Bowdern becomes convinced. Bowdern and McBride go to Archbishop Hume to persuade him to give Robbie an exorcism; the Archbishop is skeptical, saying that he is trying to improve the Catholic Church's public image as a modern institution, free of ancient superstition. He requests to speak to McBride alone, he nominates Bowdern to handle the issue. Bowdern begins Robbie's treatment, assisted by Father Walter Halloran, they conduct several visits to him. He scratches at them and urinates on them, swears uncontrollably. During the treatment trials, Bowdern has flashbacks to his war experiences and dreads that this may be another failure.

Robbie is transferred twice to two different churches. Bowdern manages to cure him; the room in the church where the exorcism takes place is locked on Archbishop Hume's orders. Timothy Dalton as Fr. Willam Bowdern Henry Czerny as Fr. Raymond McBride Jonathan Malen as Robbie Mannheim Michael Rhoades as Karl Mannheim Shannon Lawson as Phyllis Mannheim Christopher Plummer as Archbishop Hume Piper Laurie as Aunt Hanna Richard Waugh as Reverend Eckhardt Michael McLachlan as Father Walter Halloran Sensei Jamie as Robbie Possessed on IMDb Possessed at AllMovie Real Men of God at National Review Interviews with Timothy Dalton on Possessed at the Wayback Machine Exorcising'The Exorcist' at "Brill's Content" Demons Within: Exorcism Movies at "Starburst"

2015 American Society of Cinematographers Awards

The 30th American Society of Cinematographers Awards were held on February 15, 2016 at the Hollywood & Highland Ray Dolby Ballroom, honoring the best cinematographers of film and television in 2015. The film nominees were announced on January 6, 2016. Roger Deakins received a record fourteenth nomination for Sicario, while Emmanuel Lubezki picked up his record fifth award for The Revenant. Awarded to director and producer Ridley Scott. Emmanuel Lubezki, ASC, AMC – The Revenant Roger Deakins, ASC, BSC – Sicario Janusz KamińskiBridge of Spies Edward Lachman, ASC, AMC – Carol John Seale, ASC, ACS – Mad Max: Fury Road The Spotlight Award recognize outstanding cinematography in features and documentaries that are screened at film festivals, in limited theatrical release, or outside the United States. Adam ArkapawMacbeth Mátyás Erdély, HSC – Son of Saul Cary Joji Fukanaga – Beasts of No Nation Vanja Černjul, ASC, HFS – Marco Polo David Greene, CSC – 12 Monkeys Christopher Norr – Gotham Crescenzo Notarile, ASC, AIC – Gotham Fabian Wagner, BSC – Game of Thrones Pierre Gill, CSC – Casanova Martin Ahlgren – Blindspot James HawkinsonThe Man in the High Castle Jeff Jur, ASC – Bessie Romain Lacourbas – Marco Polo Career Achievement in Television: Lowell Peterson, ASC Presidents Award: Bill Bennett, ASC

Pyramid of Khui

The pyramid of Khui is an ancient Egyptian funerary structure datable to the early First Intermediate Period and located in the royal necropolis of Dara, near Manfalut in Middle Egypt and close to the entrance of the Dakhla Oasis. It is attributed to Khui, a kinglet belonging either to the 8th Dynasty or a provincial nomarch proclaiming himself king in a time when central authority had broken down, c. 2150 BC. The pyramid complex of Khui included a mortuary temple and a mud brick enclosure wall which, like the main pyramid, are now ruined; the ruined pyramid was first mentioned in a 1912 article of the fr:Annales du service des antiquités de l'Égypte by the Egyptian Egyptologist Ahmed Kamal. Between 1946 and 1948, the complex was explored by Raymond Weill. Due both to the ruined state of the structure and to the building's atypical architecture, Kamal believed it to be a huge mastaba while Weill thought it was a pyramid. Today, in spite of the fact that the building is considered to be a pyramid—and a step pyramid—it is not possible to determine with certainty which type of tomb it was, one cannot exclude that it was indeed a mastaba.

No name of the owner was found on the pyramid site. The block could come from the mortuary temple of the pyramid complex, traces of which may have been discovered North of the pyramid. However, the identification of Khui as the owner of the complex, although accepted, is still unproven; the remains of the structure today looks similar to the first step of a step pyramid however, as pointed out above, it remains impossible to ascert that the structure was a pyramid. Furthermore, it is unclear; the ground plan of the main structure measures 146 metres x 136 metres. The mudbrick walls of the pyramid are up to 35 metres thick; this large shell, whose corners are rounded with a radius of curvature of 23 metres, surrounds an empty inner space, filled by sand and gravel. Considering these values, if the building was a step pyramid, it would have had a base larger than that of the famous Step Pyramid of Djoser, while in the case of a mastaba, it would have exceeded in size the considerable Mastabet el-Fara'un of Shepseskaf.

From the North face of the structure, an horizontal corridor, whose entrance is at ground level, goes straight into the center of the structure. The corridor continues to a descending gallery, lined with limestone, topped by eleven arches and reinforced with pilasters; the gallery leads to the burial chamber, placed in the center of the building's base. The rectangular burial chamber is located 8.8 metres meters under the ground level and measures 3.5 metres x 7 metres. Its walls are made of worked limestone blocks taken from a nearby, older necropolis of the 6th Dynasty; the hypogeum was found empty during the excavations and was robbed and nearly destroyed in antiquity. It is impossible to say if anybody had indeed been buried here; the structure of the burial chamber bears many similarities with that of Mastaba K1 of Beit Khallaf, dating back to the 3rd Dynasty. On the North side of the main structure, the ruined remains of a building were found, which may belong to a mortuary temple part of the pyramid complex.

However, the remains are not sufficient to obtain a reliable reconstruction of the temple. Remains of a portion of a perimeter wall of mudbricks were found, but they run in an area, now under the modern village of Dara. Ahmed Fakhry: The Pyramids. 1961 und 1969, pp. 202–204 - ISBN 0-226-23473-8 Mark Lehner: Geheimnis der Pyramiden, ECON-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997. ISBN 3-572-01039-X. Rainer Stadelmann: Die ägyptischen Pyramiden. Zabern Verlag, Mainz 1991, pp. 229–230, Abb. 73 - ISBN 3-8053-1142-7 Theis, Christoffer: Die Pyramiden der Ersten Zwischenzeit. Nach philologischen und archäologischen Quellen. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Bd. 39, 2010, pp. 321–339. Alan Winston: The Pyramids of Ibi and the Headless Pyramid − Pyramids of the First Intermediate Period

Allan Frost Archer

Allan Frost Archer, U. S. arachnologist and malacologist. He was the curator of Arachnida at the Alabama Museum of Natural History, Alabama. Archer was active in the latter half of the twentieth century between 1940 and 1971, when he described numerous species of arachnids and snails in a number of states in the United States and elsewhere; the World Spider Catalog lists 29 genera of spiders named by Archer, of which 16 are still accepted as of September 2016. Allen Frost Archer was the author of about 26 scientific papers and was responsible for describing a number of terrestrial snail taxa in his malacological career which spanned over 30 years, his specimen collection of 1600 lots of terrestrial snails seems to have passed to Dr. John C. Hurd and subsequently to the Auburn University Natural History Learning Center and Museum in 2002. Many of the specimens in the collection are too old to have been collected by Dr. Archer and so were obtained by trading with museums. Dr. Archer's collecting activities were in southeastern North America but during the years of his life he made collections from throughout the Americas, Europe and many Pacific and Caribbean Islands.

He was married to Mableanne Hanson on 31 July 1942. His son Allan Frost Archer junior was born in Decatur, Alabama on 23 December 1943 and was ordained into the Orthodox church as a priest in 1996 and took the name Aaron; the following is an incomplete list. Archer, Allan F.. "The Argiopidae or orb-weaving spiders of Alabama". Museum Papers of the Alabama Museum of Natural History Archer, Allan F. & Clench, William J.. "New Land Snails from Tanganyika Territory". Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. 5, pp 295–300, 1 plate. Archer, A. F.. "Alabama spiders of the family Mimetidae". Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science and Letters 27: 183-193. Archer, A. F.. "Supplement to the Argiopidae of Alabama". Museum Paper, Geological Survey of Alabama 18: 1-47. Archer, Allan F.. "The Theridiidae or Comb-footed Spiders of Alabama". Museum Papers of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 22: p. 31 Archer, A. F.. "A study of theridiid and mimetid spiders with descriptions of new genera and species".

Museum Paper, Alabama Museum of Natural History 30: 1-40. Archer, A. F.. "Studies in the orbweaving spiders. 1". American Museum Novitates 1487: 1-52. Archer, A. F.. "Studies in the orbweaving spiders. 2". American Museum Novitates 1502: 1-34. Archer, A. F.. "Remarks on certain European genera of argiopid spiders". Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 84: 1-4. Archer, A. F.. "A new species of Gasteracantha from São Tomé Island, West Africa". Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 90: 1-3. Archer, A. F.. "Studies in the orbweaving spiders. 3". American Museum Novitates 1622: 1-27. Archer, A. F.. "Studies in the orbweaving spiders. 4". American Museum Novitates 1922: 1-21. Archer, A. F.. "A new genus of Argiopidae from Japan". Acta Arachnologica, Tokyo 17: 13-14. Archer, A. F.. "Catalogo de las arañas chilenas de las families de la division Metarachnae". Publicaciones Ocasionales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago 1: 1-32. Archer, A. F.. "A new species of Cyphalonotus from Central Africa".

Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 72: 79-82. Archer, A. F.. "Nuevos argiopidos de las Antilles". Caribbean Journal of Science 5: 129-133. Archer, A. F.. "Especies nuevas de argiopidos peruanos". Revista Peruana de Entomología Agricola 14: 157-159. Bryant, E. B. & Archer, A. F.. "Notes on Epeira pentagona Hentz." Psyche, Cambridge 47: 60-65. Gertsch, W. J. & Archer, A. F.. "Descriptions of new American Theridiidae". American Museum Novitates 1171: 1-16. Yaginuma, T. & Archer, A. F.. "Genera of the araneine Argiopidae found in the Oriental region, placed under the comprehensive genus, Araneus. 1." Acta Arachnologica, Tokyo 16: 34-41