Personal public transport is a network of vehicles distributed throughout an area and available to the general public in such a way that each user has the ability to determine the route and schedule on a self-service basis. The design of a PPT system encourages utility over revenue. While most public transport systems operate on specific routes with set timetables, PPT systems utilize a network of vehicles at various locations for users when they desire them, allowing those users to take any route that serves their needs and to return the vehicle to any designated point within the coverage area; the user operates or directs, in an auto-drive vehicle, the vehicle to the destination versus this being done by a driver or conductor in traditional public transport options. Similar to traditional public transport options, the system is managed by a transit authority or private transport operator but the pricing model encourages users to return the vehicle quickly. Maximizing vehicle utility over revenue means operators seek revenue from other sources such as advertising and system sponsorship.
Personal public transport was conceptualized to explain the unique difference in service provided over traditional public transport options such as bus, rail and rapid transit as well as paratransit and personal rapid transport. Instead of utilizing routes, in the way that traditional public transport does, a PPT system operates within a defined area, termed the coverage area. Vehicles can be found or left anywhere the law allows within that area or at specific locations within the coverage area. Examples of specific locations can be public or private demarcated areas shared with other vehicles or specific station locations; the vehicle is designed to cater to a small party's transport needs. The vehicles are intended for a single trip on public thoroughfares either shared by other modes or segregated; the user is responsible for adhering to all laws and regulations while using the vehicle and enforcement is done through existing public law enforcement mechanisms such as licensing and ticketing.
While a PPT is a general public transport service, it requires users to be registered with the system or to pay a deposit to ensure the return of the vehicle in good working condition. The tipping point of successful PPT systems has been the application of information technology systems enabling user identification and vehicle tracking in a system; this is aided by Radio Frequency Identification Devices and real-time information flow using wireless internet. GPS tracking devices are common in vehicles to guard against theft. PPT is financed through a variety of mechanisms similar to other public transportation projects. Capital costs are covered through government subsidy and there are multiple revenue streams which strive to cover operating costs. Revenue streams vary depending on the system and attributes and laws of the area it is implemented. Many times government subsidies are needed to meet the operating costs; the pricing model of PPT encourages multiple uses over revenue. This pricing model prioritizes utility at the expense of revenue and is a key differentiating factor between PPT and private vehicle hire and some other modes of public transport.
Many bicycle sharing programs globally are examples of PPT. Large citywide bicycle sharing programs such as Velib, Capital Bikeshare, BIXI Montréal all have attributes of PPT. Bicycle rental enterprises are not PPTs because the bicycles have to be used and returned to a single location and the pricing model encourages users to keep the bicycles out for greater lengths of time; some car sharing systems are examples of PPT
Pamela Isaacs is an American singer and actress. In 1987 Isaacs appeared in Conrack, a musical based on Pat Conroy's novel The Water is Wide, at AMAS Repertory Theater; the show is set in 1969 and recounts the adventures of Pat Conroy, a young white teacher who teaches black children on the remote South Carolina island of Yamacraw. Isaacs played Dr. Jackie Brooks, a black representative of the Department of Health and Welfare who becomes romantically involved with Conroy. Stephen Holden, reviewing the show for The New York Times, said that Isaacs "brings a fine psychological precison to the role of Dr. Jackie Brooks."In 1988 Isaacs replaced LaTonya Sue Welch as Effie in Michael Bennett's production of Dreamgirls at An Evening Dinner Theater in Elmsford, New York. Alvin Klein of the New York Times said that "Isaacs is so fine as that replacement that one feels a strange sense of confused priorities."In 1989 Isaacs played the title role of Kay Jones, a music-hall performer who wears several disguises, in the Goodspeed Opera House revival of the Gershwins' Oh, Kay!.
The setting in the revival was moved from Long Island to Harlem and the production was given an all-black cast. Stephen Holden said in his review in the New York Times that "Pamela Isaacs has only to raise an eyebrow to strike sparks, her brassy comic charisma recalls Patti LuPone as Reno Sweeney in the Lincoln Center Theater production of Anything Goes."In 1993 Isaacs performed a one-woman show at Center Stage in Baltimore, appearing as Billie Holiday in Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill. J. Wynn Rousuck called Isaacs a "spellbinding performer" in the production and added "It's not that she attempts to impersonate; that would be futile. Instead, Isaacs acts like Billie Holiday and sings like, Isaacs, a thrill to hear." Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill was such a hit. In 1995 Isaacs returned to Baltimore's Center Stage to play the leading role in a production of Kurt Weill's Happy End as Salvation Army worker Lilian Holiday. While in Baltimore for the Center Stage productions, Isaacs appeared in one episode of Homicide: Life on the Street.
In 1997 Isaacs played Queen, a principled sex worker who wants a real home and a marriage, in the musical The Life. The New York Times said that "Isaacs's voice has the suppleness of Lena Horne's and a purity, never sabotaged by its range. It's an instrument to cause goose bumps of pleasure, she rivets attention from her first appearance until the ambitious finale. As sung by Ms. Isaacs, Queen has backbone that only a good score can express with such immediacy." Isaacs was nominated for the 1997 Tony and Drama Desk Award as Best Actress in a Musical for The Life. Ben Brantley praised Isaac's performance when the play opened in 1997. "Most of the ballads go to Ms. Isaacs, who has a husky, vibrato-shaded voice, somewhere between Tina Turner and Helen Morgan, which resonates affectingly with pain and longing," said Brantley. "She delivers everything with commanding sincerity and polish." The Life played for 466 performances on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre. In 1999 Isaacs played a plastic-molding machine worker in the revival of Working, based on Studs Terkel's identically titled book.
In 2001 Isaacs portrayed a Starbucks counter girl. Isaacs sings "No Hurry at All," "a bluesy solo powerfully sung and amusingly acted" said Bruce Weber in the New York Times. In 2001, Isaacs won an Obie Award for her performance as the Starbucks barista in the off-Broadway play. In 2003 Isaacs won raves for her performance of Muzzie Van Hossmere, a madcap Manhattan cabaret singer and heiress with a zest for the high life and a glamorous penthouse, in the national tour of the Broadway musical Thoroughly Modern Millie. Donna Bailey-Thompson said of Isaac's performance at the Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts in Hartford, Connecticut that "Pamela Isaacs stops the show when she wraps her powerful, throaty voice around an okay sound and transforms it into a throbbing paean to New York." D. Aviva Rothschild wrote of her performance: "Pamela Isaacs as Muzzy proved right from the get-go why she'd been a Tony nominee for The Life. Damn, her voice was thrilling!" Les Spindle wrote that "As bon-vivant millionaire Muzzy van Hossmere – a role created for Carol Channing – the vivacious Pamela Isaacs pulls off a tour-de-force triumph, bolstered by her lively new songs."Isaacs has performed in Regional Theatre at Long Wharf Theatre, Baltimore Center Stage, Yale Repertory Theatre, Goodspeed Opera House.
Isaacs appeared as Dr. Josie Conklin on the daytime soap One Life to Live and has made guest appearances on series including Homicide: Life on the Street and Third Watch. Isaacs appeared as Mrs. Egan in the 2002 film Swimfan. Lady Day at Emersons Bar & Grill Isaacs was nominated for the 1997 Tony and Drama Desk Award as Best Actress in a Musical for The Life. In 2001, Isaacs won an Obie Award for her performance as the Starbucks barista in the off-Broadway play Newyorkers. Pamela Isaacs on IMDb Pamela Isaacs at the Internet Broadway Database Pamela Isaacs at Internet Off-Broadway Database 2000–01 Obie Award winners
Wisłok Wielki is a village in the Bukowsko Upland mountains. Since 1999 it is situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship of south-eastern Poland, it was officially divided into two parts: Wisłok Górny and Wisłok Dolny. The name "Wisłok Wielki" means "great Wisłok". Wisłok Wielki was first mentioned, according to historical accounts, in 1361. In 1785 the village lands comprised 6.14 km2. At the time, there were 711 Eastern-rite Catholics; the historical record relates that in 1361 the brothers Peter and Paul, "from Hungary," as feudal landholders, "owned" Wisłok Wielki, along with Bukowsko and several other area villages. Located in the Ruthenian voivodehship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish Kingdom and Austria-Hungary Empire, the village and remote, remained impervious to change. During World War I, the region would be at the epicentre of the conflict between the Austro-Hungarian and the Russian empires, with several small battles conducted in the vicinity of the Wisłok Wielki. At the conclusion of the global conflict and with the collapse of Austria-Hungary, Lemkos founded two short-lived republics, the Lemko-Rusyn Republic in the west of Galicia, which had a Russophile orientation, the Komancza Republic, with an Ukrainophilic orientation lasting from 2 November 1918 to 23 January 1919.
Wisłok Wielki remained an isolated village, bounded on all sides by smaller homogeneous, RUS villages. Poles were outnumbered only by Jews at the market centre of Bukowsko); the convention followed was the same - both partners adhered to the language and religion of the community in which they resided, their children were raised accordingly. During the 1930s, although there were tensions over issues of language and official assimilation, communal relations at the local level between Lemkos and Poles in the Sanok County were favorable. In 1939, Wisłok Wielki was occupied by German forces. Men, women, as well as children were taken to Austria for purposes of forced labour. Polish gendarmes were replaced by a Ukrainian auxiliary police staff. Throughout the war the Germans were astute in exploiting the accumulated grievances and aspirations of the nationally conscious Ukrainians. During this period of immense upheaval and change, the local inhabitants were introduced to Ukrainian awareness. Subject to vicissitudes of war, the local Lemko population would be decimated.
The violence, did not end in 1945. Part of the post-war Polish-Soviet resettlement campaign, Wisłok Wielki was destroyed 1946-1947 and the indigenous Lemko population cleansed in the joint Polish-Soviet effort "exchange of populations" agreement; this was ethnic cleansing of all Ukrainians from Poland. A majority of the inhabitants were deported to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Others who remained were subsequently deported to counties along Poland's Baltic coast in the newly acquired former German territories in northwestern Poland, during the so-called Akcja Wisła organized by Polish communist authorities. During the mid-1950s, large investments in the State Farms were made in Wisłok Wielki. Major improvements in local communications and infrastructure were undertaken; the Byzantine-styled village church in Lower Wisłok Wielki built in 1785, was destroyed in 1946, although the remnants of a cemetery are still visible. The ecclesiastical structure in Upper Wisłok Wielki, on the other hand, has survived.
The municipality lies at an altitude of 482 m and covers an area of 6.3 km2. It has a population of about 250 people. European walking route E8 Prof. Adam Fastnacht. Slownik Historyczno-Geograficzny Ziemi Sanockiej w Średniowieczu, Kraków, 2002, ISBN 83-88385-14-3. C. M. Hann. A Village Without Solidarity: Polish Peasantry in Years of Crisis. 1985. The latin church parish of Saint Onuphrius in Wisłok Wielki
Wa is the oldest recorded name of Japan. The Chinese as well as Korean and Japanese scribes wrote it in reference to Yamato with the Chinese character 倭 "submissive, dwarf", until the 8th century, when the Japanese replaced it with 和 "harmony, balance"; the earliest textual references to Japan are in Chinese classic texts. Within the official Chinese dynastic Twenty-Four Histories, Japan is mentioned among the so-called Dongyi 東夷 "Eastern Barbarians"; the historian Wang Zhenping summarizes Wo contacts with the Han State. When chieftains of various Wo tribes contacted authorities at Lelang, a Chinese commandery established in northern Korea in 108 B. C. by the Western Han court, they sought to benefit themselves by initiating contact. In A. D. 57, the first Wo ambassador arrived at the capital of the Eastern Han court. Wo diplomats, never called on China on a regular basis. A chronology of Japan-China relations from the first to the ninth centuries reveals this irregularity in the visits of Japanese ambassadors to China.
There were periods of frequent contacts as well as of lengthy intervals between contacts. This irregularity indicated that, in its diplomacy with China, Japan set its own agenda and acted on self-interest to satisfy its own needs. No Wo ambassador, for example, came to China during the second century; this interval continued well past the third century. Within nine years, the female Wo ruler Himiko sent four ambassadors to the Wei court in 238, 243, 245, 247 respectively. After the death of Himiko, diplomatic contacts with China slowed. Iyoo, the female successor to Himiko, contacted the Wei court only once; the fourth century was another quiet period in China-Wo relations except for the Wo delegation dispatched to the Western Jin court in 306. With the arrival of a Wo ambassador at the Eastern Jin court in 413, a new age of frequent diplomatic contacts with China began. Over the next sixty years, ten Wo ambassadors called on the Southern Song court, a Wo delegation visited the Southern Qi court in 479.
The sixth century, saw only one Wo ambassador pay respect to the Southern Liang court in 502. When these ambassadors arrived in China, they acquired official titles, bronze mirrors, military banners, which their masters could use to bolster their claims to political supremacy, to build a military system, to exert influence on southern Korea; the earliest record of Wō 倭 "Japan" occurs in the Shan Hai Jing 山海經 "Classic of Mountains and Seas". The textual dating of this collection of geographic and mythological legends is uncertain, but estimates range from 300 BCE to 250 CE; the Haineibei jing 海內北經 "Classic of Regions within the North Seas" chapter includes Wō 倭 "Japan" among foreign places both real, such as Korea, legendary. Kai Land is north of Wo. Wo belongs to Yen. Ch’ao-hsien is east of Lieh Yang, south of Hai Pei Mountain. Lieh Yang belongs to Yen. Nakagawa notes that Zhuyan 鉅燕 refers to the kingdom of Yan, that Wo maintained a "possible tributary relationship" with Yan. Wang Chong's ca. 70-80 CE Lunheng 論衡 "Discourses weighed in the balance" is a compendium of essays on subjects including philosophy and natural sciences.
The Rŭzēng 儒増 "Exaggerations of the Literati" chapter mentions Wōrén 倭人 "Japanese people" and Yuèshāng 越裳 "an old name for Champa" presenting tributes during the Zhou Dynasty. In disputing legends that ancient Zhou bronze ding tripods had magic powers to ward off evil spirits, Wang says. During the Chou time there was universal peace; the Yuèshāng offered white pheasants to the Japanese odoriferous plants. Since by eating these white pheasants or odoriferous plants one cannot keep free from evil influences, why should vessels like bronze tripods have such a power? Another Lunheng chapter Huiguo 恢國 "Restoring the nation" records that Emperor Cheng of Han was presented tributes of Vietnamese pheasants and Japanese herbs; the ca. 82 CE Han Shu 漢書 "Book of Han"' covers the Former Han Dynasty period. Near the conclusion of the Yan entry in the Dilizhi 地理志 "Treatise on geography" section, it records that Wo encompassed over 100 guó 國 "communities, countries". Beyond Lo-lang in the sea, there are the people of Wo.
They comprise more than one hundred communities. It is reported that they have maintained intercourse with China through envoys. Emperor Wu of Han established this Korean Lelang Commandery in 108 BCE. Historian Endymion Wilkinson says Wo 倭 "dwarf" was used in the Hanshu, "probably to refer to the inhabitants of Kyushu and the Korean peninsula. Thereafter to the inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago." The ca. 297 CE Wei Zhi 魏志 "Records of Wei", comprising the first of the San Guo Zhi 三國志 "Records of the Three Kingdoms", covers history of the Cao Wei kingdom. The 東夷伝 "Encounters with Eastern Barbarians" section describes the Wōrén 倭人 "Japanese" based upon detailed reports from Chinese envoys to Japan, it contains the first records of Yamatai-koku, shamaness Queen Himiko, other Japanese historical topics. The people of Wa dwell in the middle of the ocean on the mountainous islands southeast of of Tai-fang, they comprised more than one hundred communities. During the Han dynasty, appeared at th
The Sarles–Crystal City Border Crossing connects the towns of Sarles, North Dakota and Crystal City, Manitoba on the Canada–US border. It is connected by North Dakota Highway 20 on the American side and Manitoba Highway 34 on the Canadian side; the Canada border station at Crystal City was built in 1955. In 1961, the US built the Sarles border station in the median of the roadway. In 2012, this facility was replaced with a large modern border station. In 2014, the Sarles Port of Entry processed 3 trucks per day. List of Canada–United States border crossings