The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the Pacific War; the Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. They procured European aircraft but built their own and launched themselves onto an ambitious aircraft carrier building program, they launched the world's first purpose-built aircraft carrier, Hōshō, in 1922. Afterwards they embarked on a conversion program of several excess battlecruisers and battleships into aircraft carriers; the IJN Air Service had the mission of national air defence, deep strike, naval warfare, so forth. It retained this mission to the end; the Japanese pilot training program was selective and rigorous, producing a high-quality and long-serving pilot corps, who were successful in the air during the early part of World War II in the Pacific.
However, the long duration of the training program, combined with a shortage of gasoline for training, did not allow the IJN to provide qualified replacements in sufficient numbers. Moreover, unlike the U. S. or Britain, never altered its program to speed up the training process of its recruits. The resultant decrease in quantity and quality, among other factors, resulted in increasing casualties toward the end of the war. Japanese navy aviators, like their army counterparts, preferred maneuverable aircraft, leading to built but extraordinarily agile types, most famously the A6M Zero, which achieved its feats by sacrificing armor and self-sealing fuel tanks. Aircraft with armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, such as the Kawanishi N1K-J would not enter service until late 1944–1945, too late to have a meaningful impact; the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was equal in function to the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm. The beginnings of Japanese naval aviation were established in 1912, with the creation of a Commission on Naval Aeronautical Research under the authority of the Technical Department.
The commission was charged with the promotion of aviation training for the navy. Was focus was in non-rigid airships but it moved on to the development of winged and powered aircraft; that year, the commission decided to purchase foreign winged aircraft and to send junior officers abroad to learn how to fly and maintain them. The navy purchased two seaplanes from the Glenn Curtiss factory in Hammondsport, New York, two Maurice Farman seaplanes from France. To establish a cadre of naval aviators and technicians, the navy dispatched three officers to Hammondsport and two to France for training and instruction. After their return to Japan at the end of 1912, two of the newly trained naval aviators made the first flights at Oppama on Yokosuka Bay, one in a Curtiss seaplane, the other in a Maurice Farman. In 1912, the Royal Navy had informally established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service; the Japanese admirals, whose own Navy had been modeled on the Royal Navy and whom they admired, themselves proposed their own Naval Air Service.
The Japanese Navy had observed technical developments in other countries and saw that the airplane had potential. Within a year, the Imperial Japanese navy had begun the operational use of aircraft. In 1913, the following year, a Navy transport ship, Wakamiya Maru was converted into a seaplane carrier capable of carrying two assembled and two disassembled seaplanes. Wakamiya participated in the naval maneuvers off Sasebo that year. On 23 August 1914, as a result of its treaty with Great Britain, Japan declared war on Germany; the Japanese, together with a token British force, blockaded laid siege to the German colony of Kiaochow and its administrative capital Tsingtao on the Shandong peninsula. During the siege, starting from September, four Maurice Farman seaplanes on board Wakamiya conducted reconnaissance and aerial bombardments on German positions and ships; the aircraft had crude bombsights and carried six to ten bombs, converted from shells, were released through metal tubes on each side of the cockpit.
On 5 September, during the first successful operation, two Farman seaplanes dropped several bombs on the Bismarck battery, the main German fortifications in Tsingtao. The bombs landed harmlessly in the mud, but the aircraft were able to confirm that SMS Emden was not at Tsingtao, this was intelligence of major importance to Allied naval command. On 30 September Wakamiya was damaged by a mine and sent back to Japan for repairs, but the seaplanes, by transferring on to the shore, continued to be used against the German defenders until their surrender on 7 November 1914. Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched aerial raids in history and was in effect the first aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. By the end of the siege the aircraft had conducted 50 sorties and dropped 200 bombs, although damage to German defenses was light. In 1916, the Commission on Naval Aeronautical Research was disbanded and the funds supporting it were reallocated for the establishment of three naval air units which would fall under the authority of the Naval Affairs Bureau of the Navy Ministry.
The first unit was established at Yokosuka in April 1916, the lack of a specific naval air policy in these early years was made apparent by the fact that the Yokosuka Air Group operated with the fleet only once a year when it was transported to whatever training area the IJN was using for maneuvers. Japanese naval aviation, continued to make progress. In 1917, officers a
Rose & Frank Co v JR Crompton & Bros Ltd UKHL 2 is a leading decision on English contract law, regarding the intention to create legal relations in commercial arrangements. In the Court of Appeal, Atkin LJ delivered an important dissenting judgment, upheld by the House of Lords; the case is an example of the application of the Blue Pencil Rule. Rose and Frank Co was the sole US distributor of JR Crompton's carbon paper products. In 1913, the parties signed a new document which included this clause: This arrangement is not entered into, nor is this memorandum written, as a formal or legal agreement and shall not be subject to legal jurisdiction in the law courts... but it is only a definite expression and record of the purpose and intention of the three parties concerned to which they each honourably pledge themselves with the fullest confidence, based upon past business with each other, that it will be carried through by each of the three parties with mutual loyalty and friendly co-operation.
The relationship between the two parties broke down as JR Crompton refused to supply some of the orders of the plaintiff. Rose & Frank Co sued on enforcement of the agreement. At first instance, the court held that the honourable pledge was repugnant to the intention of the rest of the document, that furthermore the enforceability of such a clause was contrary to public policy. In his decision, Bailhache J. reasoned that the impugned clause was of no effect and that the document was a binding contract and enforceable in the court. Scrutton LJ stated that parties are capable of forming an agreement that does not give rise to legal relations. "The reason of this is that the parties do not intend that their agreement shall give rise to legal relations. This intention may be implied from the subject matter of the agreement, but it may be expressed by the parties. In social and family relations such an intention is implied, while in business matters the opposite result would ordinarily follow." Atkin LJ agreed.
He delivered the following judgment. Lord Phillimore for the House of Lords, held that the arrangement of 1913 was not a binding contract. At the date of the arrangement of 1913 all previous agreements were determined by mutual consent, but the orders given and accepted constituted enforceable contracts of sale. Baird Textile Holdings Ltd v Marks & Spencer plc EWCA Civ 274 Full text of decision from Bailii.org
Southwestern Oklahoma State University is a public university in Weatherford and Sayre, Oklahoma. It is one of six Regional University System of Oklahoma members. SWOSU was first established through an act of the Oklahoma Territorial Legislature in 1901 as Southwestern Normal School, although no classes were held until 1903. Several towns fought a court battle to become the home of the new school, but Weatherford won the battle; the normal school included both a two-year degree program for teacher education and a preparatory school. In 1920, the preparatory part of the school closed and a four-year baccalaureate degree program replaced it; the first bachelor's degrees by the renamed Southwestern State Teachers College were awarded in the spring of 1921. The Great Depression brought several attempts to close the school for financial reasons, it had to remove several presidents to survive politically. But it did survive. In 1939, the school added a vocational training curriculum to its teacher-training mission.
The school underwent significant expansion during World War II, adding additional programs in the arts and sciences as well as its School of Pharmacy. After brief periods as Southwestern State College of Diversified Occupations and Southwestern Institute of Technology, the name was formally changed to Southwestern State College by the Oklahoma Legislature; the first graduate degree, a Masters of Teaching, was added in 1953, the school was designated as Southwestern Oklahoma State University in 1974. In 1987, Sayre Junior College in Sayre, Oklahoma was merged with SWOSU, becoming Southwestern Oklahoma State University at Sayre. Since its beginning, there have been 17 presidents that have served at Southwestern Oklahoma State University. On Southwestern Oklahoma State University's campus, there are several places to eat such as The University Grill, The Bulldog Beanery, Brandy's Quick Stop, Duke’s Diner; the Weatherford campus has a span of over 100 acres. The campus is the grounds for several diverse buildings, some dating back to the school's opening in 1903, some as recent as 2014.
The new Pioneer Cellular Event Center opened January 2014. SWOSU offers 38 bachelor's degrees, 7 associate degrees, 1 doctorate. Enrollment for SWOSU is 5,200 and the most up-to-date student-to-faculty ratio is 20:1. SWOSU has a Veteran's assistance program as well as a distance learning program; as of June 2017, SWOSU made. SWOSU was ranked #18 in the list. SWOSU's Sayre campus was founded in 1938 as a Junior College, but in July 1987 by act of the Oklahoma legislature, it was merged with Southwestern Oklahoma State University, it offers open admission to high school graduates. SWOSU at Sayre offers Associate of Science and Associate of Applied Science degrees in both general and specialized areas of study. SWOSU's athletic teams are known as the Bulldogs; the university competes at the NCAA Division II level as a member of the Great American Conference. SWOSU began play in the GAC in the 2012-13 academic year. SWOSU offers nine different sports including: baseball, men's and women's basketball, women's track and field, women's cross country, men's and women's golf, men's and women's rodeo, women's soccer and volleyball.
There are nearly 100 student organizations such as SGA, CAB, NSO, GSM Project, RHJB and Greek Fraternities and Sororities that offer interesting activities to make campus life more exciting for students. The events these organizations put on are free to students. SGA is the official governing body of SWOSU students, it is the advocate for student interests, a powerful voice for change and progress, a dedicated provider of student services and resources. SGA puts on annual events such as SWOSUPalooza. Media related to Southwestern Oklahoma State University at Wikimedia Commons Official website SWOSU Athletics website