Quartering in heraldry is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division. Typically, a quartering consists of a division into four equal parts, however, in most traditions there is no limit on the number of divisions allowed, and the records of the College of Arms include a shield of 323 quarterings for the family of Lloyd of Stockton. These 323 quarterings include numerous repeated attributed arms assigned to Welsh chieftains from the 9th century or earlier, another example of a shield of many quarterings is the coat of arms of the Powys-Lybbe family, which contains 64 quarterings. Different rules apply in Scottish heraldry, and may apply in other jurisdictions like Canada. The arms of the Queen of the United Kingdom are arms of dominion, the vast majority of quarterly coats of arms display arms which are claimed by descent, in other words, they join together coats of arms of the ancestors of the bearer of the arms.
Strict rules apply, both as to what arms may be displayed by way of quarterings, and the order in which they may be displayed. An exception is made, however, if the female who breaks the line of descent is a heraldic heiress—a woman who has no brothers. Such a woman is entitled to transmit her fathers arms to her own children, if her father was himself entitled to one or more quarterings, these will pass to his daughters children as quarterings as well. Quarterings are displayed in the order in which they are acquired by a family by marriage, the larger the number of quarterings, the smaller the space available for each coat of arms, so that most families entitled to many quarterings make a selection of those they ordinarily use. The Duke of Norfolk, for example, uses only four quarterings, in Scotland in some cases the plain unquartered coat is the more prized, as entitlement to its use can indicate who is chief of the name and arms and holds the headship of a clan. For example, Flora Fraser, Lady Saltoun of Abernethy has arms as chief of Fraser — the plain coat of azure, the Powys-Lybbe family appear, likewise, to usually use only the quarterings of Powys and Lybbe.
Division of the field Ottfried Neubecker
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm. Shields are used to specific attacks, whether from close-ranged weaponry or projectiles such as arrows, by means of active blocks. Shields vary greatly in size, ranging from large panels that protect the whole body to small models that were intended for hand-to-hand-combat use. In prehistory and during the era of the earliest civilisations, shields were made of wood, animal hide and they were carried by foot soldiers and cavalry. Depending on time and place, shields could be round, square, triangular, sometimes they took on the form of kites or flatirons, or had rounded tops on a rectangular base with perhaps an eye-hole, to look through when used with combat. The shield was held by a grip or by straps that went over or around the users arm. Often shields were decorated with a pattern or an animal representation to show their army or clan. These designs developed into systematized heraldic devices during the High Middle Ages for purposes of battlefield identification, even after the introduction of gunpowder and firearms to the battlefield, shields continued to be used by certain groups.
In the 20th and 21st century, shields have been used by military and police units that specialize in anti-terrorist actions, hostage rescue, riot control and siege-breaking. The modern term usually refers to a device that is held in the hand or attached to the arm, Shields are sometimes mounted on vehicle-mounted weapons to protect the operator. The oldest form of shield was a device designed to block attacks by hand weapons, such as swords and maces, or ranged weapons like sling-stones. Shields have varied greatly in construction time and place. Sometimes shields were made of metal, but wood or animal hide construction was more common, wicker. Many surviving examples of metal shields are generally felt to be rather than practical, for example the Yetholm-type shields of the Bronze Age. Lightly armored warriors relying on speed and surprise would generally carry light shields that were small or thin. Heavy troops might be equipped with robust shields that could cover most of the body, many had a strap called a guige that allowed them to be slung over the users back when not in use or on horseback.
During the 14th–13th century BC, the Sards or Shardana, working as mercenaries for the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, the Mycenaean Greeks used two types of shields, the figure-of-eight shield and a rectangular tower shield. These shields were made primarily from a frame and reinforced with leather
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight.
The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role.
A rough version of the Orders motto appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding day
Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon
Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon, was the granddaughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, and the wife of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon. Her thirteen children included an Archbishop of Canterbury and six knights, unlike most women of her day, she received a classical education and was a lifelong scholar and collector of books. Her paternal grandparents were Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and she was named after her maternal step-grandmother, Margaret of France, the second queen consort of Edward I. Margaret was left an orphan shortly before her eleventh birthday, on 16 March 1322 at the Battle of Boroughbridge, her father was slain in an ambush by the Welsh. Her mother had died six years previously in childbirth, together with her siblings she received a classical education under a Sicilian Greek, Master Diogenes. As a result, Margaret became a scholar and avid book collector. On 11 August 1325, at the age of fourteen, Lady Margaret married Hugh de Courtenay and her dowry included the manor of Powderham near Exeter.
The marriage agreement was made on 28 February 1315, when she was not quite four years old. The first Earl of Devon promised that upon the marriage he would enfeoff his son and Margaret jointly with 400 marks worth of land, assessed at its true value, Margaret assumed the title of Countess of Devon on 23 December 1340. Her eldest brother John de Bohun succeeded as 5th Earl of Hereford in 1326, having married Alice Fitzalan and she had a younger brother William de Bohun, who was created 1st Earl of Northampton in 1337 by King Edward III. He married Elizabeth de Badlesmere, by whom he had two children, margarets elder sister Lady Eleanor de Bohun, married in 1327, her first husband, James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde. They were the ancestors of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Parr and Margaret had thirteen children, most of whom reached adulthood. Their descendants include members of the British royal family and former British Prime Minister, Margaret died on 16 December 1391 at the age of eighty. She is buried in Exeter Cathedral, after the death of Sir Hugh Courtenay, his widow, married successively John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray, and Sir William de Cossington.
Thomas Courtenay, canon of Crediton and Exeter and MP for Devon in 1377, Sir Edward Courtenay, who was born about 1331 at Haccombe and died between 2 February 1368 and 1 April 1371, having predeceased his father. He married Emeline Dawney and heiress of Sir John Dawney of Mudford Terry and had issue, Edward Courtenay, 11th Earl of Devon, who married Maud Camoys. The earldom remained in their descendants until their great-grandson, Thomas Courtenay, 14th Earl of Devon, was beheaded at York on 3 April 1461 after the Battle of Towton, Sir Hugh Courtenay of Haccombe and Bampton, whose grandson was Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon. Sir Philip Courtenay, KG, of Powderham, who married Ann Wake, daughter of Sir Thomas Wake by Alice Patteshull, daughter of Sir John de Patteshull
Swimbridge is a village in the English county of Devon. It is 4 miles south-east of Barnstaple and twinned with the town of St. Honorine Du Fay in Normandy and it was the home of the Rev. John Jack Russell who first bred the Parson Russell Terrier. The name Swimbridge originates from the clergyman Sawin Birige, who founded a chapelry at Swymbridge in Anglo-Saxon times, Birige held lands around the village which were known as Birige. Before the changes to parish boundaries in 2003, at 7,280 acres it was one of the largest in North Devon, the village is noted for its church which has been described as a treasure house due to its fine carvings and memorials. The village was the home of the Rev. John Jack Russell who first bred the Parson Russell Terrier. John Russell died in 1883 and his grave can be found in the graveyard of St. Jamess Church, from 1873 to 1966, Swimbridge had a station on the Devon and Somerset Railway, which became part of the Great Western Railway and which ran from Taunton to Barnstaple.
The alignment of the line through Swimbridge station is now part of the North Devon Link Road. Leather Tanning was a local industry until 1965. Media related to Swimbridge at Wikimedia Commons
Tristram Risdon was an English antiquarian and topographer, and the author of Survey of the County of Devon. He was able to devote most of his life to writing this work, after he completed it in about 1632 it circulated around interested people in several manuscript copies for almost 80 years before it was first published by Curll in a very inferior form. A full version was not published until 1811, Risdon collected information about genealogy and heraldry in a note-book, this was edited and published in 1897. Risdon was born at Winscott, in the parish of St Giles in the Wood, near Great Torrington in Devon and he was the eldest son of William Risdon and his wife Joan. William was the son of Giles Risdon of Bableigh, in the parish of Parkham. Risdon stated that the family originated in Gloucestershire, where during the reign of King Richard I they were lords of the manor of Risdon. After a local education, Tristram Risdon studied either at Broadgates Hall or at Exeter College in Oxford and this was supposedly because of the death of his half-sister, Thomazin Barry, upon which he inherited the family estate at Winscott, which required his personal attention.
He married Pascoe Chafe, the daughter of Thomas Chafe of Exeter, on 2 December 1608 and they had four sons and three daughters. From about 1605 to the 1630s he devoted his time to the study of antiquities, especially those of Devon, and he died at Winscott in 1640 and was interred in St Giless church, his mother is commemorated by a monumental brass in the same church. According to John Prince, who had used the Survey as a source for his Worthies of Devon, Risdon started work on the Survey in 1605, internal evidence shows, that it was not completed until 1632 at the earliest. Risdon was one of a number of authors who wrote about the topography of Devon between the 17th and early 19th centuries. Risdon did, make additions and improvements of his own. Lastly, to notice of such remarkable things as the north parts afford. In its turn, Risdons Survey has been used as a source for topographies, after the completion of the Survey, many copies of the manuscript entered into public circulation, none of them exactly agreeing with the others, each having something redundant or deficient.
Ten copies of the manuscript are known to survive, details of which are published in Maxted, the Survey was first published in 1714 by Edmund Curll, the infamous London bookseller, who extracted the parts he thought would best suit his purpose, and printed them. Curll did this in the year, but it remained a very imperfect version. In 1785 William Chapple published the first part of his Review of Risdons Survey of Devon and it contained the general description of the county, but Chapple died before he could complete the work. The first complete edition of the Survey appeared in 1811 and included additions by uncredited editors
Exeter Cathedral, properly known as the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter at Exeter, is an Anglican cathedral, and the seat of the Bishop of Exeter, in the city of Exeter, Devon, in South West England. The founding of the cathedral at Exeter, dedicated to Saint Peter, dates from 1050, a Saxon minster already existing within the town was used by Leofric as his seat, but services were often held out of doors, close to the site of the present cathedral building. In 1107 William Warelwast, a nephew of William the Conqueror, was appointed to the see, and its official foundation was in 1133, during Warelwasts time, but it took many more years to complete. However, much of the Norman building was kept, including the two square towers and part of the walls. It was constructed entirely of stone, including Purbeck Marble. The new cathedral was complete by about 1400, apart from the addition of the chapter house, like most English cathedrals, Exeter suffered during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, but not as much as it would have done had it been a monastic foundation.
Further damage was done during the English Civil War, when the cloisters were destroyed, following the restoration of Charles II, a new pipe organ was built in the cathedral by John Loosemore. Charles IIs sister Henrietta Anne of England was baptised here in 1644, during the Victorian era, some refurbishment was carried out by George Gilbert Scott. As a boy, the composer Matthew Locke was trained in the choir of Exeter Cathedral, under Edward Gibbons and his name can be found scribed into the stone organ screen. During the Second World War, Exeter was one of the targets of a German air offensive against British cities of cultural and historical importance, on 4 May 1942 an early-morning air raid took place over Exeter. The cathedral sustained a hit by a large high-explosive bomb on the chapel of St James. The muniment room above, three bays of the aisle and two flying buttresses were destroyed in the blast, the medieval wooden screen opposite the chapel was smashed into many pieces by the blast, but it has been reconstructed and restored.
The precious effigy of Walter Branscombe had been protected by sand bags, notable features of the interior include the misericords, the minstrels gallery, the astronomical clock and the organ. Notable architectural features of the include the multi-ribbed ceiling and the compound piers in the nave arcade. The 18 metres high bishops throne in the choir was made from Devon oak between 1312 and 1316, the choir stalls were made by George Gilbert Scott in the 1870s. The Great East Window contains much 14th-century glass, and there are over 400 ceiling bosses, the bosses can be seen at the peak of the vaulted ceiling, joining the ribs together. Because there is no tower, Exeter Cathedral has the longest uninterrupted medieval vaulted ceiling in the world. The fifty misericords are the earliest complete set in the United Kingdom and they date from two periods, 1220–1230 and 1250–1260
In heraldry, a label is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse’s chest from which pendants are hung. It is usually a mark of difference, but has sometimes been borne simply as a charge in its own right, the pendants were originally drawn in a rectangular shape, but in years have often been drawn as dovetails. The label is almost always placed in the chief, in most cases the horizontal band extends right across the shield, but there are several examples in which the band is truncated. In European heraldry in general, the label was used to mark the elder son, differences, or marks of cadency, are the distinctions used to indicate the junior branches of a family. On the death of his father, the eldest son would remove the label from his coat of arms, according to some sources, the elder son of an elder son places a label upon a label. The label appears as a charge in the coats of arms of families and municipalities, often having begun as a mark of difference. It has used in canting arms.
The number of pendants varies from three to seven, there are several examples of the pendants bearing charges, especially in the coats of arms of the British Royal Family. A C Fox-Davies A Complete Guide to Heraldry, Thomas Nelson and Sons, London 1969
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, debts and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance differ between societies and have changed over time, a person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. There is a concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one. In modern law, the inheritance and heir refer exclusively to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Some ancient societies and most modern states employ egalitarian inheritance, without discrimination based on gender and/or birth order, the Quran presented efforts to fix the laws of inheritance, and thus forming a complete legal system. This development was in contrast to societies where rules of inheritance varied considerably. Furthermore, the Quran introduced additional heirs that were not entitled inheritance in pre-Islamic times, mentioning nine relatives specifically of which six were female, in addition to the above changes, the Quran imposed restrictions on testamentary powers of a Muslim in disposing his or her property.
In their will, a Muslim can only give out a maximum of one third of their property, the Quran contains only three verses that give specific details of inheritance and shares, in addition to few other verses dealing with testamentary. But this information was used as a point by Muslim jurists who expounded the laws of inheritance even further using Hadith. Nowadays, inheritance is considered a part of Sharia law and its application for Muslims is mandatory, though many peoples. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, if there were no living sons and no descendants of any previously living sons, daughters could inherit. In Numbers 27, 1-4, the daughters of Zelophehad of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and ask for their fathers inheritance, as they have no brothers. The order of inheritance is set out in Numbers 27, 7-11, a mans sons inherit first, daughters if no sons, brothers if he has no children, and so on. So a further rule is laid down, if a daughter inherits land, the tractate Baba Bathra, written during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law.
The first, often abbreviated to Mishneh Torah, was written by Maimonides and was important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the son is entitled to a double portion of his fathers estate. This means that, for example, if a father left five sons, if he left nine sons, the firstborn receives a fifth and each of the other eight receive a tenth. If the eldest surviving son is not the son, he is not entitled to the double portion
Dexter and sinister
Dexter and sinister are terms used in heraldry to refer to specific locations in an escutcheon bearing a coat of arms, and to the other elements of an achievement. Dexter means to the right from the viewpoint of the bearer of the shield, i. e. the bearers proper right, sinister means to the left from the viewpoint of the bearer, the bearers proper left, to the right from that of the viewer. The dexter side is considered the side of honour, for example when impaling two arms. Thus, by tradition, a husbands arms occupy the dexter half of his shield, the shield of a bishop shows the arms of his see in the dexter half, his personal arms in the sinister half. King Richard II adopted arms showing the arms of Edward the Confessor in the dexter half. More generally, by ancient tradition, the guest of greatest honour at a banquet sits at the hand of the host. The Bible is replete with passages referring to being at the hand of God. Sinister is used to mark that an ordinary or other charge is turned to the left of the shield. A bend sinister is a bend which runs from the top left to bottom right.
As the shield would have carried with the design facing outwards from the bearer. This division is key to dimidiation, a method of joining two coats of arms by placing the dexter half of one coat of arms alongside the sinister half of the other. In the case of marriage, the half of the husbands arms would be placed alongside the sinister half of the wifes. The Great Seal of the United States features an eagle clutching an olive branch in its talon and arrows in its sinister talon. The front of the shield was originally undecorated. Such usage may indeed have descended directly from Roman training techniques that were spread throughout Roman Europe and continued during the age of chivalry, when heraldry came into use
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished. The term claimant is sometimes preferred, but the term pretend in itself is not pejorative in this context, the original meaning of the English word pretend comes from the French word prétendre, and originally meant to put forward, to profess or claim. A pretender was, simply one who put forward or professed a claim to a title or, in modern terms, only did the word acquire its modern sense of professing or claiming falsely. The term pretender applies to claimants with arguably genuine rights and it can be used for those possessing an arguable right to a position who do not actively claim it, as well as impostors with wholly fabricated claims. People in the category often assume the identities of deceased or missing royalty to support their claim. A Papal pretender is called an Antipope, ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the offices making up the title of Roman Emperor, especially during the crisis of the Third Century.
The Loeb translation of the chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by Thirty Pretenders to avoid this artificial. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders, several were successful in becoming Emperor at least in part of the Empire for a brief period. Disputed successions to the Roman Empire long continued at Constantinople, at times, some of these states and titles were subjected to multiple claims. Following the defeat and death of King James III King of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugène Matteo de Lusignan, styled dArménie removed to Sicily, to Malta. He was acknowledged as heir to the thrones of Cyprus, Jerusalem. The title of Barone de Baccari was created in 1508 for Jacques Matteo dArmenia with the remainder to his descendants in perpetuity, the claimant to the throne of the last Greek kingdom is Constantine II, who reigned as king from 1964 to 1973. He belongs to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
His designated heir is his son Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, the establishment of the First Republic and the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 led to the kings son becoming pretender to the abolished throne, styled as Louis XVII. As Louis XVII was a child and imprisoned in Paris by the revolutionaries, his uncle, after Louis XVII died in 1795, the Comte de Provence became pretender himself, as Louis XVIII. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne in 1814, and was succeeded by his brother Charles X in 1824, Charles X was, forced into exile by the July Revolution. For most of the July Monarchy, the legitimists, as supporters of the senior line came to be known, were uncertain of whom to support. On his uncles death, Bordeaux proclaimed himself king as Henry V, but remains known to history by his title of pretense, the Count of Chambord