According to Christian tradition, the Image of Edessa was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon. In the Orthodox Churches, including English-speaking Orthodoxy, the image is known as the Mandylion. By this account, King Abgar of Edessa wrote to Jesus. Abgar received a reply letter from Jesus, declining the invitation, but promising a future visit by one of his disciples. Instead, one of the seventy disciples, Thaddeus of Edessa, is said to have come to Edessa, bearing the words of Jesus, by the virtues of which the king was miraculously healed; this tradition was first recorded in the early 4th century by Eusebius of Caesarea, who said that he had transcribed and translated the actual letter in the Syriac chancery documents of the king of Edessa, but who makes no mention of an image. The report of an image, which accrued to the legendarium of Abgar, first appears in the Syriac work, the Doctrine of Addai: according to it, the messenger, here called Ananias, was a painter, he painted the portrait, brought back to Edessa and conserved in the royal palace.
The first record of the existence of a physical image in the ancient city of Edessa was by Evagrius Scholasticus, writing about 593, who reports a portrait of Christ of divine origin, which effected the miraculous aid in the defence of Edessa against the Persians in 544. The image was moved to Constantinople in the 10th century; the cloth disappeared when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, is believed by some to have reappeared as a relic in King Louis IX of France's Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. This relic disappeared in the French Revolution; the provenance of the Edessa letter between the 1st century and its location in his own time are not reported by Eusebius. The materials, according to the scholar Robert Eisenman, "are widespread in the Syriac sources with so many multiple developments and divergences that it is hard to believe they could all be based on Eusebius' poor efforts"; the Eastern Orthodox Church observes a feast for this icon on August 16, which commemorates its translation from Edessa to Constantinople.
The story of the Mandylion is the product of centuries of development. The first version is found in Eusebius' History of the Church. Eusebius claimed that he had transcribed and translated the actual letter in the Syriac chancery documents of the king of Edessa; this records a letter written by King Abgar of Edessa to Jesus, asking him to come cure him of an illness. Jesus replies by letter, saying that when he had completed his earthly mission and ascended to heaven, he would send a disciple to heal Abgar. At this stage, there is no mention of an image of Jesus. In AD 384, Egeria, a pilgrim from either Gaul or Spain, was given a personal tour by the Bishop of Edessa, who provided her with many marvellous accounts of miracles that had saved Edessa from the Persians and put into her hands transcripts of the correspondence of Abgarus and Jesus, with embellishments. Part of her accounts of her travels, in letters to her sisterhood, survive. "She naïvely supposed that this version was more complete than the shorter letter which she had read in a translation at home one brought back to the Far West by an earlier pilgrim".
Her escorted tour, accompanied by a translator, was thorough. There was however, no mention of any image reported by Egeria, who spent three days inspecting every corner of Edessa and the environs; the next stage of development appears in the Doctrine of Addai, c. 400, which introduces a court painter among a delegation sent by Abgar to Jesus, who paints a portrait of Jesus to take back to his master: When Hannan, the keeper of the archives, saw that Jesus spoke thus to him, by virtue of being the king's painter, he took and painted a likeness of Jesus with choice paints, brought with him to Abgar the king, his master. And when Abgar the king saw the likeness, he received it with great joy, placed it with great honor in one of his palatial houses; the legend of the image recounts that because the successors of Abgar reverted to paganism, the bishop placed the miraculous image inside a wall, setting a burning lamp before the image, he sealed them up behind a tile. The image itself is said to have resurfaced in 525, during a flood of the Daisan, a tributary stream of the Euphrates that passed by Edessa.
This flood is mentioned in the writings of the court historian Procopius of Caesarea. In the course of the reconstruction work, a cloth bearing the facial features of a man was discovered hidden in the wall above one of the gates of Edessa. Writing soon after the Persian siege of 544, Procopius says that the text of Jesus' letter, by including a promise that "no enemy would enter the city", was inscribed over the city gate, but does not mention an image. Procopius is sceptical about the authenticity of the promise, but says that the wish to disprove it was part of the Persian king Khosrau I's motivation for the attack, as "it kept irritating his mind"; the Syriac Chronicle of Edessa written in 540-550 claim divine interventions in the s
Wrath of the Demon is a 1991 fantasy and slash game developed by Quebec-based developer Abstrax, published by ReadySoft Incorporated. Versions for Atari ST, Commodore CDTV, DOS were released in early 1991, while the Commodore 64 version was released later; the player controls a hero on a quest to defeat a demon. The nine musical tracks are by David Whittaker; the programmers for the Amiga version were Pierre Proulx and Martin Ross. The programmer for the PC version was Nicolas Chapados; the game was illustrated by Claude Pelletier and Stephane Ross. Michel Cadorette provided support during the production of the Amiga version in different areas. ACE gave the Amiga version of Wrath of the Demon an overall score of 884 out of 1000, calling it better than Shadow of the Beast 2, stating that Wrath of the Demon is "technically... the most accomplished and polished game yet written for the Amiga". ACE praised Wrath of the Demon's'smooth' scrolling during horseback sequences. Wrath of the Demon at MobyGames Wrath of the Demon at Hall of Light Amiga database
Justus Esiri was a veteran award-winning Nigerian actor considered to be one of the pillars of Nollywood with an acting career that goes way back to the 1960s. He came into prominence for his role in popular Nigerian Television Authority TV-series The Village Headmaster and the film adaptation of Chinua Achebe's book Things Fall Apart, he won Best Actor award at the 9th Africa Movie Academy Awards post-humously for his role in Assassins Practice and was honoured as the inaugural recipient of the "Goodluck Jonathan Lifetime Achievement award" at the 2013 Nollywood Movies Awards. The Nigerian government honoured him with several National honours with the highest being an Officer of the Order of the Niger, OON for his contribution to the development of Film-Making in Nigeria, he is the father of popular Mavin Records Musician Dr Sid. Justus was born on 20 November 1942 in Delta State, he proceeded to Effurun and attended Urhobo College, Bendel State. He left Nigeria for Germany for his higher education.
Institutions he attended in Germany included Maximillan University, German, Prof. Weners Institute of Engineering, West Berlin and the Ahrens School of Performing Arts. While in Europe he began his acting career, he was working as a German translator for voice of Nigeria in Germany when he received an invitation home from the Nigerian Government to star in "The Village Headmaster" which he accepted. Esiri died in hospital in Lagos on 19 February 2013 from complications of diabetes. A tribute night, organized by the Actors Guild of Nigeria, was held at the National Stadium on 8 April 2013. Mass was at St. Jude Catholic Church in Mafoluku, Lagos, on 9 April 2013, a Service of Songs was conducted in Warri the following day, his body was taken to its final resting place in his hometown of Abraka. Several government officials and entertainment personalities were present at his funeral, he has appeared in several Nollywood and TV productions including Wasted Years Forever The Prize Six Demons Corridors of Power Last Night, The Tyrant The Investigation The Ghost Assassin Practice Doctor Bello Twin Sword Keep my Will Invasion 1897 Justus Esiri at the Internet Movie Database