Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending a country's rule over foreign nations by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism has been common throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC. In recent times, it has been considered morally reprehensible and prohibited by international law; as a result, propagandists operating internationally may use the term to denounce an opponent's foreign policy. The term can be applied - inter alia - to the colonization of the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries - as opposed to New Imperialism. Well-known examples of imperialism arguably include the American invasion of Vietnam and Britain's occupation of India; the word imperialism originated from the Latin word imperium. It first became common with its current sense in Great Britain, during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation; the word imperialism had been used to describe to what was perceived as Napoleon III's attempts of obtaining political support through foreign military interventions.

The term was and is applied to Western political and economic dominance in Asia and Africa, in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars; some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism. "The word'empire' comes from the Latin word imperium. The greatest distinction of an empire is through the amount of land that a nation has conquered and expanded. Political power grows from conquering land. A distinction about empires is "that although political empires were built by expansion overland and cultural influences spread at least as much by sea"; some of the main aspects of trade that went overseas consisted of animals and plant products. European empires in Asia and Africa "have come to be seen as the classic forms of imperialism: and indeed most books on the subject confine themselves to the European seaborne empires".

European expansion caused the world to be divided by how developed and developing nation are portrayed through the world systems theory. The two main regions are the periphery; the core consists of areas of high profit. These critical theories of geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world; the Russian leader Lenin suggested that "imperialism was the highest form of capitalism, claiming that imperialism developed after colonialism, was distinguished from colonialism by monopoly capitalism". This idea from Lenin stresses. Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major economic players in the market; the term "imperialism" is conflated with "colonialism". Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe one's perceived superiority and influence upon a person or group of people. Robert Young writes that while imperialism operates from the center, is a state policy and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons, colonialism is the development for settlement or commercial intentions.

However, colonialism still includes invasion. Colonialism in modern usage tends to imply a degree of geographic separation between the colony and the imperial power. Edward Said distinguishes the difference between imperialism and colonialism by stating. Contiguous land empires such as the Russian or Ottoman have traditionally been excluded from discussions of colonialism, though this is beginning to change, since it is accepted that they sent populations into the territories they ruled. Imperialism and colonialism both dictate the political and economic advantage over a land and the indigenous populations they control, yet scholars sometimes find it difficult to illustrate the difference between the two. Although imperialism and colonialism focus on the suppression of another, if colonialism refers to the process of a country taking physical control of another, imperialism refers to the political and monetary dominance, either formally or informally. Colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism.

Colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area and eventually is able to rule over the areas the previous nation had controlled. Colonialism's core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation, conquered and the conquering nation gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war; the meaning of imperialism is to create an empire, by conquering the other state's lands and therefore increasing its own dominance. Co

Oxon (chemical)

An oxon is an organic compound derived from another chemical in which a phosphorus-sulfur bond in the parent chemical has been replaced by a phosphorus-oxygen bond in the derivative. Important examples of oxons can be found in the family of pesticides known as organophosphates; some of these chemicals, such as chlorpyrifos and parathion, do not manifest their main toxicity in their original form. Rather, an animal's liver replaces a phosphorus-sulfur bond with a phosphorus-oxygen bond, turning these chemicals into oxons; the oxons inhibit the acetylcholinesterase, causing acetylcholine to accumulate uncontrollably, wreaking havoc on the animal's nervous system. Paraoxon Chlorpyrifos oxon

Thomas Roach (mayor)

Thomas M. Roach Jr. is an American politician and attorney serving as mayor of White Plains, New York. He took office as acting mayor in February 2011 following the resignation of former Mayor Adam Bradley. Roach won. Roach was born in White Plains, he attended SUNY Albany where he received a degree in political science, earned his law degree at the SUNY Buffalo School of Law. Upon graduating from law school in 1986, he represented indigent individuals in Bronx County with the Legal Aid Society. In 1989 he entered the private practice of law in White Plains and has been engaged in civil litigation since then, he was employed with the firm of Mead, Hecht and Gallagher in Mamaroneck. Roach has two children, he is a cancer survivor. In 2001, Roach was elected to the White Plains Common Council as a Democrat, he was reelected in 2005 and 2009. In November 2010, Roach ran for the New York State Assembly and lost by 112 votes to incumbent Robert Castelli, who had taken office in February of that year following the resignation of former Assemblyman Adam Bradley, who had vacated the office after being elected Mayor of White Plains.

In February 2011, Bradley announced his resignation as mayor, following his December 2010 conviction for attempted assault and harassment of his wife, overturned in 2013. Roach, as President of the Common Council at the time, ascended to the Office of Mayor of the City of White Plains. Roach subsequently won a special election to fill the remainder of Bradley's term. November 2010 general election, New York State Assembly, 89th ADMarch 2011 special election, White Plains, MayorNovember 2013 general election, White Plains, Mayor Tom Roach Campaign Web site