Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto III was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the son of the Emperor Otto II. Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in 983 at the age of three, shortly after his fathers death in southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire, though the nominal ruler of Germany, Otto IIIs minor status ensured his various regents held power over the Empire. His cousin Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, initially claimed regency over the young king, Otto III was still a child, so his grandmother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy, served as regent until 994. In 996, Otto III marched to Italy to claim the titles King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III sought to reestablish Imperial control over the city of Rome, which had revolted under the leadership of Crescentius II, and through it the papacy. Crowned as Emperor, Otto III put down the Roman rebellion and installed his cousin as Pope Gregory V, after the Emperor had pardoned him and left the city, Crescentius II again rebelled, deposing Gregory V and installing John XVI as Pope.
Otto III returned to the city in 998, reinstalled Gregory V, when Gregory V died in 999, Otto III installed Sylvester II as the new Pope. Otto IIIs actions throughout his life further strengthened imperial control over the Catholic Church, from the beginning of his reign, Otto III faced opposition from the Slavs along the eastern frontier. Following the death of his father in 983, the Slavs rebelled against imperial control, Otto III would fight to regain the Empires lost territories throughout his reign with only limited success. While in the east, Otto III strengthened the Empires relations with Poland, returning to Rome in 1001, Otto III faced a rebellion by the Roman aristocracy, which forced him to flee the city. While marching to reclaim the city in 1002, Otto III suffered a sudden fever, with no clear heir to succeed him, his early death threw the Empire into political crisis. Otto III was born in June or July 980 somewhere between Aachen and Nijmegen, the only son of Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu, Otto III was the youngest of the couples four children.
Immediately prior to Otto IIIs birth, his father had completed military campaigns in France against King Lothar, on 14 July 982, Otto IIs army suffered a crushing defeat against the Muslim Emirate of Sicily at the Battle of Stilo. Otto II had been campaigning in southern Italy with hopes of annexing the whole of Italy into the Holy Roman Empire, Otto II himself escaped the battle unharmed but many important imperial officials were among the battles casualties. This was the first time a German ruler had been elected on Italian soil, after the assembly was concluded, Otto III and his mother Theophanu travelled across the Alps in order for Otto to be crowned at Aix, the traditional location of the coronation of the German kings. Otto II stayed behind to address military action against the Muslims, while still in central Italy, Otto II suddenly died on 7 November 983, and was buried in St. Peters Basilica in Rome. Otto III was crowned as king on Christmas Day 983, three weeks after his fathers death, by Willigis, the Archbishop of Mainz, and by John, news of Otto IIs death first reached Germany shortly after his sons coronation.
The unresolved problems in southern Italy and the Slavic uprising on the Empires eastern border made the Empires political situation extremely unstable, with a minor on the throne, the Empire was thrown into confusion and Otto IIIs mother Theophanu assumed the role of regent for her young son
Plauen is a town in the Free State of Saxony, east-central Germany. It is the town of the district Vogtlandkreis. The town is situated near the border of Bavaria and the Czech Republic, Plauen was founded by Polabian Slavs in the 12th century as Plawe and was passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1327. The town was captured by the Archbishop of Magdeburg, Lippold von Bredow, in 1466, it was passed to Albertine Saxony and in 1569 to the Electorate of Saxony. Plauen became incorporated into the Kingdom of Saxony in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, in the late-19th century, Plauen became a centre of textile manufacturing, specializing in Chemical lace, called Plauen lace. Around 1910, Plauen, as a boomtown of the region. In the 1930s, Plauen hosted the first chapter of the Nazi Party outside of Bavaria, plauens population, has shrunk dramatically since the Second World War. It was occupied by American troops on 16 April 1945 but was left to Red Army on 1 July 1945, from 1945 onwards, Plauen fell into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, which became the German Democratic Republic.
Plauen hosted a large Red Army occupation garrison and, in the last years of the GDR, the exposé Fast Food Nation gives special mention to Plauen as the first town of the GDR to have a McDonalds restaurant following the collapse of the Berlin Wall. In the district reform of 1 July 2008, Plauen lost its district status and was merged into the district Vogtlandkreis. Plauen Oberer station lies on the Leipzig–Hof line, the section of this line through Plauen is part of the Saxon-Franconian trunk line running between Nürnberg, Plauen, Zwickau and Dresden. The town had another station, Plauen Unterer station, on the Elster Valley Railway, there is a plan to rename the Oberer station into Plauen Hauptbahnhof. Vogtlandbahn, a train company, operates services from Plauen to Hof, Chemnitz, Zwickau and Adorf within Germany. At these stations, there are other Vogtlandbahn services to München, Marktredwitz and Leipzig within Germany and Karlovy Vary, a Vogtlandbahn Express Bus service runs between Plauen and Berlin Schönefeld Airport and Zoological Garden.
The Plauen Straßenbahn is a tramway that has 6 lines connecting the centre of town, Plauen-Tunnel stop, to the surrounding areas, embroidery Machine Museum Museum Plauener Spitze Galerie e. O. O
The Vogtland is a region reaching across the German free states of Bavaria and Thuringia and into the Czech Republic. It overlaps with and is contained within Euregio Egrensis. The name alludes to the leadership by the Vögte of Weida, Gera. Nowadays Vogtland serves as a colloquial abbreviation for Vogtlandkreis. The landscape of the Vogtland is sometimes referred to as idyllic, bearing in mind its fields, meadows, in the south and southeast, Vogtland rises to a low or mid-height mountain range called Oberes Vogtland, or Upper Vogtland. Here, monocultural coniferous forest is the predominant form of vegetation and its mountains spread from Ore Mountains in the south-east to Fichtelgebirge in the south-west, some peaks belonging to Elstergebirge. Neighbouring regions are Frankenwald, Ore Mountains, Thüringer Schiefergebirge and Fichtelgebirge, the south-eastern part of the Vogtland belongs to Ore Mountain/Vogtland Nature Park, a protected area comparable to a national park. The river valley geography in Vogtlands north made it necessary to build comparatively big bridges to channel railroad, especially famous is the Göltzsch Viaduct for being the worlds largest bridge built of bricks and her little sister, the Elster Viaduct.
Both of them are in use as railroad bridges closing the gap between Dresden and Nuremberg, integral part of the Vogtland landscape are its reservoirs, the shores of which mostly are popular holiday and camping destinations. Plauen, the largest town, is known as the capital of the Vogtland or, with a proud note and it is thought to have been inhabited since late 7th or early 8th century by Slavic Settlers who tribally belonged to the Sorbs. Large portions of the Vogtland, were covered with pristine forests and were not settled before the High Middle Ages. Those settlers arrived mainly in eleventh and twelfth centuries, ethnically being Slavic or German, coming from areas of traditionally older settlement like Franconia, for instance, in a number of villages of the upper Vogtland even nowadays a dialect is spoken similar to that in Oberpfalz. The place name Vogtland originates in the rule of the Vogts in this region from the eleventh to the sixteenth century A. D. specifically in reference to the Vogts of Weida and Plauen.
In the 12th century, Kaiser Barbarossa appointed the first Vogts as administrators of his imperial forest areas in the East to facilitate his rule and their headquarters was the Osterburg at Weida, thus giving it the reputation as the cradle of the Vogtland. In 1349, his equinomic son Henry handed Voigtsberg over to Bohemian tenure, the exchange was heavily disputed by branch line cousins of Henrys. The Lords of Plauen, as they called themselves, retrieved Auerbach, since 1426 the Lords of Plauen were Burggraves of Meißen and found themselves in constant power struggles with the Saxonian Kurfürsts. Henry II von Plauen had fallen into disgrace with him for his opposition against nobility. Thus, Ernest received tenure over the Vogtland which, at the occasion of the Leipziger Teilung in 1485, was transferred to the House of Ernest while keeping the Bergregal under joint control
North German Confederation
The North German Confederation was a confederation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the German Empire, after several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation, the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between states on one hand and southern states led by Austria on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia, at first, it was a military alliance between independent states, the so-called August Alliance, but the states already had the intention to form a federation or confederation with a constitution. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany, many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire, the North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists today.
On January 1,1871, the received a new constitution that gave it the name German Empire. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the German princes. The sovereignty remained with the individual German states, there were several attempts to create a modern nation state, most prominently in the Revolution of 1848. A major issue in the struggle was the rivalry between Austria, the principal power in Germany, and the ascending Prussia. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 demonstrated the superiority of Prussia, led by its ingenious. The alliance had 15 members then, with 80 percent of the living in Prussia. A notable exclave of the North German Confederation was the Prussian territory of Hohenzollern in the south, hesse-Darmstadt was part of the new Confederation only with its northern part. A South German Confederation, as mentioned in the Peace of Prague, from the beginning the alliance was supposed to become a nation state with a federal constitution. On 15 December 1866, Bismarck presented a proposal to the representatives of the allied governments and their complaints did not seriously alter the proposal.
On 7 February 1867, the proposal of the governments was ready. It was the not to impose the new constitution but to stipulate it together with a representation of the people. To this end a parliament was elected on 12 February and this Konstituierender Reichstag accepted the constitution, with relatively minor changes, on 16 April 1867. Then, the state parliaments adopted it, the first North German Reichstag was elected, the only one during the existence of the North German Confederation
Principality of Reuss-Greiz
The Principality of Reuss-Greiz, called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of Reuss. The Counts Reuss of Greiz, Lower- and Upper Greiz, were elevated to status in 1778. Its members bore the title Prince Reuss, Elder Line, or Prince Reuss of Greiz, the Principality of Reuss Elder Line had an area of 317 km² and a population of 71,000. The Reuss Elder Line died out with the death of the childless Heinrich XXIV in 1927, after which its claims were passed to the younger line
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
Bishopric of Naumburg-Zeitz
The Prince-Bishopric of Naumburg-Zeitz was a medieval diocese in the central German area between Leipzig in the east and Erfurt in the west. The seat of the bishop was Zeitz Cathedral in Zeitz from 968 and 1029 and it was dissolved in the wake of the Reformation. The Bishopric of Zeitz-Naumburg encompassed the four archdeaconries of Naumburg, Altenburg, the diocese of Zeitz was founded on January 2, AD968. Along with Meißen and Merseburg, it had been authorized by Pope John XIII at the Synod of Ravenna the year before, all three bishoprics were suffragans of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. Waltram, who corresponded with St Anselm, peter von Haugwitz Dietrich von Bocksdorf Henrich von Stammer Dietrich von Schönberg Johann von Schönberg. Nicolaus von Amsdorf, Lutheran bishop Julius von Pflug, the last Catholic bishop of the diocese Heinrich Kratz Electorate of Saxony Seeley, the Acts and Monuments of John Foxe. Carefully Revised, with Notes and Appendices, vol. II, Pt. II, Seeleys. Cheney, David M.
Dioecesis Nuemburgensis, Catholic Hierarchy, retrieved 5 July 2015
Heinrich XXII, Prince Reuss of Greiz
Prince Heinrich XXII Reuss of Greiz was the reigning sovereign of Reuss, a small principality of the German states, from 1859 to his death in 1902. Prince Heinrich succeeded as reigning Prince Reuss of Greiz after the death of his father on 8 November 1859, as Heinrich was a mere thirteen years of age, his mother Caroline of Hesse-Homburg served as regent until his majority at the age of 21. As the daughter of an Austrian general and the wife of an Austrian officer, as a result, during the Austro-Prussian War, Reuss was occupied by Prussian troops, who remained until a payment of 100,000 thalers. On 28 March 1867, Heinrich took the reins of government into his own hands, upon taking full power, he gave his principality its first constitution. Like his parents, Heinrich remained anti-Prussian his entire life, repeatedly rejecting Prussian measures such as Kulturkampf, Heinrich lost no opportunity to displease the Emperor, declining to permit the construction of any memorial to Emperor Wilhelm I, Wilhelm IIs beloved grandfather.
Prince Heinrich was very wealthy, as the part of the territory he ruled over was his private property. At the end of his rule, Reuss contained fewer than 70,000 people, there was much debate however on which particular royal dynasty would become Emperor, as many Germans refused to back the Hohenzollern claim. On 8 October 1872, he married Princess Ida of Schaumburg-Lippe, Prince Johann Georg of Schoenaich-Carolath, ∞ II. Ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II Princess Ida ∞ Fürst Christoph Martin III, zu Stolberg-Roßla Prince Heinrich died of heart trouble on 19 April 1902. His death meant his mentally and physically disabled only son Prince Heinrich became reigning prince of Reuss, as the prince was clearly unable to fulfill these duties, arrangements for a regency were made. A younger branch of the Reuss family was next-in-line to the title,28 March 1846 –8 November 1859, His Serene Highness Prince Heinrich XXII Reuss of Greiz 8 November 1859 –19 April 1902, His Serene Highness The Prince Reuss of Greiz Harbutt Dawson, William.
The German Empire, 1867-1914, and the Unity Movement
Zeitz is a town in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the river Weiße Elster, in the triangle of the federal states Saxony-Anhalt, Zeitz was first recorded under the name Cici in the synode of Ravenna in 967. Between 965 and 982, it was the fortress of the March of Zeitz. Zeitz was a residence between 968 and 1028, when it was moved to Naumburg. Beginning at the end of the 13th century, the bishops again resided in their castle at Zeitz, the Herrmannsschacht is one of the oldest brick factories in the world. It was captured by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years War and was given to Electorate of Saxony in 1644 and it was centre of Saxe-Zeitz between 1657 and 1718 before returning to Electorate. In 1815, it was given to Kingdom of Prussia and became district centre in Merseburg region of Province of Saxony till 1944 and it became a county free city between 1901 and 1950. It was occupied by USA troops on 27 April 1945 and was given to Soviet ones on 1 July 1945 and it was a district centre in Halle region of Saxony-Anhalt state between 1945 and 1952 and again 1990 and 1994 and in Halle bezirk between 1952 and 1990.
It lost status centre of county and became part of Burgenlandkreis on 1 July 1994, in the middle of the 1960s work started on the Zeitz-Ost residential area, and in the mid-1980s, housing estates such as the Völkerfreundschaft were built. On 18 August 1976, the Protestant clergyman Oskar Brüsewitz from Rippicha burnt himself to death in front of the Michaeliskirche and this was a protest against the DDR system. The town was an industrial centre until German Reunification made many companies in eastern Germany uncompetitive, the town still has a large sugar factory. Zeitz sights are situated along the Romanesque Road. Schloss Moritzburg, a castle with the cathedral of St. Peter. The 10th century crypt displays 17th century tin coffins including that of Moritz, originally a Roman basilica and contains a 1517 original of Martin Luthers 95 Theses. It is a Gothic structure that, together with restored houses and 3 market-places, provides Zeitz medieval appearance, Herrmannsschacht, a technical monument in a former brick factory
Ruthenia is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus and other, more local, historical states. It was applied to the area where Ruthenians lived, the word Ruthenia originated as a Latin rendering of the region and people known originally as Rus. A group of Varangians known as the Rus settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik. In European manuscripts dating from the 13th century, Ruthenia was used to describe Rus, a territory long disputed as an early part of Hungary, and from the 10th century Ruthenia and Poland, formed the Chervian Towns, now mostly in Poland, partly in Ukraine. This laid the foundation of the modern Russian state, the Muscovy population was Eastern Orthodox and used the Greek transcription of Rus, being Rossia, rather than the Latin Ruthenia. Due to their usage of the Latin script rather than the Cyrillic script, other spellings were used in Latin and other languages during this period. The use of the term Ruthenia in the lands of ancient Rus survived longer as a used by Ukrainians for Ukraine.
By 1840 the superior term, Малая Русь, Little Rus, or Rus Minora, for Ruthenians became derogative in the Russian Empire, and they began calling themselves Ukrainians, for Ukrayina. In the 1880s and 1900s, the popularity of the ethnonym Ukrainian spread, in time the term Ruthenian became restricted to western Ukraine, an area part of the Austro-Hungarian state. By the early 20th century, the term Ukraine had replaced Ruthenia in Galicia/Halychyna, rusin has been one of official self-identifications of the Rus population in Poland. Until 1939, for many traditional Ruthenians and Polish, the word Ukrainiec meant a person involved in or friendly to a nationalist movement, some other Slavish languages definitely separate the Ruthenian meaning from its Russian neighbour. While Galician Ruthenians considered themselves to be Ukrainians, the Carpatho-Ruthenians were the last East Slavic people that kept the ancient historic name, the term Rusyn is used to describe the ethnicity and language of Ruthenians who are not forced to the Ukrainian national identity.
Carpatho-Ruthenia formed part of the Hungarian Kingdom from the late 11th century, in May 1919, it was incorporated with nominal autonomy into Czechoslovakia. After this date, Ruthenian people have been divided among three orientations, on 15 March 1939 the Ukrainophile president of Carpatho-Ruthenia, Avhustyn Voloshyn, declared its independence as Carpatho-Ukraine. On the same day Hungarian Army fascist regular troops, allies of Adolf Hitler, in 1944 the Soviet Army occupied Carpatho-Ruthenia, and in 1946, annexed it to the Ukrainian SSR. Officially, there were no Rusyns in the USSR, in fact and some modern Ukrainian politicians, as well as Ukrainian government claim that Rusyns are part of the Ukrainian nation. Nowadays some of the population in the Zakarpattya oblast of Ukraine consider themselves Rusyns yet they are still a part of the whole Ukrainian national identity, a Rusyn minority remained after World War II in northeastern Czechoslovakia. According to critics, the Ruthenians rapidly became Slovakized, in 1995 the Ruthenian written language became standardized
An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishops ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Phrases concerning actions occurring within or outside an episcopal see are indicative of the significance of the term. The word see is derived from Latin sedes, which in its original or proper sense denotes the seat or chair that, the word throne is used, especially in the Eastern Orthodox Church, both for the seat and for the area of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The term see is used of the town where the cathedral or the residence is located. Within Roman Catholicism, each diocese is considered to be a See unto itself with an allegiance to the See of Rome. The idea of a See as an entity is somewhat complicated due to the existence of the 23 Particular churches of the Roman Catholic Church. The Western Church and its Eastern Counterparts all reserve some level of autonomy within their particular See, the episcopal see of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is known as the Holy See or the Apostolic See, claiming Papal supremacy.
The view of the Catholic Church contrasted by the Eastern Catholic idea of Pentarchy, followed by Eastern Orthodox opposition to papal supremacy
This conflict paralleled the Third Independence War of Italian unification. It saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia, for centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large states and hundreds of tiny entities, each maintaining its independence with the assistance of outside powers, particularly France. After 1815, the German states were again reorganized into a loose confederation. When Austria brought the dispute before the German Diet and decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, when the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended. Crown Prince Frederick was the member of the Prussian Crown Council to uphold the rights of the Duke of Augustenberg. Although he supported unification and the restoration of the medieval empire, the ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state.
Two ideas of national unity eventually came to the fore – once including, US newspaper The New York Times summarized its views of German nationalism shortly after the outbreak of the war, There is, in political geography, no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War, taylor thinks Bismarck manipulated events into the most beneficial solution possible for Prussia. On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, possible evidence can be found in Bismarcks orchestration of the Austrian alliance during the Second Schleswig War against Denmark, which can be seen as his diplomatic masterstroke.
It was in the Prussian interest to gain an alliance with Austria to defeat Denmark and settle the issue of the duchies of Schleswig, the alliance can be regarded as an aid to Prussian expansion, rather than a provocation of war against Austria. Many historians believe that Bismarck was simply a Prussian expansionist, rather than a German nationalist and it was at the Gastein Convention that the Austrian alliance was set up to lure Austria into war. The timing of the declaration was perfect, because all other European powers were bound by alliances that forbade them from entering the conflict. Britain had no stake economically or politically in war between Prussia and Austria, the details of the discussion are unknown but many historians think Bismarck was guaranteed French neutrality in the event of a war. Italy was already allied with Prussia, which meant that Austria would be fighting both with no major allies of its own, Bismarck was aware of his numerical superiority but still he was not prepared to advise it immediately even though he gave a favourable account of the international situation.
When the Prussian victory became clear, France attempted to extract concessions in the Palatinate. Naturally I was not doubtful of the answer for a second, I answered him, its war