The Illuminati is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. The name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on 1 May 1776 in Bavaria, today part of Germany; the society's goals were to oppose superstition, religious influence over public life, abuses of state power. "The order of the day," they wrote in their general statutes, "is to put an end to the machinations of the purveyors of injustice, to control them without dominating them." The Illuminati—along with Freemasonry and other secret societies—were outlawed through edict by Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria with the encouragement of the Catholic Church, in 1784, 1785, 1787, 1790. In the following several years, the group was vilified by conservative and religious critics who claimed that they continued underground and were responsible for the French Revolution. Many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members, including Ferdinand of Brunswick and the diplomat Xavier von Zwack, the Order's second-in-command.
It attracted literary men such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder and the reigning Duke of Gotha and of Weimar. In subsequent use, "Illuminati" has referred to various organisations which have claimed or have been claimed to be connected to the original Bavarian Illuminati or similar secret societies, though these links have been unsubstantiated; these organisations have been alleged to conspire to control world affairs, by masterminding events and planting agents in government and corporations, in order to gain political power and influence and to establish a New World Order. Central to some of the more known and elaborate conspiracy theories, the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking in the shadows and pulling the strings and levers of power in dozens of novels, television shows, video games, music videos. Adam Weishaupt became professor of Canon Law and practical philosophy at the University of Ingolstadt in 1773, he was the only non-clerical professor at an institution run by Jesuits, whose order Pope Clement XIV had dissolved in 1773.
The Jesuits of Ingolstadt, still retained the purse strings and some power at the University, which they continued to regard as their own. They made constant attempts to frustrate and discredit non-clerical staff when course material contained anything they regarded as liberal or Protestant. Weishaupt became anti-clerical, resolving to spread the ideals of the Enlightenment through some sort of secret society of like-minded individuals. Finding Freemasonry expensive, not open to his ideas, he founded his own society, to have a system of ranks or grades based on those in Freemasonry, but with his own agenda, his original name for the new order was Covenant of Perfectibility. On 1 May 1776, Weishaupt and four students formed the Perfectibilists, taking the Owl of Minerva as their symbol; the members were to use aliases within the society. Weishaupt became Spartacus. Law students Massenhausen, Bauhof and Sutor became Ajax, Agathon and Erasmus Roterodamus. Weishaupt expelled Sutor for indolence. In April 1778, the order became the Illuminatenorden, or Order of Illuminati, after Weishaupt had contemplated the name Bee order.
Massenhausen proved the most active in expanding the society. While studying in Munich shortly after the formation of the order, he recruited Xavier von Zwack, a former pupil of Weishaupt at the beginning of a significant administrative career. Massenhausen's enthusiasm soon became a liability in the eyes of Weishaupt resulting in attempts to recruit unsuitable candidates, his erratic love-life made him neglectful, as Weishaupt passed control of the Munich group to Zwack, it became clear that Massenhausen had misappropriated subscriptions and intercepted correspondence between Weishaupt and Zwack. In 1778, Massenhausen graduated and took a post outside Bavaria, taking no further interest in the order. At this time, the order had a nominal membership of twelve. With the departure of Massenhausen, Zwack applied himself to recruiting more mature and important recruits. Most prized by Weishaupt was Hertel, a childhood friend and a canon of the Munich Frauenkirche. By the end of summer 1778 the order had 27 members in 5 commands.
During this early period, the order had three grades of Novice and Illuminated Minerval, of which only the Minerval grade involved a complicated ceremony. In this the candidate was given a password. A system of mutual espionage kept Weishaupt informed of the activities and character of all his members, his favourites becoming members of the ruling council, or Areopagus; some novices were permitted to recruit. Christians of good character were sought, with Jews and pagans excluded, along with women and members of other secret societies. Favoured candidates were rich, willing to learn, aged 18–30. Having, with difficulty, dissuaded some of his members from joining the Freemasons, Weishaupt decided to join the older order to acquire material to expand his own ritual, he was admitted to lodge "Prudence" of the Rite of Strict Observance early in February 1777. His progress through the three degrees of "blue lodge" masonry taught him nothing of the higher degrees he
La Grande Arche de la Défense called La Grande Arche de la Fraternité, is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, France. It is known as the Arche de la Défense or as La Grande Arche. A 110-metre-high cube, La Grande Arche is part of the perspective from the Louvre to Arc de Triomphe; the distance from La Grande Arche to Arc de Triomphe is 4 km. A great national design competition was launched in 1982 as the initiative of French president François Mitterrand. Danish architect Johan Otto von Spreckelsen and Danish engineer Erik Reitzel designed the winning entry to be a late-20th-century version of the Arc de Triomphe: a monument to humanity and humanitarian ideals rather than military victories; the construction of the monument began in 1985. Spreckelsen resigned in July 1986 and ratified the transfer of all his architectural responsibilities to his associate, French architect Paul Andreu. Reitzel continued his work until the monument was completed in 1989.
The Grande Arche is in the approximate shape of a cube with a width and depth of 110 m. It has a prestressed concrete frame covered with glass and Carrara marble from Italy and was built by the French civil engineering company Bouygues. La Grande Arche was inaugurated in July 1989, with grand military parades that marked the bicentennial of the French Revolution It completed the line of monuments that forms the Axe historique running through Paris; the Grande Arche is turned at an angle of 6.33° about the vertical axis. The most important reason for this turn was technical: with a Métro station, an RER station, a motorway all situated directly underneath the Arche, the angle was the only way to accommodate the structure's giant foundations. In addition, from an architectural point of view, the turn emphasizes the depth of the monument and is similar to the turn of the Louvre at the other end of the Axe historique. In addition, the Arche is placed so that it forms a secondary axis with the two of the highest buildings in Paris at the time, the Tour Eiffel and the Tour Montparnasse.
The two sides of the Arche house government offices. The roof section was closed in 2010 following an accident without injury and opened again to the public in 2017 after seven years of renovation works, it features panoramic views of Paris and includes a restaurant and an exhibition area dedicated to photojournalism. Organizations headquartered in the Grande Arche include the Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer, the French marine accident investigation agency, in the southern portion. List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region François Chaslin et Virginie Picon-Lefebvre, La Grande Arche de La Défense Electa-Moniteur, 1989 Erik Reitzel Le Cube ouvert. Structures and foundations International conference on tall buildings. Singapore, 1984. ISBN 9971840421 Erik Reitzel Les forces dont resultent quelques monuments Parisiens de la Fin du XXe siècle Le pouvoir et la ville à l'époque moderne et contemporaine, Sorbonne 2001. ISBN 2747526100 Grande Arche Satellite image from Google Maps Panorama during a storm Grande Arche ERI.dk Grande Arche pictures in Art Days
Sergio Ottolina is an Italian former sprinter. He won a bronze medal in the 200 m at the 1962 European Athletics Championships and a silver medal in the sprint medley relay at the 1966 European Indoor Games. On 24 June 1964 he set a European record in the 200 m at 20.4 seconds. He competed at the 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics in five individual and team sprint events in total, with the best achievements of seven place in the 4 × 100 m relay and in the 4 × 400 m relay. Ottolina retired from competitions shortly before the 1972 Games due to a motorcycle accident. Two titles in the 100 metres at the Italian Athletics Championships Italy national relays team at the international athletics championships Sergio Ottolina at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
João Manuel Raposo Botelho is a Portuguese footballer who plays for CU Micaelense as a goalkeeper. Born in Ponta Delgada, Botelho was a product of local C. D. Santa Clara's youth system, making his first-team debut in 2003–04. In the following seasons, with the side in that level, he backed up Nuno Santos for two years, before being first-choice during the same amount of time. In 2008–09, with Santa Clara in the same tier, Botelho again appeared as understudy, now to Alemão. In the following campaign more of the same befell, after the signing of English Matt Jones. Botelho resumed his career in division three, with A. D. Camacha and CD Operário. In the summer of 2013 he returned to Santa Clara but, in December of the same year, re-joined his previous club. Botelho appeared for the Portuguese under-21 team at the 2007 UEFA European Championship in the Netherlands, as backup to Paulo Ribeiro, he did not leave the bench during the competition, never won caps for that or any category. João Botelho at ForaDeJogo João Botelho at Soccerway Official website
Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed and How to Stop It is a book written by counterterrorism researcher Dr. Rachel Ehrenfeld, director of the American Center for Democracy and the Economic Warfare Institute, it was published by Bonus Books of Los Angeles, California in August 2003. Ehrenfeld argues in the book that international networks are used by terrorist groups to finance terrorist activity worldwide, she describes the activities of individuals, various charities, drug trafficking networks, money-laundering schemes and bribed officials, documenting the involvement of specific groups and individuals of being involved. The involvement of Iran, al Qaeda in the drug trade is given particular attention. Ehrenfeld asserts that "it was bin Laden who managed the drug profits for the Taliban and arranged money-laundering operations with the Russian Mafiya." Ehrenfeld goes on to argue that the international community should take stronger action against terrorist funding, including imposing economic sanctions on states that fund or foster terrorism, such as Saudi Arabia, Syria, Indonesia, North Korea, Malaysia.
Ehrenfeld's book criticizes international aid organizations as well for their inadvertent support of terror. The book received a mixed reaction from reviewers. William B. Scott wrote in Aviation Week & Space Technology that the book is "brutally bipartisan and international in its bare-knuckled explanations of how political power and corporate greed have emboldened and strengthened the likes of Osama bin Laden and Yasar Arafat, while allowing future terrorists to be recruited and trained." He concluded that it "should be required reading for every elected and senior government official in the U. S. and Europe--especially those charged with counterterrorism responsibilities." Nan Goldberg reviewed the book in The Star Ledger, commenting that the book leads to the "inescapable conclusion that the West is funding its own destruction, not only in allowing its economy to become and remain dependent on oil, but by providing a market for illegal services." The book became the subject of international legal controversy when the Saudi businessman Khalid bin Mahfouz and his sons and Sultan, alleged in the book to be terrorist financiers, sued the author for libel in London.
Although the book was not published in the United Kingdom the lawsuit was made possible when 23 copies were purchased in England via online booksellers and a chapter of the book was published for a short time on ABC TV's website. Ehrenfeld refused to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the British courts and did not appear to defend the suit; the High Court of Justice ruled against her by default. The court ordered her and her publisher to pay £10,000 in damages to each of the three plaintiffs, with an additional £80,000 costs for a total of £110,000. Further distribution of the book from the United States was prohibited with a previous injunction being continued. Ehrenfeld was ordered to publish a correction and apology, but had no intention of complying; the judge noted that "the nature of the allegations which were made in the book... are of the most serious and defamatory kind." He added that under English law, the defendants had the opportunity to counter the suit by attempting to "prove, on the balance of probabilities, that the defamatory allegations were true."
The Mahfouz family published a statement on their website, declaring that a number of "serious errors of fact" had been published about the family and that they "abhor violence as a way of achieving political or other objectives." Mahfouz had posted similar statements on his website regarding more than 40 similar libel cases and threats to sue against authors and publishers from many countries including the U. S. Ehrenfeld accused Mahfouz of "forum shopping," using English libel law to chill investigations, her argument was based on the fact that Mahfouz resided in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia at the time of suit and had sued her in England as opposed to the United States because the libel law framework in the UK was more favorable to plaintiffs. This was rejected by Justice Eady. Mahfouz's English lawyer argued that "Our clients have brought proceedings in England because they maintain residences, transact business and have reputations to protect in this jurisdiction."Ehrenfeld's actions following the initiation of Mahfouz's lawsuit were noted by the court.
A second edition of Funding Evil was published in the US with a new introduction commenting on the lawsuit and the book's cover was amended with the tag line "The book the Saudis don't want you to read." In December 2004, before the English libel suit had concluded, Ehrenfeld pre-emptively counter-sued bin Mahfouz in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. She sought a declaration that the English judgment could not be enforced in the US and that the allegations that she had made against Mahfouz were not defamatory under US law, her complaint asserted that the Mahfouz's litigation violated her rights under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, arguing that Mahfouz "seriously chills legitimate and good-faith investigation into his behaviour. With the benefit of his vast financial resources, he has managed to silence his critics one at a time." In addition, she asserted that she had not properly been served notice and lacked the financial resources to fight bin Mafouz's lawsuit in England.
Her case was supported by free-press advocates in the United States who argued that the case underlined the incompatibility of the English legal system with US constitutional rights. Sandra Baron, the executive director of the Media Law Resource Center in New York, argued that "it's critically important that American journalists and scholars be abl
Achille Fould was a French financier and politician. Achille Fould was born on 17 November 1800 in Paris, his father, Beer Léon Fould, was a Jewish banker. Fould began his career as a banker for the family bank; as early as 1842 he entered political life, having been elected in that year as a deputy for the department of the Hautes-Pyrénées. From that time to his death he busied himself with the affairs of his country, he acquiesced in the revolution of February 1848, is said to have exercised a decided influence in financial matters on the provisional government formed. He shortly afterwards published two pamphlets against the use of paper money, Pas d'Assignats I and Observations sur la question financière. During the presidency of Louis Napoleon he was four times minister of finance, took a leading part in the economic reforms made in France, his strong conservative tendencies led him to oppose the doctrine of free trade, disposed him to hail the coup d'état and the new empire. On 25 January 1852, in consequence of the decree confiscating the property of the Orléans family, he resigned the office of minister of finance, but was on the same day appointed senator, soon after rejoined the government as minister of state and of the imperial household.
In this capacity he directed the Paris exhibition of 1855. The events of November 1860 led once more to his resignation, but he was recalled to the ministry of finance in November of the following year, retained office until the publication of the imperial letter of 19 January 1867, when Émile Ollivier became the chief adviser to the emperor. During his last tenure of office he had reduced the floating debt, which the Mexican War had increased, by the negotiation of a loan of 300 million francs. Fould, besides uncommon financial abilities, had a taste for the fine arts, which he developed and refined during his youth by visiting Italy and the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean. In 1857 he was made a member of the Academy of the Fine Arts. Fould converted to Protestantism in 1858. Fould died in Tarbes in 1867. Fould family Works by or about Achille Fould at Internet Archive