Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
The Autodromo Internazionale Enzo e Dino Ferrari is an auto racing circuit near the Italian town of Imola,40 kilometres east of Bologna and 80 kilometres east of the Ferrari factory in Maranello. The circuit is named after Ferraris late founder Enzo and his son Dino who had died in the 1950s, before Enzo Ferraris death in 1988 it was called Autodromo Dino Ferrari. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license and it was the venue for the Formula One San Marino Grand Prix and it hosted the 1980 edition of the Italian Grand Prix, which usually takes place in Monza. When Formula One visits Imola, it is seen as the circuit of Ferrari. Imola, as it is known, is one of the few major international circuits to run in an anti-clockwise direction. In April 1953, the first motorcycle races took place, while the first car took place in June 1954. In April 1963, the circuit hosted its first Formula One race, as a non-championship event, a further non-championship event took place at Imola in 1979, which was won by Niki Lauda for Brabham-Alfa Romeo.
In 1980 Imola officially debuted in the Formula One calendar by hosting the 50th Italian Grand Prix and it was the first time since the 1948 Edition held at Parco del Valentino that the Autodromo Nazionale Monza did not host the Italian Grand Prix. The race was won by Nelson Piquet and it was such a success that a new race, the race was held over 60 laps of the 5 kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 300 kilometres. In addition Adornis countryman Michele Dancelli took the bronze and five of the top six finishers were Italian, the circuit was used for stage 11 of the 2015 Giro dItalia, which was won by Ilnur Zakarin. In 1987, Nelson Piquet had an accident there during practice, in the 1989 San Marino Grand Prix, Gerhard Berger crashed his Ferrari at Tamburello after a front wing failure. The car caught fire after the impact but thanks to the quick work of the firefighters. Michele Alboreto had an accident at the Tamburello corner testing his Footwork Arrows at the circuit in 1991. Riccardo Patrese had an accident at the Tamburello corner in 1992 while testing for the Williams team, and of course the death of Ayrton Senna on May 1,1994 sealed the fate of the corner being run flat out ever again.
The tragedy continued the day, when the three-time World Champion Ayrton Senna lost control of his car. He succumbed shortly after impact as a piece of the car had pierced his helmet, in two unrelated incidents, several spectators and mechanics were injured during the event. In the aftermath, the continued to host Grands Prix. The flat-out Tamburello corner was reduced to a 4th gear left-right sweeper, Villeneuve corner, previously an innocuous 6th gear right-hander into Tosa, was made a complementary 4th gear sweeper, with a gravel trap on the outside of the corner
Cassian of Imola
Cassian, or Saint Cassian of Imola, or Cassius was a Christian saint of the 4th century. He was the Bishop of Brescia, little is known about his life, although the traditional accounts converge on some of the details of his martyrdom. He was a schoolmaster at Imola, but rather than sacrifice to the Roman gods, as so ordered by the current emperor, Julian the Apostate, he was condemned to death and turned over to his own students. His traditional date of martyrdom is August 13,363, hence August 13 is his feast day on the Roman calendar, Cassian is the patron saint of Mexico City, Imola and of parish clerks. Comacchio Cathedral is dedicated to him, there are at least two references in modern literature to Cassian. In the novel A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole, annie Dillard makes a reference to him in her 1992 novel The Living. Bethel College had a Cassianus Lounge in the faculty offices area, Saint Cassian is mentioned in Frederick Buecheners novel The Storm. St. Cassian, Martyr A Patron Saint of Teachers San Cassiano di Imola
Girolamo Riario was Lord of Imola and Forlì. He served as Captain General of the Church under his uncle Pope Sixtus IV, having taken part in the 1478 Pazzi Conspiracy against the Medici,10 years he was assassinated by members of the Forlesian Orsi family. Born in Savona, Riario was the son of Paolo Riario and he was a nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, who in 1473 granted him the seignory of Imola, as a dowry for his marriage with Caterina Sforza. In 1471 he was appointed Captain General of the Church, in 1478 he was one of the plotters behind the Pazzi conspiracy, a plan to assassinate the two most prominent members of the Medici family in Florence. In addition to conspiring, he was a beneficiary, once Lorenzo. Riario would have become Lord of Florence, but the plot failed, as only Giuliano was killed. In 1480 the pope made Girolamo Riario Count of Forlì, confiscating the lordship from the Ordelaffi, at Forlì, Riario erected the fortress of Rocca di Ravaldino, one of the strategically most important strongholds of the Romagna.
He rebuilt much of the town of Imola, tearing down old, during his uncles pontificate, Riario mostly resided with his wife in Rome. In 1484 he started a conflict with the Colonna family, whose landed property Sixtus IV wished to take over. In the course of this feud he had the papal protonotary, Lorenzo Colonna and tortured to death, after the death of Pope Sixtus IV, Riario, as commander of the papal forces, returned to Rome with his wife Caterina. She entered the Castel Sant Angelo with troops in order to put pressure on the cardinals to elect a candidate conformable to the Riarios interests. After 10 days of chaos in Rome, Riario concluded with the cardinals that he would withdraw his troops. Caterina first did not follow this scheme, but after two days had to give in to what her husband had negotiated, only the conclave could start, Riario promoted several further plots against the Medici, but they all failed. In 1488 he was the last of the main Pazzi conspirators left alive, on 14 April and Ludovico Orsi entered the government palace, and one of them attacked Riario with a sword.
Despite the presence of the Counts guards, a total of nine assassins slashed Riario to death, eventually flinging his corpse into a local piazza, the assassins proceeded to loot the palace. Although assassinations were not altogether uncommon in Renaissance Florence, they still had repercussions, despite writing to Lorenzo de Medici, who no doubt approved of the result of the assassination, they received no written support by the Medici family. Support, both military and popular, eventually sided with Riarios widow, and the Orsi brothers fled and their remaining assets and family were soon destroyed by angry mobs. In the 2009 video game Assassins Creed II, the Orsi brothers were hired by Caterina Sforza, only to turn on her and attempt to kidnap Ottaviano
House of Sforza
Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. They acquired the Duchy of Milan from the previously ruling Visconti family in the mid-15th century, rising from rural nobility, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force and power politics, under their rule the city-state flourished and expanded. Muzio Attendolo, called Sforza, founded the dynasty, a condottiero from Romagna, he served the Angevin kings of Naples and became the most successful dynast of the condottieri. His son Francesco I Sforza ruled Milan, having acquired the title of Duke of Milan after the extinction of the Visconti family in 1447, the family held the seigniory of Pesaro, starting from Muzio Attendolos second son, Alessandro. The Sforza held Pesaro until 1519, with the death of Galeazzo, muzios third son, founded the branch of Santa Fiora, who held the title of count of Cotignola, the Sforza ruled the small county of Santa Fiora in southern Tuscany until 1624.
Members of this family held important ecclesiastical and political position in the Papal States. The Sforza became allied with the Borgia family through the marriage between Lucrezia Borgia and Giovanni. This alliance failed as the Borgia annulled the marriage once the Sforzas were no longer needed, in 1499, in the course of the Italian Wars, the army of Louis XII of France took Milan from Ludovico Sforza. After Imperial German troops drove out the French, Maximilian Sforza, son of Ludovico, became Duke of Milan until the French returned under Francis I of France, thomas Harriss character Hannibal Lecter is a descendant of the House of Sforza. In the anime and book series Trinity Blood, one of the Cardinals, Caterina Sforza appears as a non-playable character in the video game Assassins Creed 2 and its sequel, Assassins Creed, Brotherhood. The Sforza figure prominently in the Showtime series on the Borgia family, the house is mentioned in a song about the Borgia Family in the British edutainment TV show Horrible Histories.
List of rulers of Milan Gradara House of Visconti Italian Wars Pesaro
Theodosius I, known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD379 to AD395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. He failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them and he fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the empire. He issued decrees that effectively made Orthodox Nicene Christianity the official church of the Roman Empire. He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome, in 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. Theodosius was born in Cauca, Hispania or Italica, Hispania, to a military officer. Theodosius learned his lessons by campaigning with his fathers staff in Britannia where he went to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368.
In about 373, he became governor of Upper Moesia and oversaw hostilities against the Sarmatians and he was military commander of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship between it and his fathers death is unclear and it is possible that he was dismissed from his command by the emperor Valentinian I after the loss of two of Theodosius legions to the Sarmatians in late 374. The death of Valentinian I in 375 created political pandemonium, fearing further persecution on account of his family ties, Theodosius abruptly retired to his family estates in the province of Gallaecia where he adopted the life of a provincial aristocrat. In 378, after the disastrous Battle of Adrianople where Valens was killed, as Valens had no successor, Gratians appointment of Theodosius amounted to a de facto invitation for Theodosius to become co-Augustus of the East Roman Empire.
After Gratian was killed in a rebellion in 383, Theodosius appointed his own son, Arcadius. By his first wife, the probably Spanish Aelia Flaccilla Augusta, he had two sons and Honorius and a daughter, Aelia Pulcheria, Arcadius was his heir in the East, both Aelia Flaccilla and Pulcheria died in 385. His second wife was Galla, daughter of the emperor Valentinian I, Theodosius and Galla had a son Gratian, born in 388 and who died young, and a daughter Aelia Galla Placidia. Placidia was the child who survived to adulthood and became an Empress
Aelia Galla Placidia, daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I, was regent to Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life. She was queen consort to Ataulf, king of the Visigoths from 414 until his death in 415, Placidia was the daughter of Theodosius I and his second wife, who was herself daughter of Valentinian I and his second wife, Justina. Her older brother Gratian died young and her mother died in childbirth in 394, giving birth to John, who died with their mother. Placidia was a younger, paternal half-sister of emperors Arcadius and Honorius and her older half-sister Pulcheria predeceased her parents according to Gregory of Nyssa, placing the death of Pulcheria prior to the death of Aelia Flaccilla, the first wife of Theodosius I, in 385. Placidia was granted her own household by her father in the early 390s and was financially independent while underage. She was summoned to the court of her father in Mediolanum during 394 and she was present at Theodosius death on January 17,395.
She was granted the title of Nobilissima Puella during her childhood, Placidia spent most of her early years in the household of Stilicho the Vandal and his wife, Serena. She is presumed to have learned weaving and embroidery and she might have been given a classical education, though no details are known. Serena was a first cousin of Arcadius and Placidia, the poem In Praise of Serena by Claudian and the Historia Nova by Zosimus clarify that Serenas father was an elder Honorius, a brother to Theodosius I. According to De Consulatu Stilichonis by Claudian, Placidia was betrothed to Eucherius, only son of Stilicho. Her scheduled marriage is mentioned in the text as the union between Stilichos family and the Theodosian dynasty, following those of Stilicho to Serena and Maria, their daughter. Stilicho was the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire and he was the only known person to hold the rank of magister militum in praesenti from 394 to 408 in both the Western and the Eastern Roman Empire.
He was titled magister equitum et peditum, placing him in charge of both the cavalry and infantry forces of the Western Roman Empire, in 408, Arcadius died and was succeeded by his son Theodosius II, only seven years old. Stilicho planned to proceed to Constantinople and undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, shortly after, Olympius, an officer of rank in the court-guards attempted to convince Honorius that Stilicho was in fact conspiring to depose Theodosius II, to replace him with Eucherius. Olympius proceeded to lead a military coup détat which left him in control of Honorius, Stilicho was arrested and executed on August 22,408. Eucherius sought refuge in Rome but was arrested there by Arsacius and Tarentius and they executed him not long after. Honorius appointed Tarentius imperial chamberlain, and gave the next post under him to Arsacius and their deaths left Placidia effectively unattached. In the disturbances that followed the fall of Stilicho, throughout the Italian Peninsula the wives, the foederati were considered loyalists of Stilicho and treated accordingly
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075, the division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of Welf, the names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, the Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperors encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the party, while the Guelphs supported the Pope. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176.
Frederick recognized the autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty. The division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti,1260. Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa, adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by local or regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were even punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, at the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, and his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, Frederick II introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade.
After the death of Frederick II in 1250 the Ghibellines were supported by Conrad IV of Germany and Manfred, King of Sicily, the Sienese Ghibellines inflicted a noteworthy defeat on Florentine Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti. In that period the stronghold of Italian Ghibellines was the city of Forlì and that city remained with the Ghibelline factions, partly as a means of preserving its independence, rather than out of loyalty to the temporal power, as Forlì was nominally in the Papal States. Over the centuries, the papacy tried several times to control of Forlì. Essentially the two sides were now fighting either against German influence, or against the power of the Pope. In Florence and elsewhere the Guelphs usually included merchants and burghers and they adopted peculiar customs such as wearing a feather on a particular side of their hats, or cutting fruit a particular way, according to their affiliation
Death of Ayrton Senna
The previous day, Roland Ratzenberger had died when his car crashed during qualification for the race. His and Sennas accidents were the worst of several accidents that took place that weekend and were the first fatal accidents to occur during a Formula One race meeting in twelve years. They became a point in the safety of Formula One, prompting the implementation of new safety measures. Senna left his longtime team McLaren that he joined in 1988, to join Williams for 1994, replacing Alain Prost, therefore I didnt have a single run or a single lap that I felt comfortable or reasonably confident. I am uncomfortable in the car and we changed the seat and the wheel, but even so I was already asking for more room. Going back to when we raced at Estoril last September, it feels much more difficult, some of that is down to the lack of electronic change. Also, the car has its own characteristics which Im not fully confident in yet and it makes you a lot more tense and that stresses you. The problems continued as the season commenced, Senna had his worst ever start to a Formula One season, failing to finish or score points in the first two races, despite having taken pole in both.
Benettons Michael Schumacher was the leader entering the third race at Imola. On the Friday before the accident, Sennas protegé, Rubens Barrichello, driving for the Jordan team, clipped a curb, Senna got out of his Williams car and went to the Medical Centre. Minutes after the accident, Barrichello regained consciousness and found Senna looking over him, after learning Barrichello had survived, Senna returned to his car and continued his practice session. Following the interviews, Senna continued his work with Brown for another two hours, once he arrived back to his hotel in Castel San Pietro, Senna reportedly telephoned his girlfriend Adriane Galisteu and broke down into tears while recounting Barrichellos accident earlier that day. On Saturday morning, Senna set a personal best time of 1m 22.03 seconds, having been released from the Medical Centre, Barrichello told Senna he was flying back to England to watch the race on television. In the afternoon, the qualifying session began and 18 minutes into the session.
Ratzenbergers car had just earlier become airborne, causing damage to the now partially detached wing, after the impact with a concrete barrier, the car bounced off and rested in the middle of that section of the track. Senna saw the replays of the accident and rushed into the pitlane to get inside a course car, when he arrived, with Ratzenberger taken into an ambulance, Senna inspected the damaged Simtek. He attended the circuits Medical Centre where he learnt from friend, Senna retired to his motor home where he broke down in tears and collapsed onto the floor. This had concerned Williams, who asked Betise Assumpção to arrange a meeting to discuss Sennas emotional state, Senna decided not to attend the post-qualifying press conference, leading the FIA to discuss but decide not to take disciplinary action against him
1994 San Marino Grand Prix
The 1994 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 1 May 1994 at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, located in Imola, Italy. It was the race of the 1994 Formula One season. Fatalities and injuries at this race proved to be a turning point in both the 1994 season, and in the development of Formula One itself, particularly with regard to safety. The race weekend was marked by the deaths of Austrian driver Roland Ratzenberger, other incidents saw driver Rubens Barrichello injured and several mechanics and spectators injured. In terms of fatalities, this was Formula Ones darkest weekend since two drivers were killed at the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix. Michael Schumacher, driving for Benetton, won the race despite contact with Damon Hill, Nicola Larini, driving for Ferrari, scored the first points of his career when he achieved a podium finish in second position. Mika Häkkinen finished third in a McLaren, since the race, numerous regulation changes have been made to slow Formula One cars down and new circuits incorporate large run-off areas to slow cars before they collide with a wall.
Senna was given a funeral in his home town of São Paulo, Brazil. Italian prosecutors charged six people with manslaughter in connection with Sennas death, the case took more than 11 years to conclude due to an appeal and a retrial following the original verdict of not guilty. Behind Schumacher and Barrichello was Damon Hill in third place on six points, bergers teammate Jean Alesi was fifth on four points. In the World Constructors Championship, Benetton were leading on 20 points and Ferrari were second on ten points, there were two driver changes heading into the race. JJ Lehto replaced Jos Verstappen at Benetton, the latter having replaced Lehto for the two races of the season due to an injury sustained by Lehto in pre-season testing. Aguri Suzuki was replaced with Andrea de Cesaris at Jordan, Drivers had two hours, split over two days and Saturday, to register the fastest possible time. The driver who could register the fastest time would start on pole position, giving them a headstart of eight metres over the second-fastest driver, third place would start eight metres behind the second-fastest driver and on the side of the track where the first placed car is.
This practice continues until twenty-sixth place, and the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth placed cars are not allowed to race and he hit the top of the tyre barrier, and was knocked unconscious. His car rolled several times after landing before coming to rest upside down and he returned to the race meeting the next day, although his broken nose and a plaster cast on his arm forced him to sit out the rest of the race weekend. Despite a spin, Senna was the fastest driver at the end of Fridays session with a time of 1,21.548, Sennas teammate Damon Hill was seventh, having spun himself, over 1.6 seconds behind Senna. Although the survival cell remained intact, the force of the impact inflicted a basal skull fracture
Its size is just over 61 km2, with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Dogana, San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe. The country takes its name from Marinus, a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in 257 CE Marinus participated in the reconstruction of Riminis city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. San Marino is governed by the Constitution of San Marino, a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, the country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents still in effect. The countrys economy mainly relies on finance, services and it is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP, with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt. It is the country with more vehicles than people.
Saint Marinus left the island of Arba in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, the official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September 301. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy, the offer was declined by the Regents, fearing future retaliation from other states revanchism. During the phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, in recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen and he wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring. Italy tried to establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic.
Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants, the existence of this hospital caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino. From 1923 to 1943, San Marino was under the rule of the Sammarinese Fascist Party. During World War II, San Marino remained neutral, although it was reported in an article from The New York Times that it had declared war on the United Kingdom on 17 September 1940. The Sammarinese government transmitted a message to the British government stating that they had not declared war on the United Kingdom, Three days after the fall of Benito Mussolini in Italy, PFS rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality in the conflict. The Fascists regained power on 1 April 1944 but kept neutrality intact, despite that, on 26 June 1944 San Marino was bombed by the Royal Air Force, in the belief that San Marino had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition