North Dakota State Capitol
The North Dakota State Capitol is the house of government of the U. S. state of North Dakota. The Capitol, a 21-story tower, is in Bismarck at 600 East Boulevard Avenue, on a 160-acre campus that houses many other government buildings and is the tallest habitable building in North Dakota; the capitol building and the surrounding office buildings house the state's legislative and judicial branches, as well as many government agencies. The State Capitol is surrounded by state government buildings; the parks, walking trails, monuments on the grounds provide a great deal of information about the state's history, making it one of the city's tourist attractions. Six buildings occupy the grounds. Not all state agencies are housed on the grounds, however: a large number are spread throughout the city in other facilities; the state facility management division developed plans for a massive expansion and improvement of the grounds in 2000, but little of the plan had been implemented by 2012. The first capitol building was constructed between 1883 and 1884 to house the territorial government.
Expansions in 1894 and 1903 added the House wings. It burned to the ground the morning of December 28, 1930, in a fire said to have been started by oily rags in a janitor's closet on the top floor of the main part of the building; the rags had been used to clean and varnish the legislators' desks in preparation for the upcoming legislative session. North Dakota Secretary of State Robert Byrne saved the original copy of the state's constitution, but suffered cuts and burns on his hands while breaking a window to reach the document. Another state employee, Jennie Ulsrud, burned her hands when she attempted to save records in the North Dakota State Treasurer's office. Governor George F. Shafer came back from his visit to St. Paul, Minnesota while the fire was still burning. Upon arrival, he assembled a team of state legislators and officials to discuss plans for coping with the loss of records and work space; the day after the fire, to save as many records as possible, 40 state prison inmates went to work trying to salvage materials from the ruins.
The Legislature met temporarily in the City Auditorium. The disaster required the construction of a new building during the Great Depression; the tower and wing were built at a cost of $2 million. Governor George F. Shafer broke ground for the building on August 13, 1932. Workers on the building were paid only 30 cents an hour and, after multiple worker strikes, the capitol grounds were administered by martial law in June 1933; the state sold half of the original capitol campus to defray the cost of construction. Artist Edgar Miller was brought in to do much of the interior design and decoration as well as the bas-relief sculptures on the facade which depict the human history of North Dakota; the new 19-story capitol was expected to provide ample space for years to come, however it filled as the state government expanded. The Liberty Memorial Building, completed in 1924, was able to house some of the additional workers, but more space was needed by 1955 when construction began for the State Office Building.
The building housed the Bismarck Junior College, but the Legislature purchased it in 1959. The 1960s was a period of rapid development of the grounds. In 1960, the new governor's residence replaced the old residence, deteriorating. In 1980, expanding State Historical Society of North Dakota moved into the new North Dakota Heritage Center and in 1968, the North Dakota Department of Transportation occupied the building designed to provide it more office space; the Transportation Building is the last constructed on the campus to date, although a Judicial Wing was added onto the base of the capitol tower between 1977 and 1981. While the space needed by state government has increased since the original construction of the Capitol in the 1930s, the state's population has decreased; the state capitol grounds has six buildings: the capitol building, the Department of Transportation Building, the North Dakota Heritage Center, the Liberty Memorial Building, the governor's residence, the State Office Building.
Additionally, the campus holds the Capitol Park. Through the center of the grounds is the Capitol Mall, a large open field of grass with walking paths lined by American Elm trees; the Mall was the site of the state's snow angel world record breaking in 2007, with 8,962 people sprawled out on the snow-covered mall. The capitol building is a 241.67 feet tall, 21 story, Art Deco skyscraper designed by North Dakota architects Joseph Bell DeRemer of Grand Forks and W. F. Kurke of Fargo in conjunction with the noted Chicago firm of Holabird and Root, It is the tallest building in North Dakota and is known as the Skyscraper on the Prairie; this tower houses the office of the governor and the offices of multiple state agencies and departments. At the tower's base, in the west wing, the two chambers of the legislature meet when in session while the North Dakota Supreme Court meets in the east wing; the 18th floor of the Capitol is an observation deck with the highest vantage point in the state. The south side of the Capitol building features a drive-through tunnel which leads to an entrance to the building.
This was accessible by public vehicles until 2001 when it was closed due to security measures after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Today, only pedestrians are able to enter the tunnel. In 1988, U. S. President George H. W. Bush presented and dedicated an American Elm tree near the Capitol steps in commemoration of the state's Centennial of 1989; the many windows on the capitol building's tower are used for seve
The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries. The period is associated with the pan-European Renaissance, a word first used by the French historian Jules Michelet to define the artistic and cultural "rebirth" of Europe. Notable developments during the French Renaissance include the spread of humanism, early exploration of the "New World"; the French Renaissance traditionally extends from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 during the reign of Charles VIII until the death of Henry IV in 1610. This chronology notwithstanding, certain artistic, technological or literary developments associated with the Renaissance arrived in France earlier; the reigns of Francis I of France and his son Henry II are considered the apex of the French Renaissance. The word "Renaissance" is a French word, whose literal translation into English is "Rebirth"; the word Renaissance was first used and defined by French historian Jules Michelet, in his 1855 work, Histoire de France.
Jules Michelet defined the 16th-century Renaissance in France as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world. As a French citizen and historian, Michelet claimed the Renaissance as a French movement, his work is at the origin of the use of the French word "Renaissance" in other languages. For a chronological list of French Renaissance artists, see List of French Renaissance artists. In the late 15th century, the French invasion of Italy and the proximity of the vibrant Burgundy court brought the French into contact with the goods and the creative spirit of the Northern and Italian Renaissance, the initial artistic changes in France were carried out by Italian and Flemish artists, such as Jean Clouet and his son François Clouet and the Italians Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate of the first School of Fontainebleau. In 1516, Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to the Château d'Amboise and provided him with the Château du Clos Lucé called Château de Cloux, as a place to stay and work.
Leonardo, a famous painter and inventor, arrived with three of his paintings, namely the Mona Lisa, Sainte Anne, Saint Jean Baptiste, today owned by the Louvre museum of Paris. The art of the period from Francis I through Henry IV is inspired by late Italian pictorial and sculptural developments referred to as Mannerism, characterized by figures which are elongated and graceful and a reliance on visual rhetoric, including the elaborate use of allegory and mythology. There are a number of French artists of incredible talent in this period including the painter Jean Fouquet of Tours and the sculptors Jean Goujon and Germain Pilon. Late Mannerism and early Baroque. Henry IV invited the artists Toussaint Dubreuil, Martin Fréminet and Ambroise Dubois to work on the château of Fontainebleau and they are called the second School of Fontainebleau. Marie de Medici, Henry IV's queen, invited the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens to France, the artist painted a number of large-scale works for the queen's Luxembourg Palace in Paris.
Another Flemish artist working for the court was Frans Pourbus the younger. Outside France, working for the dukes of Lorraine, one finds a different late mannerist style in the artists Jacques Bellange, Claude Deruet and Jacques Callot. Having little contact with the French artists of the period, they developed a heightened and erotic mannerism, excellent skill in etching. One of the greatest accomplishments of the French Renaissance was the construction of the Châteaux of the Loire Valley: no longer conceived of as fortresses, these pleasure palaces took advantage of the richness of the rivers and lands of the Loire region and they show remarkable architectural skill; the old Louvre castle in Paris was rebuilt under the direction of Pierre Lescot and would become the core of a brand new Renaissance château. To the west of the Louvre, Catherine de Medici had built for her the Tuileries palace with extensive gardens and a grotte; the ascension of Henry IV of France to the throne brought a period of massive urban development in Paris, including construction on the Pont Neuf, the Place des Vosges, the Place Dauphine, parts of the Louvre.
French Renaissance gardens were characterized by symmetrical and geometric planting beds or parterres. They became an extension of the chateaux that they surrounded, were designed to illustrate the Renaissance ideals of measure and proportion. Burgundy, the French-speaking area unified with the Kingdom of France in 1477, was the musical center of Europe in the early and middl
Christian cross variants
This is a list of Christian cross variants. The Christian cross, with or without a figure of Christ included, is the main religious symbol of Christianity. A cross with a figure of Christ affixed to it is termed a crucifix and the figure is referred to as the corpus; the term Greek cross designates a cross with arms of equal length, as in a plus sign, while the Latin cross designates a cross with an elongated descending arm. Numerous other variants have been developed during the medieval period. Christian crosses are used in churches, on top of church buildings, on bibles, in heraldry, in personal jewelry, on hilltops, elsewhere as an attestation or other symbol of Christianity. Crosses are a prominent feature of Christian cemeteries, either carved on gravestones or as sculpted stelae; because of this, planting small crosses is sometimes used in countries of Christian culture to mark the site of fatal accidents, or, such as the Zugspitze or Mount Royal, so as to be visible over the entire surrounding area.
Roman Catholic and Lutheran depictions of the cross are crucifixes, in order to emphasize that it is Jesus, important, rather than the cross in isolation. Large crucifixes are a prominent feature of some Lutheran churches, as illustrated in the article Rood. However, some other Protestant traditions depict the cross without the corpus, interpreting this form as an indication of belief in the resurrection rather than as representing the interval between the death and the resurrection of Jesus. Several Christian cross variants are available in computer-displayed text; the Latin cross symbol is included in the unicode character set as "271D". For others, see Religious and political symbols in Unicode. Basic early variants widespread since antiquity. Crosses in heraldry Christian symbolism Stations of the Cross Crucifixion in the arts Christ Carrying the Cross The Raising of the Cross Descent from the Cross Cultural and religious symbols in Unicode Huguenot cross
Nebraska State Capitol
The Nebraska State Capitol is the seat of government for the U. S. State of Nebraska and is located in downtown Lincoln, it was designed by New York architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue in 1920 and was constructed of Indiana limestone from 1922 to 1932. The capitol houses the primary executive and judicial offices of Nebraska and is home to the Nebraska Legislature—the only state unicameral legislature in the United States; the Nebraska State Capitol is known as the "Tower on the Plains," and its 400-foot tower can be seen 20 miles away. It was the first state capitol to incorporate a functional tower into its design. In 1976, the National Park Service designated the capitol a National Historic Landmark, in 1997, the Park Service extended the designation to include the capitol grounds, which Ernst H. Herminghaus designed in 1932; the structure is anchored by a 437-foot square base. This square base houses offices most visited by the public; the second floor is home to the office of the Governor of Nebraska, the Nebraska Supreme Court, the Nebraska Court of Appeals, the Nebraska Legislature.
From the center of the base, a tower rises 362 feet, crowned by a gold-tiled dome. The finial—The Sower and its pedestal—add an additional 32 feet to the building's height. Common measurements list the capitol at 400 feet, making it the second-tallest U. S. statehouse, surpassed only by the 450-foot Louisiana State Capitol. Goodhue envisioned much of the tower to house the collections of the Nebraska State Library, he planned for each of the 17-foot tower floors to include glass-floored stacks for book storage; as early as November 1920, Goodhue indicated that the tower could serve any purpose, including office space. By September 1925, the Capitol Commission decided. Tower floors continue to house various offices today. In total, there are 15 stories in the capitol. Memorial Chamber on the 14th floor—the highest publicly accessible level—has four observation decks that offer views of Lincoln from 245 feet above the ground. Lincoln Municipal Code places height restrictions on structures within the designated Capitol Environs District.
This code helps to maintain the capitol's title as the tallest building in Lincoln. The capitol held the title of tallest building in Nebraska until 1969 with the completion of the 478-foot Woodmen Tower in downtown Omaha. With the completion of Omaha's 634-foot First National Bank Tower in 2002, the capitol became the third-tallest building in Nebraska. Congress opened Nebraska Territory with the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. A factional divide between North Platters and South Platters arose over the question of capital location. Much to the chagrin of the South Platters, Acting Governor Thomas B. Cuming selected the small northern village of Omaha City for the seat of government. Cuming was from Iowa, as his political allies were investors in the Council Bluffs and Nebraska Ferry Company, Omaha as capital would be beneficial to his personal political career. Results from the first territorial census, revealed 914 North Platters and 1,818 South Platters; the South Platters, with greater legislative representation, would be able to take the capital, but Cuming ignored proportional representation and assigned seven councilmen and fourteen representatives to the north and six councilmen and twelve representatives to the south.
The North Platters, with greater political power, confirmed Omaha as the capital. In Omaha, two structures served the Territory of Nebraska; the first was a two-story brick building donated by the Council Bluffs and Nebraska Ferry Company. This building located on 9th Street between Douglas and Farnam, served the Territorial Legislature for the sessions of 1855 and 1857. A second building, constructed in 1857–58 on the site of present-day Omaha Central High School, served the remaining sessions of the Territorial Legislature and the first sessions of the State Legislature beginning in 1867. In June 1867, the Third Session of the State Legislature passed Senate Bill Number 44 which "provid for the location of the Seat of Government of the State of Nebraska, for the erection of public building thereat." The bill created the Capitol Commission whose charge was to select a capital site somewhere within the boundaries of Seward County, the southern halves of Butler and Saunders counties, the northern half of Lancaster County.
On July 29, 1867, the Capitol Commission selected the village of Lancaster as the capital city and renamed it Lincoln. In Lincoln, two structures first served the State of Nebraska. On October 10, 1867, the Capitol Commission contracted Chicago architect John Morris to build a statehouse in Lincoln on the newly platted Capitol Square. Morris designed the capitol with local limestones which began to deteriorate upon the building's completion in late 1868. By 1879, the State of Nebraska determined to replace its crumbling statehouse through piecemeal construction of a new capitol. Architect William H. Willcox designed a Renaissance Revival capitol, the legislature appropriated $75,000 for construction of its west wing—finished in 1881; the same year, the legislature appropriated $100,000 for an east wing, finished in 1882. In 1883, the legislature authorized the Board of Public Lands and Buildings to raze the old capitol and construct the central portion of the Willcox design, not to exceed $450,000.
The State of Nebraska comple
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Lying in state
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects. It traditionally takes place in the principal government building of state, or city. While the practice differs among countries, a viewing in a location other than the principal government building may be referred to as lying in repose. In Canada, official lying in state is a part of a state funeral, an honor reserved for former Governors General and former Prime Ministers, it is held in the Centre Block of Parliament Hill, in the national capital, Ontario. Ex-governors general lie in state in the Senate Chamber while former prime ministers lie in the Hall of Honour. During the period of lying in state, the coffins are flanked at each corner by a Guard of honour, made up of four members drawn from the Canadian Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as members of the Governor General's Foot Guards for former governors general, guards from the parliamentary security forces for former prime ministers.
Guards stand at each corner with heads bowed and weapons inverted with their backs turned towards the casket. Provinces may mount state funerals and have a lying in state for a distinguished former resident. For instance, Maurice Richard, nationally known hockey player, was given a state funeral by the province of Quebec when he died in 2000; this process was repeated for fellow Canadiens legend Jean Béliveau in December 2014. Municipalities may offer civic funerals to prominent deceased former politicians. In North Korea, the body of the late leader Kim Jong-il was displayed in a glass coffin surrounded with red flowers at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace in Pyongyang prior to his funeral, which began and ended at the palace. An honor guard armed with AK-47s was present. Jong-il's father Kim Il-sung, the founding president, is on display elsewhere in the palace. In Russia, during the time of the Soviet Union, the state funerals of the most senior political and military leaders, such as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko all followed the same basic outline.
They took place in Moscow, beginning with a public lying in state of the deceased in the House of the Unions, ending with an interment at Red Square. For the lying in state at the House of the Unions, the coffin would be placed on display in the Column Hall, which would be decorated by flowers, numerous red flags and other communist symbols; the mourners, which would be brought in by the thousands, shuffled up a marble staircase beneath chandeliers draped in black gauze. On the stage at the left side of the Column Hall, a full orchestra in black tailcoats played classical music; the deceased's embalmed body, dressed in a black suit, white shirt and a tie, was displayed in an open coffin on a catafalque banked with carnations, red roses and tulips, facing the queue of mourners. A small guard of honour would be in attendance in the background. At the right side of the hall, seats were placed for guests of honour, with the front row reserved for the dead leader's family. On the day of the funeral, a military funeral parade would take place during which the coffin would be conveyed from the House of the Unions to Red Square where burial would take place.
Lenin and Stalin were placed inside the Lenin Mausoleum, while Brezhnev and Chernenko were interred in individual graves in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. At state funerals in Singapore, the national flag is put on the coffin; the vigil guard may be deployed during the public lying in state of the deceased person at Parliament House. The deployment of the vigil guard is the highest form of respect accorded by the nation to the deceased. Similar to British traditions, the vigil guard is composed of groups of five commissioned officers from the Singapore Armed Forces and Singapore Police Force who stand guard around the clock in shifts of 30 minutes. One of the five officers stands facing outward at each of the four corners of the casket, while the fifth and most senior one stands in front and faces inward, their heads are bowed and their ceremonial swords are inverted. Vigil guards were stationed at the public lying in state of Goh Keng Swee in May 2010, Lee Kuan Yew in March 2015 as well as S R Nathan in August 2016.
Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected president to lie in state in South Africa. The event took place at the Union Buildings, the same site where he was inaugurated as the President of South Africa on May 10, 1994; the body of Mandela was lying in State for three days, starting on Wednesday, December 11, 2013 and ending Friday, December 13. The body was viewed by thousands of South Africans before it was airlifted to Qunu in the Eastern Cape where Mandela was buried on December 15, 2013. In state and ceremonial funerals in the United Kingdom, the lying-in-state takes place in Westminster Hall; the coffin is placed on a catafalque and is guarded, around the clock, by detachments, each of four men, from the following units: Sovereign's Bodyguard Her Majesty's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms The Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard The Royal Company of Archers, The Queen's Bodyguard for Scotland Household Cavalry The Life Guards The Blues and Royals Foot Guards Grenadier Guards Coldstream Guards Scots Guards Irish Guards Welsh GuardsEach unit mans the guard for a total of six hours, with each detachment standing post for twenty minutes.
The four men stand at weapons inverted. On two occasions, the guard has been mounted by four ma