Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. Impeachment does not in itself remove the official definitively from office. Whereas in some countries the individual is provisionally removed, in others they can remain in office during the trial. Once impeached, an individual must face the possibility of conviction on the charges by a legislative vote, a judgment which convicts the official on the articles of impeachment entails the official's definitive removal from office; because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office and because it requires a supermajority, they are reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many countries around the world, including Brazil, India, the Philippines, South Korea, the United States.

The word "impeachment" derives from Old French empeechier from Latin word impedīre expressing the idea of catching or ensnaring by the'foot', has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher and the modern English impede. Medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere; some contend that the word comes from the Latin impicare, the punishment that in Latin antiquity they gave to parricides, consisting in throwing them into the sea confined in a culleus, namely a sac made of esparto or hide and covered with pitch or bitumen on the outside, so that the water delayed in entering. The process was first used by the English "Good Parliament" against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. Following the British example, the constitutions of Virginia and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office; the Austrian Federal president can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court.

The constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has been taken; this is because while Austrian presidents are vested with considerable powers on paper, they act as a ceremonial figurehead in practice, are thus unlikely to abuse their powers. The president of the Federative Republic of Brazil may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies and tried and removed from office by the Federal Senate; the Brazilian Constitution requires that two-thirds of the Deputies vote in favor of the impeachment of the President and two-thirds of the Senators vote for conviction in the subsequent trial for removal from office. State governors and municipal mayors can be impeached and removed by the respective legislative bodies. Upon conviction, the officeholder has their political rights revoked for eight years—which bars them from running for any office during that time. Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings.

Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. In 2016, the Chamber of Deputies initiated an impeachment case against President Dilma Rousseff on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. Following her impeachment by the Chamber of Deputies and her conviction by trial in the Senate, she was definitively replaced by Vice President Michel Temer, who had served as acting president while Rousseff's case was pending in the Senate; the president of Bulgaria can be removed only for violation of the constitution. The process is started by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parliament to impeach the president, whereupon the Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty of the crime of which he is charged. If he is found guilty, he is removed from power. No Bulgarian President has been impeached; the same procedure can be used to remove the vice president of Bulgaria, which has never happened.

The process of impeaching the president of Croatia can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the Sabor and is thereafter referred to the Constitutional Court, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has never occurred in the history of the Republic of Croatia. In case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the speaker of the Croatian Parliament in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic. In 2013, the constitution was changed. Since 2013, the process can be started by at least three-fifths of present senators, must be approved by at least three-fifths of all members of Parliament; the President


Heiligerlee is a village in the Dutch province of Groningen bordering the town of Winschoten, it is part of the municipality of Oldambt. It was the site of the 1536 Battle and the 1568 Battle of Heiligerlee From the year 1230 till the year 1594 a Norbertine nunnery stood in the village, the name of, used as the name of the village Christian primary school; the 1536 Battle of Heiligerlee was part of the Guelders Wars. The Danish allies of Guelders were defeated by Habsburg forces; the 1568 Battle of Heiligerlee was the first battle. The army led by Louis and Adolf of Nassau defeated the Spanish. Adolf died during the fight, it was the first battle of importance fought in the Eighty Years' War, therefore marked as its beginning. On the 300th anniversary of the battle in 1868 the ruling king William III of the Netherlands revealed a monument in commemoration of the battle. From 1908 to 1934, the Heiligerlee railway stop on the Harlingen-Nieuweschans railway was located in the village. Tjapko van Bergen, rower Media related to Heiligerlee at Wikimedia Commons

The Testaments of One Fold and One Shepherd

The Testaments of One Fold and One Shepherd is a 67-minute film produced by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Testaments depicts the life of Jesus in Jerusalem while depicting the events described in the Book of Mormon from the same time period; the film's climax occurs after Christ's resurrection. The movie was shown in the Legacy Theater of the Joseph Smith Memorial Building on a 62x31 foot screen and was shot with 65 mm film, it replaced Legacy: A Mormon Journey as the flagship JSMB feature in March 2000. The Testaments of One Fold and One Shepherd was replaced in the theater by Joseph Smith: The Prophet of the Restoration, a film commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Joseph Smith. In ancient America, Helam witnesses the star heralding the birth of Christ, 33 years he faithfully awaits the promised coming of the Messiah despite persecution for this belief. Helam's son, Jacob, is interested more in the ways of the world, including the lovely Laneah, when his abilities as an artisan bring an offer to work for the wealthy and powerful Kohor, he jumps at the chance and is estranged from his father's house.

Kohor is plotting to become the absolute ruler. In contrast, Amaron, a holy man, preaches to people of Christ, whose ministry and miracles are concurrently taking place across the seas in The Holy Land; as Jacob becomes more immersed in the secular life of Kohor's house, Laneah becomes more interested in the humble faith he is forsaking. Her conversion to Christ, the death of Amaron at the hand of Kohor's men, brings Jacob to his senses, but he knows of Kohor's plans and is imprisoned when he refuses to join the conspiracy. In Jerusalem, Jesus is crucified and the far away city of Zarahemla is plunged into darkness and destruction as Helam pushes through the crowds and ruins to help his son. All seems hopeless when he thinks that he will not see the Messiah. However, the Messiah restores his sight. "The Testaments of One Fold and One Shepherd". Mormon Literature & Creative Arts Database; the Testaments: Of One Fold and One Shepherd on IMDb