Mayhem is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1984 in Oslo, Norway. They were one of the founders of the Norwegian black metal scene and their music has influenced the black metal genre. Mayhem's early career was controversial due to their notorious live performances, the 1991 suicide of vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin and the 1993 murder of guitarist Øystein Aarseth by former member Varg Vikernes of Burzum; the group released a demo and an EP that were influential, amassed a loyal following through sporadic and notorious live performances, attracting further attention through their ties to the string of Norwegian church burnings and the incidents of violence surrounding them. Mayhem disbanded after Aarseth's murder, shortly before the release of their debut album, De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas, regarded as a classic of the black metal genre. Surviving former members Jan Axel Blomberg, Jørn Stubberud and Sven Erik Kristiansen reformed two years with Rune Eriksen replacing Aarseth. Attila Csihar and Morten Iversen have since replaced Eriksen, respectively.
Their post-Aarseth material is characterized by increased experimentation. The 2007 album Ordo Ad Chao received the Spellemann Award for best heavy metal album. Mayhem was founded in 1984 by guitarist Øystein Aarseth, bassist Jørn Stubberud and drummer Kjetil Manheim, taking their band name from the Venom song "Mayhem with Mercy"; the band members were influenced by groups such as Venom, Motörhead, Black Sabbath, Slayer and Celtic Frost. The lineup began playing cover songs by Black Sabbath, Motörhead and recorded the demo Pure Fucking Armageddon. After its release, who used to sing lead vocals, along with Stubberud, during first demo's studio rehearsals, recruited two session vocalists, Eirik Norheim and Sven Erik Kristiansen, in 1986 and 1987, respectively. Norheim performed vocals only for a concert, which took place in April 1986 in Ski, by the end of that year he had quit Mayhem, he formed hardcore punk band Within Range and Oi!/street punk band Cockroach Clan. Whereas, with Kristiansen, Mayhem recorded its first EP, Deathcrush, in 1987, released it through Euronymous' newly formed label Posercorpse Music.
The initial 1,000 copy release of Deathcrush sold out. It was reissued in 1993 by the newly renamed Deathlike Silence Productions as a joint venture with Euronymous' Oslo specialist record shop Helvete. Manheim and Maniac left the band in 1988. After two brief replacements and Manheim's positions were filled by Swedish vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin and local drummer Jan Axel Blomberg. With Dead, the band's concerts became notorious. For concerts, Dead went to great lengths to achieve the atmosphere he wished. From the beginning of his career, he was known to wear "corpse paint", which involved covering his face with black and white makeup. According to Necrobutcher, "t wasn't anything to do with the way Kiss and Alice Cooper used makeup. Dead wanted to look like a corpse, he didn't do it to look cool". Hellhammer claimed that Dead "was the first black metal musician to use corpse paint". To complete his corpse-like image, Dead would bury his stage clothes and dig them up again to wear on the night of a concert.
While performing, Dead would cut himself with hunting knives and broken glass. Additionally, the band had pig or sheep heads impaled on stakes and planted at the front of their stage. Stian Johannsen, who took position as vocalist after Dead's suicide, made this statement about him: "He didn't see himself as human, he said. That is the reason, he knew he would die." In 1990, the members of Mayhem moved to "an old house in the forest" near Oslo, used as a place for the band to rehearse. They began writing songs for De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas. Mayhem bassist Necrobutcher said that, after living together for a while and Euronymous "got on each other's nerves a lot" and "weren't friends at the end". Hellhammer recalls that Dead once went outside to sleep in the woods because Euronymous was playing synth music that Dead hated. Euronymous went outside and began shooting into the air with a shotgun. Varg Vikernes claims. On 8 April 1991, Dead committed suicide in the house owned by the band, he was found by Euronymous with slit wrists and a shotgun wound to the head.
Dead's suicide note notably read "Excuse all the blood, cheers." and included an apology for firing the weapon indoors. Instead of calling the police, Euronymous went to a nearby store and bought a disposable camera to photograph the corpse, after re-arranging some items. One of these photographs was used as the cover of a bootleg live album, Dawn of the Black Hearts. Necrobutcher recalls how Euronymous told him of the suicide:Øystein called me up the next day... and says, "Dead has done something cool! He killed himself". I thought, have you lost it? What do you mean cool? He says, "Relax, I have photos of everything". I was in grief, he was just thinking. So I told him, "OK. Don't fucking call me before you destroy those pictures". Euronymous used Dead's suicide to foster Mayhem's'evil' image and claimed Dead had killed himself because black metal had become'trendy' and commercialized. In time, rumors spread that Euronymous had made a stew with bits of Dead'
Hot Chip are an English indie electronic band formed in London in 2000. The group consists of multi-instrumentalists Alexis Taylor, Joe Goddard, Al Doyle, Owen Clarke, Felix Martin, they are supplemented by Sarah Jones for live performances and studio recordings. Hot Chip produces music in the synthpop and alternative dance genres, drawing influences from house and disco; the band have released six studio albums: Coming on Strong, The Warning, Made in the Dark, One Life Stand, In Our Heads, Why Make Sense?, will release a seventh, A Bath Full of Ecstasy, in 2019. The group were nominated for the Mercury Prize in 2006 for The Warning, for the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording in 2009 for their single "Ready for the Floor". Outside of Hot Chip, the band members, individually and in partnership with each other, are active in other musical acts and perform DJ sets. Hot Chip formed as a duo consisting of Alexis Taylor and Joe Goddard, both of whom had met as students at Elliott School, Putney.
With a shared love of R&B and house music, they started collaborated on music around 1998. Early formative releases included 2001's Mexico EP on Victory Garden Records, the self-released San Frandisco EP in 2002. After years of self-releasing records, they signed with Moshi Moshi in 2003 and released their debut LP Coming on Strong in 2004. During this period, they were joined by Felix Martin and Al Doyle, they started working on their second album and signed a UK and US record deal with DFA Records and EMI. DFA and Astralwerks released their debut album for the first time in the United States in late 2005. In 2006, Hot Chip released The Warning. Now signed to EMI in the United Kingdom, the band gained more mainstream appeal as well as the attention of critics; the album was shortlisted for the 2006 Nationwide Mercury Prize and was Mixmag's Album of the Year 2006. This album spawned two UK top 40 singles: "Over and Over" in March 2006 and "Boy from School" in May 2006. "Over and Over" received attention for its music video, directed by Nima Nourizadeh, was named as the best single of 2006 by British music magazine NME.
The band released their third studio album, Made in the Dark, on 4 February 2008. The first song to be released from it was "Shake a Fist", released as a limited one-sided 12-inch vinyl in August 2007; the second release was "Ready for the Floor" in January 2008, which peaked at number six on the UK Singles Chart. In order to promote "Ready for the Floor", the band appeared on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in January 2008, Joe Goddard appeared on Never Mind the Buzzcocks on 31 January. In February 2008, the band performed on the American talk shows Carson Daly. At the end of 2008, "Ready For The Floor" received a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording nomination, but the song lost out to "Harder, Faster, Stronger" by Daft Punk. On 7 May 2008, the group performed their third single, "One Pure Thought", on Radio 1's Live Lounge; the hypnotic clip for "One Pure Thought" was selected as one of the best music videos of 2008 by AllMusic. Having completed a world tour in February 2009, Hot Chip returned to London and began writing and recording their fourth album, One Life Stand.
In early 2009, Alexis Taylor told NME that the band recorded new songs including "Alley Cats", which the band played while touring in 2008/2009. Taylor hinted that the album was going to be "a bit calmer this time" in comparison to Made in the Dark with songs that are "more mid-tempo and disco influenced", although the two tracks released prior to the album, "Take It In" and "One Life Stand", suggest that it will be more upbeat than first suggested, may be more influenced by early house music. Alongside the regular band members, Hot Chip collaborated on several of the album tracks with the drummer Charles Hayward from This Heat and Camberwell Now, Leo Taylor, drummer from the London-based band The Invisible and the Trinidadian steel pan player Fimber Bravo. One Life Stand was released on 1 February 2010, their self-produced fifth studio album In Our Heads was released on 11 June 2012 by Domino. About the album, Taylor stated, "I think In Our Heads was a bit speedier, made with less pressure, but more fun – due to people in the band not having too many hang ups about how good the material was – we seemed to be happy with the songs we were writing and they came – and due to the fact that we had been enjoying ourselves elsewhere, whether at home, or on tour, or recording with our other projects, or DJing.
I think, right about subtler confidence, but it may be that we are a bit more accepted these days as we keep doing what we want, people stop saying'why' to everything and each decision. The songwriting developed from songs that were dreamt. "Dark and Stormy" has been since released as a non-album single. On 10 February 2015, the band announced their sixth studio album, titled Why Make Sense?. The fi
Imagine Dragons is an American pop rock band from Las Vegas, consisting of lead vocalist Dan Reynolds, lead guitarist Wayne Sermon, bassist Ben McKee, drummer Daniel Platzman. The band first gained exposure with the release of their single "It's Time", followed by their award-winning debut studio album Night Visions, which resulted in the chart-topping singles "Radioactive" and "Demons". Rolling Stone named "Radioactive", which holds the record for most weeks charted on the Billboard Hot 100, the "biggest rock hit of the year". MTV called them "the year's biggest breakout band", Billboard named them their "Breakthrough Band of 2013" and "Biggest Band of 2017". and placed them at the top of their "Year In Rock" rankings for 2013, 2017, 2018. Imagine Dragons topped the Billboard Year-End "Top Artists – Duo/Group" category in 2018; the band's second studio album Smoke + Mirrors reached number one in the US, Canada and the UK. The album was preceded by the top 40 single "I Bet My Life", second and third singles, "Gold" and "Shots".
The band embarked on a ten month long world tour, which led to a brief hiatus in 2016, with occasional performances and soundtrack contributions throughout the remainder of the year. The band released their third studio album, Evolve which resulted in three chart-topping singles, "Believer", "Thunder", "Whatever It Takes" making them the artist with the most weeks at number-one on the Billboard Hot Rock Songs chart; the album reached the top five in many countries. After the Evolve Tour was completed, Imagine Dragons released their fourth studio album Origins, on November 9, 2018. "Natural" and "Zero" were released as the first singles off the album. Afterwards, "Machine" and "Bad Liar" were released. A released single titled "Born to Be Yours" was included on a deluxe version of the album. While all four albums were commercially successful, critical reception was mixed. Imagine Dragons has won three American Music Awards, nine Billboard Music Awards, one Grammy Award, one MTV Video Music Award and one World Music Award.
In May 2014, the band was nominated for fourteen Billboard Music Awards, including Top Artist of the Year and a Milestone Award, which recognizes innovation and creativity of artists across different genres. In April 2018, the band was nominated eleven more times for Billboard Music Awards. Imagine Dragons have sold 35 million singles worldwide. In 2008, lead singer Dan Reynolds met drummer Andrew Tolman at Brigham Young University where they were both students. Reynolds and Tolman added Andrew Beck, Dave Lemke, Aurora Florence to play guitar and piano for their band, their name is an anagram for a phrase only known to members of the group, that Reynolds stated each member approved of. The five-piece released an extended play titled Speak to Me that year, but Beck and Florence departed from the band's line-up that year. In 2009, Tolman recruited long-time high school friend Wayne Sermon, who had graduated from Berklee College of Music to play guitar. Tolman recruited his wife, Brittany Tolman, to sing back-up and play keys, the band began to play shows together again.
Lemke left the band on, leading Sermon to recruit another Berklee music student, Ben McKee, to join the band as their bassist and complete the line-up. The band garnered a large following in their hometown of Provo, before the members moved to Las Vegas, the hometown of Dan Reynolds, where the band recorded and released their first three EPs; the band released EPs titled Imagine Dragons and Hell and Silence in 2010, both recorded at Battle Born Studios, in Las Vegas. They returned to the studio in 2011; the third EP, It's Time, was made. They got their first big break when Train's frontman Pat Monahan fell sick just prior to the Bite of Las Vegas Festival 2009. Imagine Dragons were performed to a crowd of more than 26,000 people. Local accolades including "Best CD of 2011", "Best Local Indie Band 2010", "Las Vegas' Newest Must See Live Act", Vegas Music Summit Headliner 2010, more sent the band on a positive trajectory. In November 2011 they signed with Interscope Records and began working with English Grammy Award-winning producer Alex da Kid.
The Tolmans left the group and Daniel Platzman was recruited in August 2011 by invitation from Ben McKee, prior to the signing of the band's label deal in November 2011, alongside keyboardist Theresa Flaminio. Theresa Flaminio departed from Imagine Dragons in early 2012; the band worked with Alex da Kid, with whom they recorded their first major label release at Westlake Recording Studios in West Hollywood, California. An EP entitled Continued Silence was released on Valentine's Day digitally and peaked at number 40 on the Billboard 200; the band released an EP titled Hear Me in 2012. Shortly after, "It's Time" was released as a single and peaked at number 15 on the Billboard Hot 100; the music video debuted on April 17, 2012 on all MTV affiliates and was subsequently nominated for an MTV Video Music Award in the "Best Rock Video" category. "It's Time" was certified a double platinum single by the RIAA. The band finished recording their debut album Night Visions in the summer of 2012 at Studio X inside Palms Casino Resort and released the album in the United States on the day after Labor Day.
It peaked at No. 2 on the Billboard 200 chart with first week sales in excess of 83,000 copies, the highest charting for a debut rock album since 2006. The album reached No. 1 on the Billboard Alternative and Rock Album charts as well as the top ten on the Australian, Canadian, German
Goran Bregović is a recording artist from Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is one of the most internationally known modern musicians and composers of the Balkans, is one of the few former Yugoslav musicians who has performed at major international venues such as Carnegie Hall, Royal Albert Hall and L'Olympia. A Sarajevo native, Bregović gained acclaim for his work in Kodeksi and Jutro, but rose to continental prominence as the main creative mind and lead guitarist of Bijelo dugme considered as one of the most popular recording acts to exist in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and one of the most important bands of the Yugoslav rock scene. After Bijelo Dugme split up, he started to compose for films. Among his better known film scores are three of Emir Kusturica's films. For Time of the Gypsies, Bregović won a Golden Arena Award at the Pula Film Festival in 1990, among his other awards. Bregović, during his 5 decade long career, has composed for critically acclaimed singers, including Sezen Aksu, Iggy Pop, Šaban Bajramović, George Dalaras and Cesária Évora.
Born in Sarajevo, PR Bosnia-Herzegovina, FPR Yugoslavia to a Croat father Franjo Bregović and Serb mother Borka Perišić, Goran grew up with a younger sister and younger brother, Predrag. Their father was from the Croatian region of Zagorje Sveti Petar Čvrstec village near Križevci, while their mother was born in Virovitica to parents that had shortly before her birth arrived in the nearby village of Čemernica, settling there from the village of Kazanci near Gacko in eastern Herzegovina. Goran's maternal grandfather, fought in the Royal Serbian Army at the Salonica Front during World War I and as a reward received land in Slavonia where he soon moved his family. Goran's parents met shortly after World War II in Virovitica where his mother Borka lived and his father Franjo attended a Yugoslav People's Army military school. Franjo Bregović soon got his first job, teaching ballistics at a military school in Sarajevo, so the couple that at the time moved there. Goran, their first child, was born in 1950 in Sarajevo.
Goran was 10 years old. In interviews, he mentioned his father's alcoholism as the reason for the breakdown of their marriage. Soon after the split, his father moved to Livno, taking Goran's younger brother Predrag with him while Goran remained living with his mother in Sarajevo, visiting his father and brother every summer in Livno, their father soon retired and moved back to his home village in Zagorje while Goran's brother Predrag moved back to Sarajevo for university studies. Goran played violin in a music school. However, deemed untalented, he was thrown out during second grade, his musical education was thus reduced to what his friend taught him until Goran's mother bought him his first guitar in his early teens. Bregović wanted to enroll in a fine arts high school, but his aunt told his mother that it was full of homosexuals, which precipitated his mother's decision to send him to a technical school; as a compromise for not getting his way, she allowed him to grow his hair long. Upon entering high school, teenage Bregović joined the school band Izohipse where he began on bass guitar.
Soon, however, he was kicked out of that school too. Bregović entered grammar school and its school band Beštije; when he was 16, his mother left him and moved to the coast, meaning that other than having a few relatives to rely on, he had to take care of himself. He did that by playing folk music in a kafana in Konjic, working on construction sites, selling newspapers. Spotting him at a Beštije gig in 1969, Željko Bebek invited 18-year-old Bregović to play bass guitar in his band Kodeksi, which Goran gladly accepted. Kodeksi shifted setup so Bregović moved from bass to lead guitar, resulting in Kodeksi having the following line-up during summer 1970: Goran Bregović, Željko Bebek, Zoran Redžić and Milić Vukašinović. All of them would become members of Bijelo Dugme at some point in the future. At the time, they were influenced by Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. During the fall of 1970, this resulted in the departure of Željko Bebek, who got phased out of the band. At the end of the year, Goran's mother and Zoran's brother arrived in Naples and took them back to Sarajevo.
In the autumn of 1971, Bregović enrolled at the University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Philosophy, studying philosophy and sociology. He soon quit, however. At the same time, Milić Vukašinović left for London, so Bregović formed a band with Nuno Arnautalić called Jutro, which Redžić soon joined as well. Over the next few years, the band changed lineups and on 1 January 1974 modified its name to Bijelo Dugme. From 1974 until 1989, Bregović played lead guitar and was the main creative force behind Bijelo Dugme. For years they stood as one of the most popular bands in SFR Yugoslavia. At the time Bijelo Dugme was falling apart, Goran entered the world of film music, his first project was Emir Kusturica's Time of the Gypsies. This turned out to be a great success. Goran and Emir's collaboration continued, Goran composed music for Emir's next film Arizona Dream. During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Goran lived in Paris, but he lived in Belgrade, his next major project, music for Patrice Chéreau's Queen Margot
Porcupine Tree were an English rock band formed by musician Steven Wilson in 1987. The band began as a solo project for Wilson, who created all of the band's music. By late 1993, however, he wanted to work in a band environment, bringing on frequent collaborators Richard Barbieri as keyboardist, Colin Edwin as bassist, Chris Maitland as drummer to form the first permanent lineup. With Wilson as lead vocalist and guitarist, this remained the lineup until February 2002, when Maitland left the band and Gavin Harrison was recruited to replace him. Porcupine Tree's early sound evoked a style of psychedelic rock comparable to that of progressive rock band Pink Floyd. Upon signing with Kscope record label in the late 1990s, the band approached a more mainstream alternative rock sound. By the early 2000s, the band had signed to a major record label and shifted their sound again, this time in a more progressive metal direction. After the release and tour in support of their tenth studio album, The Incident, their biggest commercial success to date, the band became inactive as Wilson committed himself to his solo work, other members began working on their own separate projects.
In 2018, after years of indetermination, Wilson ruled out a possible reformation. During a career spanning more than 20 years, Porcupine Tree earned critical acclaim from critics and fellow musicians, developed a cult following, became an influence for new artists. However, their work stayed away from mainstream music, being described by publications such as Classic Rock and PopMatters as "the most important band you’d never heard of." Porcupine Tree originated in 1987 as a collaborative hoax project by Steven Wilson and Malcolm Stocks. Inspired by the psychedelic/progressive bands of the 1970s, such as Pink Floyd, that had dominated the music scene during their youth, the two decided to form a fictional legendary rock band named The Porcupine Tree; the two fabricated a detailed back-story including information on alleged band members and album titles, as well as a "colourful" history which purportedly included events such as a meeting at a 1970s rock festival and several trips in and out of prison.
As soon as he had put aside enough money to buy his own studio equipment, Wilson obliged this creation with several hours of music to provide "evidence" of its existence. Although Stocks provided a few passages of treated vocals and experimental guitar playing, his role in the project was offering occasional ideas, with the bulk of the material being written, recorded and sung by Wilson. At this point, Porcupine Tree was little more than a joke and a private amusement, as Wilson was concentrating on his other project, No-Man, an endeavour with UK based singer and songwriter Tim Bowness. However, by 1989, he began to consider some of the Porcupine Tree music as marketable. Wilson created an 80-minute-long cassette titled Tarquin's Seaweed Farm under the name of Porcupine Tree. Still showing the spirit of his joke, Wilson included an eight-page inlay which further revealed the hoaxed Porcupine Tree backstory, including references to fictitious band members such as Sir Tarquin Underspoon and Timothy Tadpole-Jones.
Wilson sent out copies of Tarquin's Seaweed Farm to several people he felt would be interested in the recordings. Nick Saloman, the cult UK guitarist better known as The Bevis Frond, had suggested that he send one to Richard Allen, a writer for the UK counter-cultural magazine Encyclopaedia Psychedelica and co-editor of the UK psychedelic garage rock magazine Freakbeat. Allen reviewed the tape in both magazines. Whilst he disliked some of the material, he gave much of it a positive review. Several months Allen invited Wilson to contribute a track to the double LP A Psychedelic Psauna, being put together to launch the new Delerium label. Allen would become the band's manager, press agent, promoter until 2004, his role in marketing the band's image decreasing after The Sky Moves Sideways album. In the meantime, Wilson had continued to work on new material. In 1990, he released the Love, Death & Mussolini EP, issued in a limited run of 10 copies; the EP remains an rare, collectible piece. It was composed as a preview for the upcoming second album.
In 1990, Wilson released a second full-length Porcupine Tree cassette called The Nostalgia Factory, which further expanded Porcupine Tree's underground fanbase, although at this point, the band was still carrying on the charade of being 1970s rock legends. By this point, Porcupine Tree was a solo project, with Stocks having amicably moved on to other activities. Along with the A Psychedelic Psauna compilation, which featured the Porcupine Tree track "Linton Samuel Dawson", the newly formed Delerium label, formed by Freakbeat editors Richard Allen and Ivor Trueman, offered to reissue the cassettes Tarquin's Seaweed Farm and The Nostalgia Factory. Two hundred copies of each cassette were sold through Freakbeat's mail order, The Freak Emporium, soon Porcupine Tree became known as a mysterious new act amongst the UK underground psychedelic music scene. Shortly thereafter, Delerium invited Wilson to sign as one of the label's founder artists; the first release after this, a double vinyl album and single CD compiling the best material from his two cassettes, was released in mid-1992 as On the Sunday of Life, a title chosen from a long list of possible nonsense titles compiled by Richard Allen.
The rest of the music from the initial tapes was released on the limited edition compilation album Yellow Hedgerow Dreamscape. In 1992, Delerium released On the Sunday of Life as an edition of 1,000 copies, complete with a deluxe gatefold sleeve; the album sold well in Italy, it was repressed on vinyl
Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia. It was founded in 1848; the population of Joensuu is 76,543, the economic region of Joensuu has a population of 115,000. As is typical of cities in Eastern Finland, Joensuu is monolingually Finnish. Joensuu is a lively student city with a subsidiary of the University of Eastern Finland, which has over 15,000 enrolled students, a further 4,000 students at the Karelia University of Applied Sciences; the largest employers are the municipal City of Joensuu, North Karelian Hospital District Federation of Municipalities and Punamusta. The European Forest Institute, the University and many other institutes and export enterprises such as Abloy and John Deere give Joensuu an international flavour; the city of Joensuu, founded by the Czar Nicholas I of Russia in 1848, is the regional centre and the capital of North Karelia. During the 19th century Joensuu was a city of commerce; when in 1860 the city received dispensation rights to initiate commerce, former restrictions against industry were removed and the local sawmills began to prosper and expand.
Water traffic was improved by the building and opening of the Saimaa Canal in 1856. A lively commerce between the regions of North Karelia, St. Petersburg and Central Europe was enabled. At the end of the 19th century Joensuu was one of the largest harbour cities in Finland. Throughout the centuries Karelian traders have plied the Pielisjoki River; the river has always been the lively heart of the city. Canals – completed by 1870 – increased the river traffic. Thousands of steamboats and logging boats sailed along the river during the golden age of river traffic; the Pielisjoki River has been an important log raft route, providing wood for the sawmills and for the entire lumber industry. During the last few decades, the modest agrarian town has developed into a vital centre of the province. Success in regional annexations, the establishment of the province of Karelia and investments in education have been the most decisive actions in this development; the municipality of Pielisensuu was consolidated with Joensuu in 1954.
At the beginning of 2005, the municipalities of Kiihtelysvaara and Tuupovaara were consolidated with Joensuu. At the beginning of 2009 the municipalities of Eno and Pyhäselkä were consolidated with Joensuu. After the most recent consolidations, there are 73,000 inhabitants in the Joensuu municipal area; the University of Joensuu has, in twenty-five years, expanded to eight faculties. The university is one of the mainstays for the vitality of the city and so for all North Karelia. Diversified international cooperation in science and commerce benefits the whole region; the proximity of the eastern border has been an important factor in the history of the city. The Republic of Karelia is once again a significant area for cooperation with nearby regions in Russia. Export companies in Joensuu continue the pre-revolutionary traditions in foreign trade. Joensuu offers varied cultural activities. A series of events – Ilosaarirock festival, Joensuu Music Winter, Festival of Visual Culture Viscult, Gospel festivals – and the unspoilt environment increase the attractiveness of the city.
Joensuu is sometimes referred to as the Forest Capital of Europe because the European Forest Institute is based there. Other forestry research and educational facilities are based in Joensuu. Joensuu is a city of students; the University of Eastern Finland has one of its three main campuses in Joensuu and the University of Applied Sciences Karelia has two Joensuu campuses. Nearest airport with regular air service: Joensuu Airport, Liperi, 11 km Nearest inland port: Joensuu Districts: 26 Distances from Joensuu to other major cities in Finland: Joensuu has a railway station and a bus station, which offers intercity connections to Helsinki and local connections to several other places. Numbered bus service is available to all parts of Joensuu. Note, that if you want to catch a bus, you have to wave at the driver - the bus does not stop automatically. Joensuu has an airport, with flights to Helsinki. Joensuu is located along the Blue Highway, an international tourist route from Mo i Rana, Norway to Pudozh, Russia via Sweden.
The city is known for its basketball club Kataja, which plays in the Finnish first-tier league Korisliiga. Other championship level clubs of Joensuu include Josba, Mutalan Riento, the world leading orienteering club Kalevan Rasti and Joensuun Prihat; the ice hockey team Jokipojat plays in the Finnish second-tier league Mestis, their home arena is the Mehtimäki Ice Hall. The local football club Jippo plays in the Finnish second Division. Finnish baseball enjoys popularity as well and the local team, Joensuun Maila, plays in the top division Superpesis. Joensuu has produced many world class athletes, including Jukka Keskisalo, the European champion in 2006 at 3000m St. and Aki Parviainen, the world champion of Javelin throw in 1999. Joensuu is home to biathlete Kaisa Mäkäräinen, who won the overall World Cup title in the 2010–11 Biathlon World Cup season. 1983 WRC champion Hannu Mikkola and 2013 GRC champion and current World RX driver Toomas Heikkinen are from Joensuu. Joensuu has a subarctic continental climate as a result of its high latitude and inland position that causes cold nights in colder seasons and winter compared to other Nordic locations at a similar latitude.
Joensuu can be prone to strong heat during heat waves, with an all-time record of 37.2 °C on July 29, 2010, being the Finnish nationwide heat
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me