A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece
Westernization or Westernisation Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation, is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, law, economics, diet, language, religion and values. Westernization has been a growing influence across the world in the last few centuries, with some thinkers assuming Westernization to be the equivalent of modernization, a way of thought, debated; the overall process of Westernization is two-sided in that Western influences and interests themselves are joined with parts of the affected society, at minimum, to change towards a more Westernized society, with the putative goal of attaining a Western life or some aspects of it, while Western societies are themselves affected by this process and interaction with non-Western groups. Westernization traces it roots back to Ancient Greece; the Roman Empire would take on the first process of Westernization as it was influenced by Greece and created a new culture based on the principles and values of the Ancient Greek society.
The Romans emerged with a culture that would lay the new foundations of Europe and grow into a new Western identity based on the Greco-Roman society. Westernization can be compared to acculturation and enculturation. Acculturation is "the process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between cultural groups and their individual members." After contact, changes in cultural patterns are evident within both cultures. Specific to Westernization and the non-Western culture, foreign societies tend to adopt changes in their own social systems relative to Western ideology and physical appearance, along with numerous other aspects, shifts in culture patterns can be seen to take root as a community becomes acculturated to Western customs and characteristics – in other words, Westernized. Westernization can include Christianization and Europeanization, with historical versions including Romanization, Hellenization and Germanization; the phenomenon of Westernization does not follow any one specific pattern across societies as the degree of adaption and fusion with Western customs will occur at varying magnitudes within different communities.
The extent to which domination, resistance, adaptation or modification affect a native culture may differ following inter-ethnic contact. The "West" was defined as the Western world. Ancient Romans distinguished between Oriental cultures that inhabited present-day Egypt and Occidental cultures that lived in the West. A thousand years the East-West Schism separated the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church from each other; the definition of Western changed as the West was spread to other nations. Islamic and Byzantine scholars added to the Western canon when their stores of Greek and Roman literature jump-started the Renaissance. Although Russia converted to Christianity in the 10th century, the West expanded to include it when Peter the Great reformed the country's government, the church and modernised the society thanks to the ideas brought from the Netherlands. Today, most modern uses of the term refer to the societies in the West and their close genealogical and philosophical descendants included are those countries whose ethnic identity and dominant culture are derived from European culture.
However, though sharing in similar historical background, it would be incorrect to regard the Western world as a monolithic bloc, as many cultural, religious and economical differences exist between Western countries and populations. Western civilization is said to include United States, European Union and New Zealand; the definition is widened, can include these countries, or a combination of these countries: European countries outside of the EU and EFTA – Due to sharing of the general European culture and Christian faith, these countries are included in the definition of the West. Latin America; some countries in Latin America are considered Western countries because most of its peoples are descended from Europeans. And thus their society operates in a Westernized way. Indeed, most countries in Latin America use their official language, either in Spanish or Portuguese. According to the CIA World Factbook, there has been considerable immigration to Latin America from European nations other than Spain and Portugal.
The process of Westernization comes when non-Western societies come under Western influence or adopt Western culture in different areas such as industry, law, economics, diet, language, religion and values. The following countries or regions experienced a significant influence by the process of Westernization: Turkey. Although geographically only 3% of Turkey lies in Europe and the rest in the Middle East, Turkey has a similar economic system, has a customs union with the European Union in addition to being an official candidate for membership, is a member of typical Western organisations such as OECD, Council of Europe, NATO, it is a member of European organisations for sports and cultural events such as UEFA and the Eurovision Song Contest. Israel. Although Israel is geographically l
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Typical landforms include hills, plateaus and valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays and seas, including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges and the great ocean basins. Landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, orientation, rock exposure, soil type. Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, hills, cliffs, rivers, peninsulas and numerous other structural and size-scaled elements including various kinds of inland and oceanic waterbodies and sub-surface features. Oceans and continents exemplify the highest-order landforms. Landform elements are parts of a high-order landforms that can be further identified and systematically given a cohesive definition such as hill-tops, saddles and backslopes; some generic landform elements including: pits, channels, passes and plains.
Terrain is the vertical dimension of land surface. Topography is the study of terrain, although the word is used as a synonym for relief itself; when relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used. In cartography, many different techniques are used to describe relief, including contour lines and TIN. Elementary landforms are the smallest homogeneous divisions of the land surface, at the given scale/resolution; these are areas with homogeneous morphometric properties, bounded by lines of discontinuity. A plateau or a hill can be observed at various scales ranging from few hundred meters to hundreds of kilometers. Hence, the spatial distribution of landforms is scale-dependent as is the case for soils and geological strata. A number of factors, ranging from plate tectonics to erosion and deposition, can generate and affect landforms. Biological factors can influence landforms— for example, note the role of vegetation in the development of dune systems and salt marshes, the work of corals and algae in the formation of coral reefs.
Landforms do not include man-made features, such as canals and many harbors. Many of the terms are not restricted to refer to features of the planet Earth, can be used to describe surface features of other planets and similar objects in the Universe. Examples are mountains, polar caps, valleys, which are found on all of the terrestrial planets; the scientific study of landforms is known as geomorphology. Landforms may be extracted from a digital elevation model using some automated techniques where the data has been gathered by modern satellites and stereoscopic aerial surveillance cameras; until compiling the data found in such data sets required time consuming and expensive techniques involving many man-hours. The most detailed DEMs available are measured directly using LIDAR techniques. Landforms portal Geomorphology Land List of landforms Open-geomorphometry project Terrain Open-Geomorphometry Project
Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office
The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army. The Army Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Navy Ministry, to replace the Ministry of Military Affairs of the early Meiji government; the Army Ministry was in charge of both administration and operational command of the Imperial Japanese Army. The Imperial Army General Staff was thus responsible for the preparation of war plans; the Chief of the Army General Staff was the senior ranking uniformed officer in the Imperial Japanese Army and enjoyed, along with the War Minister, the Navy Minister, the Chief of the Navy General Staff, direct access to the Emperor. In wartime, the Imperial Army General Staff formed part of the army section of the Imperial General Headquarters, an ad hoc body under the supervision of the emperor created to assist in coordinating overall command. Following the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867 and the "restoration" of direct imperial rule, the leaders of the new Meiji government sought to reduce Japan's vulnerability to Western imperialism by systematically emulating the technological, governing and military practices of the European great powers.
Under Ōmura Masujirō and his newly created Ministry of the Military Affairs, the Japanese military was patterned after that of France. However, the stunning victory of Prussia and the other members of the North German Confederation in the 1870/71 Franco-Prussian War convinced the Meiji oligarchs of the superiority of the Prussian military model and in February 1872, Yamagata Aritomo and Oyama Iwao proposed that the Japanese military be remodeled along Prussian lines. In December 1878, at the urging of Katsura Taro, who had served as a military attaché to Prussia, the Meiji government adopted the Prussian/German general staff system which included the independence of the military from civilian organs of government, thus ensuring that the military would stay above political party maneuvering, would be loyal directly to the emperor rather than to a Prime Minister who might attempt to usurp the emperor's authority; the administrative and operational functions of the army were divided between two agencies.
A reorganized Ministry of War served as the administrative and mobilization agency of the army, an independent Army General Staff had responsibility for strategic planning and command functions. The Chief of the Army General Staff, with direct access to the emperor could operate independently of the civilian government; this complete independence of the military from civilian oversight was codified in the 1889 Meiji Constitution which designated that the Army and Navy were directly under the personal command of the emperor, not under the civilian leadership or Cabinet. Yamagata became the first chief of the Army General Staff in 1878. Thanks to Yamagata's influence, the Chief of the Army General Staff became far more powerful than the War Minister. Furthermore, a 1900 imperial ordinance decreed that the two service ministers had to be chosen from among the generals or lieutenant generals on the active duty roster. By ordering the incumbent War Minister to resign or by ordering generals to refuse an appointment as War Minister, the Chief of the General Staff could force the resignation of the cabinet or forestall the formation of a new one.
Of the seventeen officers who served as Chief of the Army General Staff between 1879 and 1945, three were members of the Imperial Family and thus enjoyed great prestige by virtue of their ties to the Emperor. The American Occupation authorities abolished the Imperial Army General Staff in September 1945; the Organization of the Army General Staff Office underwent a number of changes during its history. Before the start of the Pacific War, it was divided into four operational bureaus and a number of supporting organs: Chief of the Army General Staff Vice Chief of the Army General Staff General Affairs G-1 Strategy and Tactics Department Land Survey Department G-2 Russia Department Europe and North America Department China Department Others Department G-3 G-4 G-5 General Staff College Note: The given rank for each person is the rank the person held at last, not the rank the person held at the time of their post as Chief of the Army General Staff. For example, the rank of Field Marshal existed only from 1898 onward.
Ministry of the Army U. S. War Department, Handbook of Japanese Military Forces, TM-E 30-480. Hayashi, Saburo. Quantico, Virginia: The Marine Corps Association. Shin'ichi Kitaoka, "Army as Bureaucracy: Japanese Militarism Revisited", Journal of Military History, special issue 57: 67-83. Edgerton, Robert B
Morality is the differentiation of intentions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. Morality may be synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes metaethics, which studies abstract issues such as moral ontology and moral epistemology, normative ethics, which studies more concrete systems of moral decision-making such as deontological ethics and consequentialism. An example of normative ethical philosophy is the Golden Rule, which states that: "One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself."Immorality is the active opposition to morality, while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any particular set of moral standards or principles. Ethics is the branch of philosophy.
The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual." Certain types of ethical theories deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between ethics and morals: "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Immanuel Kant, based on notions such as duty and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, avoiding the separation of'moral' considerations from other practical considerations." In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores from a society that provides these codes of conduct in which it applies and is accepted by an individual. It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that, considered right or wrong.
Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy. In its normative sense, "morality" refers to whatever is right or wrong, which may be independent of the values or mores held by any particular peoples or cultures. Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy. Philosophical theories on the nature and origins of morality are broadly divided into two classes: Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity shape individuals' "moral" decisions, they deny that those cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior; this may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalists, however not all moral realists accept that position. Moral anti-realism, on the other hand, holds that moral statements either fail or do not attempt to report objective moral facts. Instead, they hold that moral sentences are either categorically false claims of objective moral facts.
Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism. For example, universal prescriptivism is a universalist form of non-cognitivism which claims that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives, divine command theory and ideal observer theory are universalist forms of ethical subjectivism which claim that morality is derived from the edicts of a god or the hypothetical decrees of a rational being, respectively. Celia Green made a distinction between territorial morality, she characterizes the latter as predominantly negative and proscriptive: it defines a person's territory, including his or her property and dependents, not to be damaged or interfered with. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another. By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual.
These norms will be arbitrary, culturally dependent and'flexible', whereas territorial morality aims at rules which are universal and absolute, such as Kant's'categorical imperative' and Geisler's graded absolutism. Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, the ascendancy of contract over status; some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an "in-group" or an "out-group". Some biologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this in-group/out-group discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival; this belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. In simulations this discrimination can result in both unexpected cooperation towards the in-group and irrational hostility towards the out-group. Gary R. Johnson and V. S. Falger have argued that nationalism an
Finance is a field, concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities over space and time under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Matters in personal finance revolve around: Protection against unforeseen personal events, as well as events in the wider economies Transference of family wealth across generations Effects of tax policies management of personal finances Effects of credit on individual financial standing Development of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement.
Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations. The six key areas of personal financial planning, as suggested by the Financial Planning Standards Board, are: Financial position: is concerned with understanding the personal resources available by examining net worth and household cash flows. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that person's control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flows total up all from the expected sources of income within a year, minus all expected expenses within the same year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree and in what time the personal goals can be accomplished. Adequate protection: the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks; these risks can be divided into the following: liability, death, disability and long term care. Some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance. Business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a critical piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning: the income tax is the single largest expense in a household. Managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, which can be used to reduce the lifetime tax burden. Most modern governments use a progressive tax; as one's income grows, a higher marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the myriad tax breaks when planning one's personal finances can make a significant impact in which can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals: planning how to accumulate enough money – for large purchases and life events – is what most people consider to be financial planning.
Major reasons to accumulate assets include purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals. A major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the financial planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking and regular savings to be invested in a variety of investments. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, which will subject the portfolio to a number of risks. Managing these portfolio risks is most accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity; this asset allocation will prescribe a percentage allocation to be invested in stocks, bonds and alternative investments.
The allocation should take into consideration the personal risk profile of every investor, since risk attitudes vary from person to person. Retirement planning is the process of understanding how much it costs to live at retirement, coming up with a plan to distribute assets to meet any income shortfall. Methods for retirement plans include taking advantage of government allowed structures to manage tax liability including: individual structures, or employer sponsored retirement plans and life insurance products. Estate planning involves planning for the disposition of one's assets after death. There is a tax due to the state or federal government at one's death. Avoiding these taxes means that more of one's assets will be distributed to one's heirs. One can leave one's assets to friends or charitable groups. Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Corporate f