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Imperial Chemical Industries

Imperial Chemical Industries was a British chemical company. It was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain, it was formed by the merger of four leading British chemical companies in 1926. Its headquarters were at Millbank in London. ICI was a constituent of the FT 30 and the FTSE 100 indices. ICI made paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials and flavourings. In 2008, it was acquired by AkzoNobel, which sold parts of ICI to Henkel, integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation; the company was founded in December 1926 from the merger of four companies: Brunner Mond, Nobel Explosives, the United Alkali Company, British Dyestuffs Corporation. It established its head office at Millbank in London in 1928. Competing with DuPont and IG Farben, the new company produced chemicals, fertilisers, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, paints. In its first year turnover was £27 million. In the 1920s and 30s, the company played a key role in the development of new chemical products, including the dyestuff phthalocyanine, the acrylic plastic Perspex, Dulux paints and polyethylene terephthalate fibre known as Terylene.

In 1940, ICI started British Nylon Spinners as a joint venture with Courtaulds. ICI owned the Sunbeam motorcycle business, which had come with Nobel Industries, continued to build motorcycles until 1937. During the Second World War, ICI was involved with the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons programme codenamed Tube Alloys. In the 1940s and 50s, the company established its pharmaceutical business and developed a number of key products, including Paludrine, Inderal, PEEK. ICI formed ICI Pharmaceuticals in 1957. ICI developed a fabric in the 1950s known as Crimplene, a thick polyester yarn used to make a fabric of the same name; the resulting cloth is heavy and wrinkle-resistant, retains its shape well. The California-based fashion designer Edith Flagg was the first to import this fabric from Britain to the USA. During the first two years, ICI gave Flagg a large advertising budget to popularise the fabric across America. In 1960, Paul Chambers became the first chairman appointed from outside the company.

Chambers employed the consultancy firm McKinsey to help with reorganising the company. His eight-year tenure saw export sales double, but his reputation was damaged by a failed takeover bid for Courtaulds in 1961–62. In 1962, ICI developed the controversial herbicide, paraquat. ICI was confronted with the nationalisation of its operations in Burma on 1 August 1962 as a consequence of the military coup. In 1964, ICI acquired British Nylon Spinners, the company it had jointly set up in 1940 with Courtaulds. ICI surrendered its 37.5 per cent holding in Courtaulds and paid Courtaulds £2 million a year for five years, "to take account of the future development expenditure of Courtaulds in the nylon field." In return, Courtaulds transferred to ICI their 50 per cent holding in BNS. BNS was absorbed into ICI Fibres; the acquisition included BNS production plants in Pontypool and Doncaster, together with research and development in Pontypool. Early pesticide development included Gramoxone, the insecticides pirimiphos-methyl in 1967 and pirimicarb in 1970, brodifacoum was developed in 1974.

Peter Allen was appointed chairman between 1968 and 1971. He presided over the purchase of Viyella. Profits shrank under his tenure. During his tenure, ICI created the wholly owned subsidiary Cleveland Potash Ltd, for the construction of Boulby Mine in Redcar and Cleveland, North Yorkshire; the first shaft was dug in 1968, with full production from 1976. ICI jointly owned the mine with Anglo American, with De Beers, before complete ownership was transferred to Israel Chemicals Ltd in 2002. Jack Callard was appointed chairman from 1971 to 1975, he doubled company profits between 1972 and 1974, made ICI Britain's largest exporter. In 1971, the company acquired Atlas Chemical Industries Inc. a major American competitor. In 1977, Imperial Metal Industries was divested as an independent quoted company. From 1982 to 1987, the company was led by the charismatic John Harvey-Jones. Under his leadership, the company acquired the Beatrice Chemical Division in 1985 and Glidden Coatings & Resins, a leading paints business, in 1986.

In 1991, ICI sold the agricultural and merchandising operations of BritAg and Scottish Agricultural Industries to Norsk Hydro, fought off a hostile takeover bid from Hanson, who had acquired 2.8 percent of the company. It divested its soda ash products arm to Brunner Mond, ending an association with the trade that had existed since the company's inception, one, inherited from the original Brunner, Mond & Co. Ltd. In 1992, the company sold its nylon business to DuPont. In 1993, the company de-merged its pharmaceutical bio-science businesses: pharmaceuticals, specialities and biological products were all transferred into a new and independent company called Zeneca. Zeneca subsequently merged with Astra AB to form AstraZeneca. Charles Miller Smith was appointed CEO in 1994, one of the few times that someone from outside ICI had been appointed to lead the company, Smith having been a director at Unilever. Shortly afterwards, the company acquired a number of fo


WNT4 is a secreted protein that in humans is encoded by the Wnt4 gene, found on chromosome 1. It represses male sex development. Loss of function can have serious consequences, such as female to male sex reversal; the WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and embryogenesis. WNT4 is involved in a couple features of pregnancy as a downstream target of BMP2. For example, it regulates endometrial stromal cell proliferation and differentiation; these processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. Ablation in female mice results with defects in implantation and decidualization. For instance, there is a decrease in responsiveness to progesterone signaling. Furthermore, postnatal uterine differentiation is characterized by a reduction in gland numbers and the stratification of the luminal epithelium. Gonads arise from the thickening of coelomic epithelium, which at first appears as multiple cell layers.

They commit to sex determination, becoming either female or male under normal circumstances. Regardless of sex, though, WNT4 is needed for cell proliferation. In mouse gonads, it has been detected only eleven days after fertilization. If deficient in XY mice, there is a delay in Sertoli cell differentiation. Moreover, there is delay in sex cord formation; these issues are compensated for at birth. WNT4 interacts with RSPO1 early in development. If both are deficient in XY mice, the outcome is less expression of downstream targets. Furthermore, the amount of SOX9 is reduced and defects in vascularization are found; these occurrences result in testicular hypoplasia. Male to female sex reversal, does not occur because Leydig cells remain normal, they are maintained by steroidogenic cells, now unrepressed. WNT4 is required for female sex development. Upon secretion it binds activating a number of molecular pathways. One important example is the stabilization of β catenin, which increases the expression of target genes.

For instance, TAFIIs 105 is now encoded, a subunit of the TATA binding protein for RNA polymerase in ovarian follicle cells. Without it, female mice have small ovaries with less mature follicles. In addition, the production of SOX9 is blocked. In humans, WNT4 suppresses 5-α reductase activity, which converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. External male genitalia are therefore not formed. Moreover, it contributes to the formation of the Müllerian duct, a precursor to female reproductive organs; the absence of WNT4 is required for male sex development. FGF signaling suppresses WNT4, acting in a feed forward loop triggered by SOX9. If this signaling is deficient in XY mice, female genes are unrepressed. With no FGF2, there is a partial sex reversal. With no FGF9, there is a full sex reversal. Both cases are rescued, though, by a WNT4 deletion. In these double mutants, the resulting somatic cells are normal. WNT4 is essential for nephrogenesis, it regulates kidney tubule induction and the mesenchymal to epithelial transformation in the cortical region.

In addition, it influences the fate of the medullary stroma during development. Without it, smooth muscle α actin is markedly reduced; this occurrence causes pericyte deficiency around the vessels. WNT4 functions by activating BMP4, a known smooth muscle differentiation factor. WNT4 contributes to the formation of the neuromuscular junction in vertebrates. Expression is high during the creation of first synaptic contacts, but subsequently downregulated. Moreover, loss of function causes a 35 percent decrease in the number of acetylcholine receptors. Overexpression, causes an increase; these events alter fiber type composition with the production of more slow fibers. Lastly, MuSK is the receptor for WNT4, activated through tyrosine phosphorylation, it contains a CRD domain similar to Frizzled receptors. WNT4 is associated with lung formation and has a role in the formation of the respiratory system; when WNT4 is knocked out, there are many problems. It has been shown that when WNT4 is knocked out, the lung buds formed are reduced in size and proliferation has diminished which cause underdeveloped or incomplete development of the lungs.

It causes tracheal abnormalities because it affects the tracheal cartilage ring formation. Lastly, the absence of WNT4 affects the expression of other genes that function in lung development such as Sox9 and FGF9. Several mutations are known to cause loss of function in WNT4. One example is a heterozygous C to T transition in exon 2; this causes an arginine to cysteine substitution at a conserved location. The formation of illegitimate sulfide bonds creates a misfolded protein, resulting in loss of function. In XX humans, WNT4 now cannot stabilize β-catenin. Furthermore, steroidogenic enzymes like CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 are not suppressed, leading to an increase in testosterone production. Along with this androgen excess, patients have no uteruses. Other Müllerian abnormalities, are not found; this disorder is therefore distinct from classic Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. A disruption of WNT4 synthesis in XX humans produces SERKAL syndrome; the genetic mutation is a homozygous C to T transition at cDNA position 341.

This causes an alanine to valine residue substitution at amino acid position 114, a location conserved in all organisms, including zebrafish and Drosophila. The result is loss of function, it causes female to male sex reversal. WN

Ridiculously Self-Indulgent, Ill-Advised Vanity Tour

The Ridiculously Self-Indulgent, Ill-Advised Vanity Tour is a concert tour performed by American musician and satirist "Weird Al" Yankovic. The tour supports Medium Rarities. Intended to be a more intimate and less stylized production compared to his previous concert tour, the Vanity Tour focuses on Yankovic's older material and original songs; the 76-date North American tour was announced in October 2017, includes 68 shows in the United States and eight shows in Canada. On June 25, recordings of the entire tour were released on Stitcher Premium. In a departure from his previous concert tours, Yankovic set out on The Ridiculously Self-Indulgent, Ill-Advised Vanity Tour with the intention to produce a more intimate, less stylized show than his preceding concert tours, describing the Vanity Tour as having an "extremely limited appeal" by design, inspired by the staging of VH1 Storytellers and MTV Unplugged; the absence of video screens and advanced lighting, along with the Vanity Tour's lack of costumes changes and choreography present in Yankovic’s previous tours allowed for a more flexible and unpredictable experience, to the testimonial approval of Yankovic himself and his touring band.

In the tour's October 2017 announcement across social media, Yankovic stated: The opening act was the comedian Emo Philips, who had worked with Yankovic in his 1989 movie UHF and 1997 TV series The Weird Al Show. In accordance with Yankovic's desired theme of more intimate and "loose" shows, the setlist for The Ridiculously Self-Indulgent, Ill-Advised Vanity Tour is set to be different each night, with a focus on older material and various original songs from his discography, as opposed to his staple parody songs. Yankovic performed at least one non-humorous and straight cover version of a classic rock song at most shows; the Ridiculously Self-Indulgent, Ill-Advised Vanity Tour was announced on "Weird Al" Yankovic's official social media pages on 13 October 2017, with information on tour dates and ticket sales appearing on Yankovic's official website the day after. Tickets for the Vanity Tour, which went on sale on October 20, were advertised from $50 to $70; the tour's announcement coincided with the November 2017 release of Squeeze Box and Medium Rarities, two compilation albums collecting the works of Yankovic.

Emo Philips While there was no consistent setlist, a typical setlist may have looked like this. "CNR" "Dare to Be Stupid" "Bob" "The Biggest Ball of Twine in Minnesota" "Generic Blues" "Melanie" "Midnight Star" "My Own Eyes" "One More Minute" "Why Does This Always Happen To Me?" "Good Old Days" "UHF" "Dog Eat Dog" "Don't Download This Song" "You Don't Love Me Anymore" "Jackson Park Express" "Albuquerque "Unplugged Medley: Eat It" / "I Lost on Jeopardy" / "Amish Paradise" / "Smells Like Nirvana" / "White & Nerdy" / "I Love Rocky Road" / "Like a Surgeon" One of 77 cover songs "The Saga Begins" Festivals and other miscellaneous performances A This concert was a part of the "Nashville Comedy Festival" B This concert was a part of the "Moontower Comedy Festival" "Weird Al" Yankovic's official website


Paluxysuchus is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodyliform known from the Early Cretaceous Twin Mountains Formation of north-central Texas. It contains Paluxysuchus newmani. Paluxysuchus is one of three crocodyliforms known from the Early Cretaceous of Texas, the others being Pachycheilosuchus and an unnamed species referred to as the "Glen Rose Form". Paluxysuchus has a long, flat skull, transitional between the long and narrow skulls of many early neosuchians and the short and flat skulls of neosuchians; the skull of Paluxysuchus is long and shaped somewhat like a triangle when viewed from above. In the most complete fossil of Paluxysuchus, the skull is about 30 centimetres long; the teeth at the tip of the snout are enlarged. A ridge of bone behind the eye socket called the postorbital process has an elongated prong that borders the side of the socket; this feature is seen in only two other crocodyliforms but evolved independently in Paluxysuchus. Paluxysuchus is known from one complete skull and jaws and a fragment of the skull and jaws of a second individual.

These remains were found within a fossil bonebed in a ranch in Hood County, Texas alongside a partial skeleton of the sauropod dinosaur Sauroposeidon. Paluxysuchus is named after the Paluxy River, known for the extensive trackways and isolated bones of dinosaurs that have been found along its banks in Dinosaur Valley State Park; the remains of Paluxysuchus come from the Twin Mountains Formation and are therefore older than the footprints along the Paluxy River, which come from the Glen Rose Formation. Paluxysuchus is the second crocodyliform to be named from the Early Cretaceous of Texas, the first being Pachycheilosuchus from the Glen Rose Formation. A third crocodyliform, the "Glen Rose Form", has been identified, although it does not come from the Glen Rose Formation but the Antler Formation; the type species of Paluxysuchus, P. newmani, was named after Kent Newman, involved in the excavation and preparation of many fossils from the Hood County ranch. Paluxysuchus belongs to a clade called Neosuchia, which includes living crocodilians and their extinct relatives extending back to the Early Jurassic.

Paluxysuchus is a basal member of Neosuchia, indicating that it was one of the earliest neosuchians to branch off from the group, although it is not the oldest neosuchian. When Paluxysuchus was named in 2013 it was incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis that assessed its relationship with other crocodyliforms, it was found to lie just outside "derived" neosuchians, which include all modern crocodilians and more basal forms characterized by shortened or brevirostrine snouts. Paluxysuchus has a lengthened or longirostrine snout, considered a primitive condition among neosuchians. However, while most other primitively longirostrine neosuchians have tubular snouts, Paluxysuchus has a flattened or platyrostral snout. Derived neosuchians, although brevirostrine have flattened snouts, indicating that Paluxysuchus may represent an evolutionary transition toward shorter, flatter skulls within Neosuchia; the 2013 analysis found Pachycheilosuchus to be a close relative more basal within Neosuchia than Paluxysuchus.

Other phylogenetic analyses place Pachycheilosuchus in the family Hylaeochampsidae, a more derived position within Neosuchia, closer to Crocodylia, the group containing modern crocodilians. This makes it one of the earliest members of the clade Eusuchia; the 2013 analysis found the Glen Rose Form in a more derived position than Paluxysuchus, but outside Eusuchia. Below is a cladogram modified from the analysis

The Real Richie Rich production discography

The Real Richie Rich has produced music albums since 1984, including work for LA Dream Team, South Central Cartel, Darryl Strawberry. The following is a list of songs produced by The Real Richie Rich, a hip-hop producer from Los Angeles, California. Singles are in bold, album names are in italics. "Nursery Rhymes" Chocolate Strawberry Boy 1. La Raza 6. Ya Estuvo 9. Nothin' But A Gangster 1. Dyno Douche 3. One Bad Brother 6. Radio Interview 7. House Nigga Intro 8. House Nigga 10. Crime Don't Pay 11. Lifestyles 12. C. O. D. On The LOC The Melody Sucka Free Whole World Rockin' 1. Whatcha Gonna Do 2. Chin Check 3. Evil Dollars 4. Vu-Vu 5. Freaky Rendevouz 6. Fit Of The Fittest 7. Mama 2. Day-2-Day 4. West Side Story 11. No Love for Busta's 16. Ghetto Child Whole World Rockin' 4 Yo Ear Something About It 6. West Coast Camp-Paign Balling "West Coast Poplock 2020" 2. Top Notch 9. It's a Bone Thang 15. Swagged Out "Take Your Clothes Off" "Love is Blind"

Hambleden Mill

Hambleden Mill is an historic watermill on the River Thames at Mill End, near the village of Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, England. It has now been converted into flats, it was Grade II listed in 1955. A mill on this site is recorded in the Domesday Book. Before 1235 the mill was granted to Keynsham Abbey. Alison Uttley described it as "The most beautiful place in the whole length of the long Thames valley." The mill was built in the late 18th century incorporating part of an earlier 17th century mill. The mill was still in use in the 1950s having been upgraded from the original waterwheel and grinding stones to a turbine driving steel rollers about 1939. Out of use by the early 1970s, planning permission for conversion to apartments was granted in 1974. In the late 19th century, a barge, Maid of the Mill, used to make a weekly journey with flour from the mill to Huntley & Palmers biscuit factory in Reading. On her return trip she carried broken biscuits for sale, cheap, to the local villagers. Photograph