Crawford County, Illinois
Crawford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,817, its county seat is Robinson. Crawford County was formed in Illinois Territory on December 1816 out of Edwards County. At the time of its formation, it encompassed about one third of the State, but it was reduced to its present borders by 1831 as it spawned new counties, it was named in honor of William H. Crawford, from Georgia, serving as Secretary of War and Secretary of the Treasury at the time. Crawford County was home to several battles between the settlers and Indians, the location of the only woman hanged in Illinois. In 1818, the town of Palestine was designated as the county seat. After elections in 1843, a new site was chosen. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 446 square miles, of which 444 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. Some of the county's eastern border is defined by the Wabash River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Robinson have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.45 inches in January to 4.67 inches in May. Clark County - north Sullivan County, Indiana - east Knox County, Indiana - southeast Lawrence County - south Richland County - southwest Jasper County - west Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 33 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,817 people, 7,763 households, 5,154 families residing in the county; the population density was 44.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,661 housing units at an average density of 19.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 4.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were German, 14.4% were American, 12.4% were Irish, 9.9% were English. Of the 7,763 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,434 and the median income for a family was $51,218. Males had a median income of $40,050 versus $30,870 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,545. About 11.1% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Robinson Flat Rock Hutsonville Oblong Palestine Stoy Annapolis West York Crawford County is divided into ten townships: Although Crawford County was solidly Democratic before the Populist-backed candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, it has since become Republican; the last Democrat to gain a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide, although Bill Clinton won a plurality in 1992. Like all the rural Upland South, Crawford County has shown dramatic swings against the Democratic Party in recent elections, with Hillary Clinton’s 22.8 percent in 2016 the worst performance by a Democrat.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Illinois Perrin, William Henry, ed.. History of Crawford and Clark Counties, Illinois Chicago, Illinois. O. L. Baskin & Co.. Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Crawford County, Illinois History and Genealogy
U.S. Route 40
U. S. Route 40 known as the Main Street of America, is an east–west United States Highway; as with most routes whose numbers end in a zero, US 40 once traversed the entire United States. It is one of the first U. S. Highways created in 1926 and its original termini were in San Francisco and Atlantic City, New Jersey. In the western United States, US 40 was functionally replaced by Interstate 80, resulting in the route being truncated multiple times. US 40 ends at a junction with I-80 in Silver Summit, just outside Park City. Starting at its western terminus in Utah, US 40 crosses a total of 12 states, including Colorado, Missouri, Indiana, West Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey. Three former and four current state capitals lie along the route. For much of its route, US 40 runs parallel to or concurrently with several major Interstate Highways: Interstate 70 from Colorado to Washington, Pennsylvania; the route was built on top of several older highways, most notably the National Road and the Victory Highway.
The National Road was created in 1806 by an act of Congress to serve as the first federally funded highway construction project. When completed it connected Cumberland, with Vandalia, Illinois; the Victory Highway was designated as a memorial to World War I veterans and ran from Kansas City, Missouri to San Francisco, California. Other important roads that have become part of US 40 include Zane's Trace in Ohio, Braddock Road in Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Black Horse Pike in New Jersey, part of the Oregon Trail in Kansas, the Lincoln Highway throughout most of California; the western terminus of US 40 is in Silver Summit, Utah at an interchange with Interstate 80, several miles north of Park City, at Silver Creek Junction. The road is concurrent with US 189. US 40 is a limited access highway from the I-80 junction to its intersection with Utah State Route 32, about 13 miles south of Park City. From there, the road takes a southerly course to Heber City. In Heber City, there is an intersection with SR-113.
One mile US 189 splits off. There would be no more major intersections until US 40 has reached Fruitland, as it meets SR-208. About 18 miles the road enters Duchesne. In Duchesne, it meets US 191 and SR-87. US 40 starts a concurrency; the concurrency continues into Fort Duchesne and Vernal. In Roosevelt, it meets SR-87 again in a 5-point intersection. There are two intersections with SR-121, in Vernal. In Fort Duchesne, there is an intersection with SR-88. After US 40 passes Vernal, US 191 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Naples, as it meets SR-45. About nine miles US 40 enters Jensen. In Jensen, there is an intersection with SR-149. About 18 miles the road enters Colorado. US 40 enters Colorado, 2 miles west of Dinosaur. In Dinosaur, there is an intersection with Colorado State Highway 64. After passing Dinosaur, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Maybell, as it meets with Colorado State Highway 318. 30 miles the road enters Craig.
In Craig, US 40 starts a short concurrency with State Highway 13. After Craig, SH 3 splits off; the road passes through Hayden without major intersections. It exits Hayden and enters Steamboat Springs. There is an intersection with SH 131 and SH 14. US 40 continues southeast into Kremmling. In Kremmling, there is an intersection with SH 134 and SH 9, it exits Kremmling and enters Granby. There is an intersection with US 34; the road passes Fraser and Winter Park without major intersections. About 26 miles US 40 starts a concurrency with I-70. About 15 miles I-70 splits off. Four miles s it is concurrent again. Three miles I-70 splits off again. After the second concurrency with I-70, US 40 enters Denver; the road passes through downtown Denver, has intersections with SH 391, SH 121, SH 95, SH 2 and an interchange with US 287. The route through Denver serves as the business loop for I-70. East of Denver, US 40 becomes concurrent with I-70 once again. Seventy miles it enters Limon. In Limon, I-70 splits off, however the road is still concurrent with US 287.
There is an intersection with SH 71. US 40 passes Hugo without major intersections. In Wild Horse, it meets SH 94. About 20 miles the road enters Kit Carson. There is an intersection with SH 59. After Kit Carson, US 287 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Cheyenne Wells, as it meets US 385 in an interchange; the road passes Arapahoe without major intersections. Seven miles US 40 enters Kansas. US 40 enters Kansas near the unincorporated community of Weskan; the first sizable town it enters is Sharon Springs, where it intersects K-27. From there it goes northeast to Oakley and follows Eagle Eye Road before merging with I-70 east of town; the two routes remain merged until Topeka, although the prior alignment of US 40, named Old Highway 40, parallels I-70 for most of the way. From Ellsworth to Salina, the old alignment of US 40 is signed as K-140. In Topeka, US 40 leaves I-70 at exit 366, follows the Oakland Expressway concurrent with K-4 north to 6th Avenue heads east along 6th Avenue out of town.
Through Topeka, US 40 follows the route of the Oregon Trail. At t
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
U.S. Route 34 in Illinois
U. S. Route 34 is an east–west highway In the state of Illinois that runs from the Iowa state line at Gulfport, west of Galesburg, to Illinois Route 43 and Historic U. S. Route 66 at Harlem Avenue in Berwyn; the entire highway in Illinois is named the Walter Payton Memorial Highway after Pro Football Hall of Famer Walter Payton, who wore #34 for the Chicago Bears. The highway is 211.37 miles long within the state. The bridge into Iowa over the Mississippi River is called the Great River Bridge. Between Monmouth and Galesburg, the highway is up to Interstate Highway standards with exits at Main Street, Henderson Street, Seminary Street in Galesburg. In 1934, US 34 absorbed what had been the last remaining section of US 32. US 34 overlapped US 66 all the way to its endpoint in downtown Chicago, but was truncated to its intersection with US 66 and IL 43 in Berwyn in 1970; when US 66 was subsequently eliminated, the endpoint of US 34 was left at that location—the intersection of Ogden and Harlem Avenues in Berwyn.
Due to the elimination of US 66, it is one of the few US Numbered Highways that ends at a state highway. With the re-signing of much of Historic US 66, the history of US 34's eastern endpoint is becoming much more clear; the now cancelled Prairie Parkway limited-access highway would have had an interchange with US 34, between Needham Road and Waubonsee Drive in the city of Plano. A bypass of the town of Biggsville is has finished construction, it created a diamond interchange between US 34 and IL 94/IL 116 as well as bypass West Central High School. It was complete by the fall of 2014. All exits are unnumbered
Oblong is a village in Crawford County, United States. The population was 1,466 at the 2010 census. Oblong was incorporated in 1883; the original town site was on a occurring rectangular prairie, hence the name. The crossroads at the town site was the location of a general store owned by Henry Peck; the prominent sign "Hen. Peck" gave rise to the village's original moniker, Henpeck. Oblong is located at 39°0′5″N 87°54′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Oblong has a total area of 0.978 square miles, of which 0.97 square miles is land and 0.008 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,580 people, 681 households, 439 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,662.8 people per square mile. There were 761 housing units at an average density of 800.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.92% White, 0.19% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population.
Sociologist James W. Loewen has described Oblong as a sundown town. There were 681 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.81. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 23.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $27,409, the median income for a family was $36,532. Males had a median income of $27,135 versus $20,560 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,926.
About 7.0% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. It is the home of the Illinois Oil Field Museum and Resource Center, a collection of early oilfield artifacts from the early days of the oil industry in the Illinois Basin and a resource center featuring a collection of early oil field records and resource books. Oblong has one public four year high school and one public grade school. Oblong Chamber of Commerce
The Wabash River is a 503-mile-long river in Ohio and Indiana, United States, that flows from the headwaters near the middle of Ohio's western border northwest southwest across northern Indiana turning south along the Illinois border where the southern portion forms the Indiana-Illinois border before flowing into the Ohio River. It is the largest northern tributary of the Ohio River. From the dam near Huntington, Indiana, to its terminus at the Ohio River, the Wabash flows for 411 miles, its watershed drains most of Indiana. The Tippecanoe River, White River, Embarras River and Little Wabash River are major tributaries; the river's name comes from an Illini Indian word meaning "water over white stones". The Wabash is the state river of Indiana, subject of the state song "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away" by Paul Dresser. Two counties, eight townships in Illinois and Ohio; the name "Wabash" is an English spelling of the French name for the river, "Ouabache". French traders named the river after the Miami-Illinois word for the river, waapaahšiiki, meaning "it shines white", "pure white", or "water over white stones".
The Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone. As the Laurentide ice sheet began to retreat from present day Northern Indiana and Northwest Ohio between 14,000 and 15,000 years ago, it receded into three distinct lobes; the eastern or Erie Lobe sat behind the Fort Wayne Moraine. Meltwater from the glacier fed into two ice-marginal streams, which became the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers, their combined discharge was the primary source of water for the proglacial Wabash River system. As the Erie Lobe of the glacier continued to retreat its meltwater was temporarily trapped between the ice front to the east and the Fort Wayne Moraine to the west, formed proglacial Lake Maumee, the ancestor of modern Lake Erie. Around 11,000 years ago the waters of Lake Maumee became deep enough that it breached a "sag" or weak spot in the Fort Wayne Moraine; this caused a catastrophic draining of the lake which in turn scoured a 1 to 2 mi wide valley known as the Wabash-Erie Channel or "sluiceway".
The Little River flows through this channel and U. S. 24 traverses it between Fort Huntington. The valley is the largest topographical feature in Indiana; when the ice melted from the region, new outlets for Lake Maumee's water opened up at elevations lower than the Wabash-Erie Channel. While the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers continued to flow through the channel, Lake Maumee no longer did. Now a low-lying marshy bit of terrain lay in between, it is not known for certain when, but at some point in the distant past the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers jumped their banks and flooded the marshy ground of the Fort Wayne Outlet; the discharge of this unusual flood was enough to cut across the outlet and come into contact with the headwaters of the Maumee River. Once this happened, the flood waters rushed to the east into the Maumee River, their erosive force was enough that the new channel cut across the Fort Wayne Outlet into the Maumee River since it was at a lower elevation than that of the sluiceway.
This meant that when the flood waters receded, the sluiceway was permanently abandoned by the two rivers. As a result of capturing them both, the Maumee was converted from a minor creek to a large river. Once again, river waters flowed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, but now they flowed eastward, toward Lake Erie, instead of westward. Following this event, the branch of the Wabash River that originates along the Wabash Moraine near Bluffton became the system's main course and source. For part of its course the Wabash follows the path of the pre-glacial Teays River; the river has shifted course several times along the Indiana and Illinois border, creating cutoffs where parts of the river are in either Indiana or Illinois. However, both states regard the middle of the river as the state border; the Wabash was first mapped by French explorers to the Mississippi in the latter half of the 17th century, including the sections now known as the Ohio River. Although the Wabash is today considered a tributary of the Ohio, the Ohio was considered a tributary of the Wabash until the mid-18th century.
This is because the French traders traveled north and south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash. The United States has fought five colonial and frontier-era battles on or near the river: the Battle of Vincennes, St. Clair's Defeat, the Attack on Fort Recovery, the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Siege of Fort Harrison. Different conflicts have been referred to as the "Battle of the Wabash". A 329-acre remnant of the old-growth forests that once bordered the Wabash can be found at Beall Woods State Park, near Mount Carmel, Illinois. In the mid-19th century, the Wabash and Erie Canal, one of the longest canals in the world, was built along much the river. Portions are still accessible in modern times; the Wabash River between Terre Haute and the Ohio River was navigable by large ships during much of the 19th century, was a regular stop for steamships. By the late 19th century, erosion due to farming and runoff made the Wabash impassable to such ships. Dredging could have resolved the proble
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha