Imperial War Museum

Imperial War Museums is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. Founded as the Imperial War Museum in 1917, the museum was intended to record the civil and military war effort and sacrifice of Britain and its Empire during the First World War; the museum's remit has since expanded to include all conflicts in which British or Commonwealth forces have been involved since 1914. As of 2012, the museum aims "to provide for, to encourage, the study and understanding of the history of modern war and'wartime experience'."Originally housed in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham Hill, the museum opened to the public in 1920. In 1924, the museum moved to space in the Imperial Institute in South Kensington, in 1936, the museum acquired a permanent home, the Bethlem Royal Hospital in Southwark; the outbreak of the Second World War saw the museum expand both its collections and its terms of reference, but in the post-war period, the museum entered a period of decline.

The 1960s saw the museum redevelop its Southwark building, now referred to as Imperial War Museum London, which serves as the organisation's corporate headquarters. During the 1970s, the museum began to expand onto other sites; the first, in 1976, was a historic airfield in Cambridgeshire now referred to as IWM Duxford. In 1978, the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Belfast became a branch of the museum, having been preserved for the nation by a private trust. In 1984, the Cabinet War Rooms, an underground wartime command centre, was opened to the public. From the 1980s onwards, the museum's Bethlem building underwent a series of multimillion-pound redevelopments, completed in 2000. 2002 saw the opening of IWM North in Trafford, Greater Manchester, the fifth branch of the museum and the first in the north of England. In 2011, the museum rebranded itself as IWM, standing for "Imperial War Museums"; the museum's collections include archives of personal and official documents, photographs and video material, oral history recordings, an extensive library, a large art collection, examples of military vehicles and aircraft and other artefacts.

The museum is funded by government grants, charitable donations, revenue generation through commercial activity such as retailing and publishing. General admission is free to IWM London and IWM North, but an admission fee is levied at the other branches; the museum is an exempt charity under the Charities Act 1993 and a non-departmental public body under the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport. As of January 2012, the Chairman of the Trustees is Sir Francis Richards. Since October 2008, the museum's director general has been Diane Lees. On 27 February 1917 Sir Alfred Mond, a Liberal MP and First Commissioner of Works, wrote to the Prime Minister David Lloyd George to propose the establishment of a National War Museum; this proposal was accepted by the War Cabinet on 5 March 1917 and the decision announced in The Times on 26 March. A committee was established, chaired by Mond, to oversee the collection of material to be exhibited in the new museum; this National War Museum Committee set about collecting material to illustrate Britain's war effort by dividing into subcommittees examining such subjects as the Army, the Navy, the production of munitions, women's war work.

There was an early appreciation of the need for exhibits to reflect personal experience in order to prevent the collections becoming dead relics. Sir Martin Conway, the museum's first director general, said that exhibits must'be vitalised by contributions expressive of the action, the experiences, the valour and the endurance of individuals'; the museum's first curator and secretary was Charles ffoulkes, curator of the Royal Armouries at the Tower of London. In July 1917 Mond made a visit to the Western Front in order to study how best to organise the museum's growing collection. While in France he met French government ministers, Field Marshal Haig, who took great interest in his work. In December 1917 the name was changed to the Imperial War Museum after a resolution from the India and Dominions Committee of the museum; the museum was opened by King George V at the Crystal Palace on 9 June 1920. During the opening ceremony, Sir Alfred Mond addressed the King on behalf of the committee, saying that'it was hoped to make the museum so complete that every one who took part in the war, however obscurely, would find therein an example or illustration of the sacrifice he or she made' and that the museum'was not a monument of military glory, but a record of toil and sacrifice'.

Shortly afterwards the Imperial War Museum Act 1920 was passed and established a Board of Trustees to oversee the governance of the museum. To reflect the museum's Imperial remit the board included appointees of the governments of India, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand. While the Act was being debated, some Parliamentarians felt that the museum would perpetuate an undesirable war spirit and Commander Joseph Kenworthy MP said that he would'refuse to vote a penny of public money to commemorate such suicidal madness of civilisation as that, shown in the late War'. On the August Bank Holiday 1920, the first public holiday since the museum's opening, 94,179 visitors were received, by November 1921, 2,290,719 had visited the museum. In 1924 the museum moved to the Imperial Institute building in South Kensington. While this location was more central and in a prestigious area for museums, the accommodation itself proved cramped and inadequate and in 1936 a new permanent location was found south of the Rive

Fenix mine

The Fenix nickel project is a nickel resource in eastern Guatemala first developed by Inco, a Canadian mining company, beginning in 1960. In 1965 the firm was granted a 40-year lease to operate an open pit mine on 385 square kilometers by the Guatemalan government; the mine is located in El Estor in Izabal Department. The mine has reserves amounting to 36.1 million tonnes of ore grading 1.86% nickel. The Fenix ferro-nickel project in Guatemala is owned by Compañía Guatemalteca de Niquel EXMIBAL, a subsidiary of Inco, 98.2% owned by Hudbay Minerals from August 2008 to September 2011 when it was sold for $170 million to the Russian owned Solway Group, headquartered in Cyprus. The operation had been on care and maintenance since 1980. Skye Resources, a Vancouver firm, had purchased the project from Inco in 2004 but was acquired by Hudbay in 2008; the Fenix Project in eastern Guatemala is a substantial brownfield nickel laterite mine and process plant. HudBay Minerals and two of its subsidiaries are subject to an ongoing $12 million lawsuit in Canada over the killing of a prominent Mayan community leader at the Fenix Mining Project.

The lawsuit alleges that on September 27, 2009, security personnel employed at the Fenix mine surrounded and hacked at Adolfo Ich Chamán with machetes before shooting him in the head at close range in an unprovoked attack. An arrest warrant was issued for the Head of Security at the Fenix mine, Mynor Ronaldo Padilla Gonzáles. A non-governmental organization has referred to the murder as the “targeted killing of a well-known community leader.” Amnesty International has stated with respect to the murder allegation “he allegations are serious, Amnesty International calls for a swift and impartial investigation into the death of Adolfo Ich Chamán and other incidents of violence, to make the results public and to bring those responsible to justice”. HudBay states that it and CGN have cooperated with all investigations conducted by Guatemalan authorities in connection with the incidents which occurred on September 27, 2009, in El Estor. CGN carried out an internal investigation and determined that none of its employees or security personnel were involved in the death of Chamán.

In June 2013, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice ruled that the Canadian company could be held responsible for crimes committed in Guatemala, including the alleged murder of Adolfo Ich Chamán and the alleged sexual assault of 11 women from Lote Ocho. A jury notice was filed in December 2013; the Fenix mining project is subject to ongoing land claims by local Mayan communities. In 2006, the International Labour Organization, an agency of the United Nations, ruled that Guatemala had breached international law by granting the Fenix mining concession without first consulting with local Mayan people; the ILO released a report discussing the violation in 2007. In late 2006 and early 2007, Skye Resources sought forced evictions of Mayan communities located on contested mine land. Homes were burned to the ground during these evictions. "Choc v. HudBay Minerals Inc. & Caal v. HudBay Minerals Inc. Lawsuits against Canadian company HudBay Minerals Inc. over human rights abuse in Guatemala"

Radiocontrast agent

Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography, projectional radiography, fluoroscopy. Radiocontrast agents are iodine, or more barium-sulphate, they absorb external X-rays. This is different from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging functions through different principles and thus utilizes different contrast agents; these compounds work by altering the magnetic properties of nearby hydrogen nuclei. Radiocontrast agents used in X-ray examinations can be grouped in positive, negative agents. Iodine has a particular advantage as a contrast agent because its innermost electron binding energy is 33.2 keV, similar to the average energy of x-rays used in diagnostic radiography. When the incident x-ray energy is closer to the k-edge of the atom it encounters, photoelectric absorption is more to occur. Iodinated contrast contains iodine, it is the main type of radiocontrast used for intravenous administration.

Its uses include: Contrast CTs Angiography Venography VCUG HSG IVU Organic iodine molecules used for contrast include iohexol and ioversol. Barium sulfate is used in the imaging of the digestive system; the substance exists as a water-insoluble white powder, made into a slurry with water and administered directly into the gastrointestinal tract. Barium enema and DCBE Barium swallow Barium meal and double contrast barium meal Barium follow through CT pneumocolon / virtual colonoscopyBarium sulfate, an insoluble white powder is used for enhancing contrast in the GI tract. Depending on how it is to be administered the compound is mixed with water, thickeners, de-clumping agents, flavourings to make the contrast agent; as the barium sulfate doesn't dissolve, this type of contrast agent is an opaque white mixture. It is only used in the digestive tract. After the examination, it leaves the body with the feces; as in the picture on the right where both air and barium are used together air can be used as a contrast material because it is less radio-opaque than the tissues it is defining.

In the picture it highlights the interior of the colon. An example of a technique using purely air for the contrast medium is an air arthrogram where the injection of air into a joint cavity allows the cartilage covering the ends of the bones to be visualized. Before the advent of modern neuroimaging techniques, air or other gases were used as contrast agents employed to displace the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain while performing a pneumoencephalography. Sometimes called an "air study", this once common yet highly-unpleasant procedure was used to enhance the outline of structures in the brain, looking for shape distortions caused by the presence of lesions. Carbon dioxide has a role in angioplasty, it is low-risk. However, it can be used only below the diaphragm as there is a risk of embolism in neurovascular procedures, it must be used to avoid contamination with room air when injected. It is a negative contrast agent. Thorotrast was a contrast agent based on thorium dioxide, radioactive, it was first introduced in 1929.

While it provided good image enhancement, its use was abandoned in the late 1950s since it turned out to be carcinogenic. Given that the substance remained in the bodies of those to whom it was administered, it gave a continuous radiation exposure and was associated with a risk of cancers of the liver, bile ducts and bones, as well as higher rates of hematological malignancy. Thorotrast may have been administered to millions of patients prior to being disused. In the past, some non water-soluble contrast agents were used. One such substance was iofendylate, an iodinated oil-based substance, used in myelography. Due to it being oil-based, it was recommended that the physician remove it from the patient at the end of the procedure; this was a painful and difficult step and because complete removal could not always be achieved, iofendylate's persistence in the body might sometimes lead to arachnoiditis, a painful and debilitating lifelong disorder of the spine. Iofendylate's use ceased. With the advent of MRI, myelography became much less-commonly performed.

Modern iodinated contrast agents - non-ionic compounds - are well tolerated. The adverse effects of radiocontrast can be subdivided into type A reactions, type B reactions. Patients receiving contrast via IV experience a hot feeling around the throat, this hot sensation moves down to the pelvic area. Iodinated contrast may be toxic to the kidneys when given via the arteries prior to studies such as catheter coronary angiography. Non-ionic contrast agents, which are exclusively used in computed tomography studies, have not been shown to cause CIN when given intravenously