Marshal-Admiral The Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, OM, GCVO, was a gensui or admiral of the fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy and one of Japan's greatest naval heroes. As Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during the Russo-Japanese War he confined the Russian Pacific Fleet to Port Arthur before winning a decisive victory over a relieving fleet at Tsushima. Tōgō was termed by Western journalists as "the Nelson of the East". Tōgō was born as Tōgō Nakagoro on 27 January 1848 in the Kajiya-chō district of the city of Kagoshima in Satsuma domain, to a noble family in feudal Japan, the third of four sons of Togo Kichizaemon, a samurai serving the Shimazu daimyō as comptroller of the revenue, master of the wardrobe, district governor, Hori Masuko, a noblewoman from the same clan as her husband. Kajiya-chō was one of Kagoshima's samurai housing-districts, in which many other influential figures of the Meiji period were born, such as Saigō Takamori and Ōkubo Toshimichi, they rose to prominent positions under the Meiji Emperor because the Shimazu clan had been a decisive military and political factor in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa shogunate during the Meiji Restoration.
As a youth, Tōgō was educated to become a samurai warrior. He changed his name to Heihachirō in a religious and patriotic ceremony held when he turned 13, in which samurai tradition called for youth to adopt a change in name. Tōgō's first experience at war was during the Bombardment of Kagoshima, in which Kagoshima was shelled by the Royal Navy to punish the Satsuma daimyō for the death of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year, the Japanese refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation. Tōgō, aged 15 at the time, was part of a gun crew manning one of the cannons defending the port; the following year, Satsuma established a navy, in which Tōgō enlisted in 1866 at age 17. Two of his brothers enlisted. In January 1868, during the Boshin War, Tōgō was assigned to the paddle-wheel steam warship Kasuga, which participated in the Battle of Awa, near Osaka, against the navy of the Tokugawa Bakufu, the first Japanese naval battle between two modern fleets; as the conflict spread to northern Japan, Tōgō participated as a third-class officer aboard the Kasuga in the last battles against the remnants of the Bakufu forces, the Battle of Miyako Bay and the Battle of Hakodate in 1869.
After the civil war ended in the autumn 1869, Tōgō, on the instructions of the Satsuma clan, first travelled to the treaty port of Yokohama to study English. He resided in Yokohama with Daisuke Shibata, a government official reputedly proficient in English and received additional pronunciation coaching from Charles Wagman, Japan correspondent of The Illustrated London News. Tōgō made rapid progress in his studies and in 1870 secured a place at the newly established Imperial Japanese Navy Training School at Tsukiji, Tokyo. On 11 December 1870 he was formally appointed a cadet on the Japanese ironclad flagship Ryūjō at anchor in Yokohama harbour. In February 1871, Tōgō and eleven other Japanese officer cadets were selected to travel to Britain to further their naval studies. Between extensive practical sea training and an extended voyage to Australia, Tōgō lived and studied in Britain for a period of seven years. Arriving in April 1871 after a journey of 80 days at the port of Southampton, Tōgō first traveled to London, at that time the most populous city in the world.
According to contemporary accounts of the cadet's first days in England, many things were strange to Japanese eyes at that time. Tōgō was sent for some weeks to a boarding house in the major naval port of Plymouth, to gain some understanding of the British Royal Navy. Subsequently, he studied history and engineering at a naval preparatory school in Portsmouth under the direction of a tutor and local clergyman in order to prepare for admission to Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. After the British Admiralty decided in 1872 that no places were to be made available at Dartmouth for the Japanese cadets, Tōgō was able gain admission as a cadet on HMS Worcester, the training ship of the Thames Nautical Training College moored at Greenhithe. Tōgō found his cadet rations "inadequate": "I swallowed my small rations in a moment. I formed the habit of dipping my bread in my tea and eating a great deal of it, to the surprise of my English comrades." Tōgō's comrades called him "Johnny Chinaman", being unfamiliar with the "Orient" and not knowing the difference between Asiatic peoples.
"The young samurai did not like that, on more than one occasion he would threaten to put an end to it by blows." Gunnery training for the college was held aboard HMS Victory, at the time moored in Portsmouth harbour. Tōgō is recorded to have attended Trafalgar Day observances on the deck of the ship in 1873. After two years of training, Tōgō was to graduate second in his class. During 1875, Tōgō circumnavigated the world as an ordinary seaman on the British training ship Hampshire, leaving in February and staying seventy days at sea without a port call until reaching Melbourne. Tōgō "observed the strange animals on the Southern continent". Rounding Cape Horn on his return voyage, Tōgō had sailed thirty thousand miles before returning to England in September 1875. During the autu
Constitution of Japan
The Constitution of Japan is the fundamental law of Japan. It was enacted on 3 May 1947, as a new constitution for a post-war Japan; the constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms, the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty; the constitution known as the "Post-war Constitution" or the "Peace Constitution", is best known for its Article 9, by which Japan renounces its right to wage war. The constitution was drawn up during the Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace Japan's previous militaristic system of quasi-absolute monarchy with a form of liberal democracy. No amendment has been made to it since its adoption; the Meiji Constitution was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan, propagated during the reign of Emperor Meiji. It provided for a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy, based on the Prussian and British models.
In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme ruler, the cabinet, whose prime minister was elected by a privy council, were his followers. Under the Meiji Constitution, the prime minister and his cabinet were not chosen from the elected members of the Diet. Pursuing the regular amending procedure of the "Meiji Constitution", it was revised to become the "Post-war Constitution" on 3 November 1946; the Post-war Constitution has been in force since 3 May 1947. On 26 July 1945, Allied leaders Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman, Chiang Kai-shek issued the Potsdam Declaration, which demanded Japan's unconditional surrender; this declaration defined the major goals of the post-surrender Allied occupation: "The Japanese government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established". In addition, the document stated: "The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government".
The Allies sought not punishment or reparations from a militaristic foe, but fundamental changes in the nature of its political system. In the words of political scientist Robert E. Ward: "The occupation was the single most exhaustively planned operation of massive and externally directed political change in world history." The wording of the Potsdam Declaration—"The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles..."—and the initial post-surrender measures taken by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, suggest that neither he nor his superiors in Washington intended to impose a new political system on Japan unilaterally. Instead, they wished to encourage Japan's new leaders to initiate democratic reforms on their own, but by early 1946, MacArthur's staff and Japanese officials were at odds over the most fundamental issue, the writing of a new Constitution. Emperor Hirohito, Prime Minister Kijūrō Shidehara and most of the cabinet members were reluctant to take the drastic step of replacing the 1889 Meiji Constitution with a more liberal document.
In late 1945, Shidehara appointed Jōji Matsumoto, state minister without portfolio, head of a blue-ribbon committee of Constitutional scholars to suggest revisions. The Matsumoto Commission's recommendations, made public in February 1946, were quite conservative as "no more than a touching-up of the Meiji Constitution"). MacArthur rejected them outright and ordered his staff to draft a new document. An additional reason for this was that on 24 January 1946, Prime Minister Shidehara had suggested to MacArthur that the new Constitution should contain an article renouncing war. Much of the drafting was done by two senior army officers with law degrees: Milo Rowell and Courtney Whitney, although others chosen by MacArthur had a large say in the document; the articles about equality between men and women were written by Beate Sirota. Although the document's authors were non-Japanese, they took into account the Meiji Constitution, the demands of Japanese lawyers, the opinions of pacifist political leaders such as Shidehara and Shigeru Yoshida, the draft presented by the Constitution Research Association under the chairmanship of Suzuki Yasuzō, translated into English in its entirety by the end of December 1945.
MacArthur gave the authors less than a week to complete the draft, presented to surprised Japanese officials on 13 February 1946. On 6 March 1946, the government publicly disclosed an outline of the pending Constitution. On 10 April, elections were held for the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Imperial Diet, which would consider the proposed Constitution; the election law having been changed, this was the first general election in Japan in which women were permitted to vote. The MacArthur draft, which proposed a unicameral legislature, was changed at the insistence of the Japanese to allow a bicameral one, with both houses being elected. In most other important respects, the government adopted the ideas embodied in the 13 February document in its own draft proposal of 6 March; these included the con
Shigetarō Shimada was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. He served as Minister of the Navy, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. A native of Tokyo, Shimada graduated from the 32nd class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1904, he was ranked 27th out of 192 cadets. One of his classmates was the famous admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. Shimada served his midshipman duty aboard the submarine tender Karasaki, the cruiser Izumi, participating in the Battle of Tsushima during the Russo-Japanese War. After his commissioning as an ensign on 31 August 1905, he was assigned to the cruisers Niitaka and Otowa, was promoted to sub-lieutenant on 28 September 1907. After his promotion to lieutenant on 11 October 1909, he served on the battlecruiser Tsukuba and battleship Settsu. After graduating with highest honors from the Naval War College in December 1915, Shimada was promoted to lieutenant commander on 13 December and assigned as an assistant naval attaché in Rome, Italy during World War I.
Returning to Japan after the war, Shimada held various staff positions in the 1920s as a staff officer the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff in 1920. He was promoted to commander on 1 December 1920 and assigned as executive officer of the battleship Hyūga in 1922, an instructor at the Naval War College in 1923 and commander of the 7th Submarine Division in 1926, he was promoted to captain on 1 December 1924, his first command was the cruiser Tama in 1928, followed by the battleship Hiei the same year. Shimada was promoted to rear admiral on 30 November 1929, assigned as Chief of Staff to the IJN 2nd Fleet. After Shimada was transferred to IJN 1st Fleet in December 1930, he served as Commandant of the Submarine School, before being assigned to the IJN 3rd Fleet in February 1932; as commander of the IJN 3rd Fleet, he participated in the First Shanghai Incident of 1932. Returning to the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff as a senior staff officer in June 1932, he served as Chief of the Third and served concurrently as Chief of the First Department from November 1932-October 1933 when he assumed total command.
Becoming Vice Chief of the Naval General Staff in December 1933, Shimada was promoted to vice admiral on 15 November 1934. During the late-1930s Shimada's positions included commandant of the Kure Naval District, commander in chief of the IJN 2nd Fleet and China Area Fleet as well as commanding officer of the Yokosuka Naval District. Shimada was named Minister of the Navy on 18 October 1941. During his term as Navy Minister, he knew of the plans for the attack on Pearl Harbor and approved its implementation. Although regarded as a submissive lackey for his reputation of meek submissiveness and unquestioning loyalty to Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō, Shimada played an important role in working with Tōjō in coordinating military operations between the Army and Navy during the early years of the Pacific War. On November 30, the Emperor Showa asked Shimada if he would wage war. Shimada said, "We are ready, I do not trust Germany, I mentioned that Japan alone can continue the war." After a series of major Japanese losses, Emperor Hirohito lost confidence in both the Army and Naval Chiefs of Staff.
As such, Tōjō was able to dismiss Chief of the Army General Staff Hajime Sugiyama and Chief of the Naval General Staff Osami Nagano. Tōjō assumed the role of Army Chief of Staff while Shimada became Naval Chief of Staff on 21 February 1944, concurrent with his position as Naval Minister; this reorganization made Shimada supreme commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Shimada's power grab, gained him many enemies in the Navy General Staff and the Emperor's court. Shimada's opponents continuously pressured Emperor Hirohito to dismiss him, citing that the navy was losing battle after battle under Shimada's direction. Hirohito made his displeasure with Shimada known to Tōjō in July 1944, shortly after the fall of Saipan. Tōjō asked for Shimada's resignation, replaced him as Navy Minister with Mitsumasa Yonai on 17 July and as Chief of the General Navy Staff on 2 August. Although appointed to the Supreme War Council, Shimada retired from active duty on 20 January 1945 remaining in an advisory capacity for the remainder of the war.
After the war, Shimada was charged with war crimes. At the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, he was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for waging aggressive war against the United States, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. After the end of the American occupation of Japan, he was released on parole in 1955 by Prime Minister Ichirō Hatoyama, he died in 1976 as one of the last living admirals and the last surviving full Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Bix, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2. Costello, John; the Pacific War. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-688-01620-0. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy". Retrieved 2007-02-25. Parrish, Thomas. S. L. A. Marshall, ed; the Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia of World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN. Toland, John; the Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945. Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6858-1
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Koshirō Oikawa was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Naval Minister during World War II. Oikawa was born into a wealthy family in rural Koshi County, Niigata Prefecture, but was raised in Morioka city, Iwate prefecture in northern Japan, he was a graduate of the 31st class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, ranking 76th out of 188 cadets. As a midshipman, he served on the cruisers Izumo. During the Russo-Japanese War, still as a midshipman, he served on the Chiyoda during the Battle of Tsushima; as a lieutenant, Oikawa served on the cruiser Katori, the battleship Mikasa. He was given his first command, the destroyer Asashio on 28 April 1911, he subsequently served on the Yugiri, before attending the Naval Staff College in 1914. On graduation, Oikawa was promoted to lieutenant commander, was appointed aide-de-camp to Crown Prince Hirohito in 1915–1922. After his promotion to captain on 1 December 1923, Oikawa was assigned the cruiser Kinu, followed by the Tama the following year.
He served in a number of staff positions until his promotion to rear admiral on 10 December 1928. In 1930, Oikawa was appointed to the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, in 1932 became Director of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, he was promoted to vice admiral on 15 November 1933. Oikawa supported the London Naval Treaty while a member of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, was thus a member of the Treaty Faction within the navy. Oikawa was subsequently appointed Commander in Chief of the IJN 3rd Fleet, Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation Bureau, China Area Fleet and Yokosuka Naval District, he was promoted to full admiral on 15 November 1939. Oikawa was appointed as Minister of the Navy in the second and third cabinets of Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe between 5 September 1940 and 18 October 1941. While Navy Minister, he strove to maintain ties with the United States, instructed his naval attachés in Washington DC to work together with the Japanese ambassador to prevent war from breaking out.
He opposed suggestions that Japan should declare war on the Soviet Union in early 1941. He continued to serve as Naval Councilor to near the end of World War II and was Chief of the Navy General Staff in late 1944, he resigned in protest in May 1945 over Emperor Hirohito's refusal to consider peace proposals at a time when the war was already lost. Oikawa retired from active duty on 5 September 1945. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2. Fuller, Richard. Shokan: Hirohito's Samurai. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-151-4. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-74101-3. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Oikawa, Koshiro". Imperial Japanese Navy. "Oikawa, Koshiro". Pp. Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
Imperial General Headquarters
The Imperial General Headquarters was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime. In terms of function, it was equivalent to the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chiefs of Staff Committee; the Imperial General Headquarters was established by Imperial Decree 52 on 22 May 1893 under the auspices of creating a central command for both the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. The Emperor of Japan, defined as both Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the Meiji Constitution of 1889 to 1945, was the head of the Imperial General Headquarters, was assisted by staff appointed from the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy; the Imperial General Staff Headquarters was independent of the civilian government of the Empire of Japan, including the Cabinet and the Prime Minister of Japan.
Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi was allowed to attend meetings by the express order of Emperor Meiji during the First Sino-Japanese War. However, Prime Minister Katsura Taro, despite his military background, was denied entry to meetings during the subsequent Russo-Japanese War. After the Lugouqiao Incident in July 1937, Imperial Decree 658 of 18 November 1937 abolished the original Imperial General Headquarters, immediately re-constituted under Military Decree 1, which gave the new Imperial General Headquarters command authority over all military operations during peacetime situations as well as wartime situations. In November 1937, to bring the chiefs of Army and Navy into closer consultation with his government, Emperor Hirohito established a body known as the Imperial General Headquarters-Government Liaison Conference within Imperial General Headquarters; the Liaison Conferences were intended to assist in integrating the decisions and needs of the two military sections of Imperial General Headquarters with the resources and policies of the rest of the government.
Reaching agreement between the Army and Navy on strategic planning was difficult. When agreement was reached on an important strategic issue, the agreement was reduced to writing in a document called a Central Agreement and signed by both Chiefs of Army and Navy General Staffs; the final decisions of Liaison Conferences were formally disclosed and approved at Imperial Conferences over which Emperor Hirohito presided in person at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. During the Pacific War, after the firebombing of Tokyo, the Imperial General Headquarters relocated to an underground facility in the mountains outside Nagano. With the surrender of Japan, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ordered the Imperial General Headquarters abolished on 13 September 1945. Imperial General Headquarters Navy Sections; the Army Section comprised the Chief of Army General Staff and his chief of Army Operations, the Army Minister. The Navy Section comprised Chief of Navy General Staff, his chief of Navy Operations, the Navy Minister.
In addition, the Inspector-General of Military Training, whose rank was on-par with that of the Chiefs of the General Staff, the Aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Japan were members. Middle-ranking officers of Army and Navy General Staff, Army and Navy Ministry, met from time to time at middle-level liaison or study conferences to discuss Japan's strategic war plans, plans requiring cooperation between the two armed services, outside of the formal meeting in the presence of the Emperor. Relations between the Japanese Army and Navy were never cordial, marked by deep hostility; the Army saw the Soviet Union as Japan's greatest threat and for the most part supported the Hokushin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were on the Asian continent. The Navy looked across the Pacific Ocean and saw the United States as the greatest threat, for the most part supported the Nanshin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan, was defined as the Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the constitution of 1889.
During World War II, the leadership of the Imperial General Headquarters consisting of the following: Chief of the Army General Staff Kotohito Kan'in Hajime Sugiyama Hideki Tōjō Yoshijirō Umezu Chief of the Navy General Staff Hiroyasu Fushimi Osami Nagano Shigetarō Shimada Koshirō Oikawa Soemu Toyoda Minister of War Hajime Sugiyama Seishirō Itagaki Shunroku Hata Hideki Tōjō Korechika Anami Minister of the Navy Mitsumasa Yonai Zengo Yoshida Koshirō Oikawa Shigetarō Shimada The majority of these troops were stationed in China, Japan and Korea. This includes some 61 divisions, 59 brigades, 51 air squadrons. Only a fraction of Japan's military, 11 to 14 divisions and the South Seas Detachment, were available for the December 1941 operations in South-East Asia and the Pacific. Imperial General Headquarters IJA General Staff General Affairs Bureau Organization and Mobilization Department Training Department 1st Bureau Operations Department Defence Department 2nd Bureau Europe and the Americas Department China Department Russia/Soviet Union Department Intelligence Department 3rd Bureau Transport Department Communications Department 4th Bureau Military History Department Strategy and Tactics Department General Staff College Land Survey D
Baron Kantarō Suzuki was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945. Suzuki was born in Izumi Province to a samurai magistrate of the Sekiyado Domain, he grew up in the city of Kazusa Province. Suzuki entered the 14th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1884, graduating 13th of 45 cadets in 1888. Suzuki served on the corvettes Tenryū and cruiser Takachiho as a midshipman. On being commissioned as ensign, he served on the corvette Amagi, corvette Takao, corvette Jingei, ironclad Kongō, gunboat Maya. After his promotion to lieutenant on 21 December 1892, he served as chief navigator on the corvettes Kaimon and Kongō. Suzuki served in the First Sino-Japanese War, commanding a torpedo boat and participated in a night torpedo assault in the Battle of Weihaiwei in 1895. Afterwards, he was promoted to lieutenant commander on 28 June 1898 after graduation from the Naval Staff College and assigned to a number of staff positions including that of naval attaché to Germany from 1901 to 1903.
On his return, he was promoted to commander on 26 September 1903. He came to be known as the leading torpedo warfare expert in the Imperial Japanese Navy. During the Russo-Japanese War, Suzuki commanded Destroyer Division 2 in 1904, which picked up survivors of the Port Arthur Blockade Squadron during the Battle of Port Arthur, he was appointed executive officer of the cruiser Kasuga on 26 February 1904, aboard which he participated in the Battle of the Yellow Sea. During the pivotal Battle of Tsushima, Suzuki was commander of Destroyer Division 4 under the IJN 2nd Fleet, which assisted in sinking the Russian battleship Navarin. After the war, Suzuki was promoted to captain on 28 September 1907 and commanded the destroyer Akashi, followed by the cruiser Soya, battleship Shikishima and cruiser Tsukuba. Promoted to rear admiral on 23 May 1913 and assigned to command the Maizuru Naval District. Suzuki became Vice Minister of the Navy from 1914 to 1917, during World War I. Promoted to vice admiral on 1 June 1917, he brought the cruisers Asama and Iwate to San Francisco in early 1918 with 1,000 cadets, was received by U.
S. Navy Rear Admiral William Fullam; the Japanese cruisers proceeded to South America. After stints as Commandant of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, Commander of the IJN 2nd Fleet the IJN 3rd Fleet Kure Naval District, he became a full admiral on 3 August 1923. Suzuki became Commander in Chief of Combined Fleet in 1924. After serving as Chief of Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff from 15 April 1925 to 22 January 1929, he retired and accepted the position as Privy Councillor and Grand Chamberlain from 1929 to 1936. Suzuki narrowly escaped assassination in the February 26 Incident in 1936. Suzuki was opposed to Japan's war with the United States and throughout World War II. On 7 April 1945, following the Battle of Okinawa, Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso resigned and Suzuki was appointed to take his place at the age of seventy-seven, he held the portfolios for Minister for Foreign Affairs and for Greater East Asia. Prime Minister Suzuki contributed to the final peace negotiations with the Allied Powers in World War II.
He was involved in calling two unprecedented imperial conferences which helped resolve the split within the Japanese Imperial Cabinet over the Potsdam Declaration. He outlined the terms to Emperor Hirohito who had agreed to accept unconditional surrender; this went against the military faction of the cabinet, who desired to continue the war in hopes of negotiating a more favorable peace agreement. Part of this faction attempted to assassinate Suzuki twice in the Kyūjō Incident on the morning of 15 August 1945. After the surrender of Japan became public, Suzuki resigned and Prince Higashikuni became next prime minister. Suzuki was the Chairman of the Privy Council from 7 August 1944 to 7 June 1945 and again after the surrender of Japan from 15 December 1945 to 13 June 1946. Suzuki died of natural causes, his grave is in his home town of Chiba. One of his two sons became director of Japan's immigration service, while the other was a successful lawyer. From the corresponding Japanese Wikipedia article Baron Order of the Sacred Treasure, 4th Class Order of the Golden Kite, 3rd Class Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers Junior First Rank Frank, Richard.
Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-100146-1. Gilbert, Martin; the Second World War: A Complete History. Holt. ISBN 0-8050-7623-9. Keegan, John; the Second World War. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-303573-8. Kowner, Rotem. Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War; the Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5. Annotated bibliography for Suzuki Kantarō from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy". Retrieved 2007-08-25. Suzuki Kantarō and Pacific War at 1945