Impi is a Zulu word meaning war or combat, by association any body of men gathered for war, for example impi ya mashosha is a term denoting'an army'. However, in English impi is used to refer to a Zulu regiment, called an ibutho in Zulu, its beginnings lie far back in historic tribal warfare customs, when groups of armed men called impis battled. They were systematised radically by the Zulu king Shaka, only the exiled illegitimate son of king Senzangakhona kaJama, but showing much prowess as a general in the army of Mthethwa king Dingiswayo in the Ndwandwe–Zulu War of 1817–1819; the Zulu impi is popularly identified with the ascent of Shaka, ruler of the small Zulu tribe before its explosion across the landscape of southern Africa, but its earliest shape as an instrument of statecraft lies in the innovations of the Mthethwa chieftain Dingiswayo, according to some historians. These innovations in turn drew upon existing tribal customs, such as the iNtanga; this was an age grade tradition common among many of the Bantu peoples of the continent's southern region.
Youths were organised into age groups, with each cohort responsible for certain duties and tribal ceremonies. Periodically, the older age grades were summoned to the kraals of sub-chieftains, or inDunas, for consultations, an induction ceremony that marked their transition from boys to full-fledged adults and warriors, the ukuButbwa. Kraal or settlement elders handled local disputes and issues. Above them were the inDunas, above the inDunas stood the chief of a particular clan lineage or tribe; the inDunas handled administrative matters for their chiefs – ranging from settlement of disputes, to the collection of taxes. In time of war, the inDunas supervised the fighting men in their areas, forming leadership of the military forces deployed for combat; the age grade iNtangas, under the guidance of the inDunas, formed the basis for the systematic regimental organisation that would become known worldwide as the impi. Militarily warfare was mild among the Bantu prior to the rise of Shaka, though it occurred frequently.
Objectives were limited to such matters as cattle raiding, avenging some personal insult, or resolving disputes over segments of grazing land. A loose mob, called an impi participated in these melees. There were no campaigns of extermination against the defeated, they moved on to other open spaces on the veldt, equilibrium was restored. The bow and arrow were known but used. Warfare, like the hunt, depended on skilled spearmen and trackers; the primary weapon was the assegai. Several were carried into combat. Defensive weapons included a small cowhide shield, improved by King Shaka. Many battles were prearranged, with the clan warriors meeting at an assigned place and time, while women and children of the clan watched the festivities from some distance away. Ritualized taunts, single combats and tentative charges were the typical pattern. If the affair did not dissipate before, one side might find enough courage to mount a sustained attack, driving off their enemies. Casualties were light; the defeated clan might pay in lands or cattle and have captives to be ransomed, but extermination and mass casualties were rare.
Tactics were rudimentary. Outside the ritual battles, the quick raid was the most frequent combat action, marked by burning kraals, seizure of captives, the driving off of cattle. Pastoral herders and light agriculturalists, the Bantu did not build permanent fortifications to fend off enemies. A clan under threat packed their meager material possessions, rounded up their cattle and fled until the marauders were gone. If the marauders did not stay to permanently dispossess them of grazing areas, the fleeing clan might return to rebuild in a day or two; the genesis of the Zulu impi thus lies in tribal structures existing long before the coming of Europeans or the Shaka era. In the early 19th century, a combination of factors began to change the customary pattern; these included rising populations, the growth of white settlement and slaving that dispossessed native peoples both at the Cape and in Portuguese Mozambique, the rise of ambitious "new men." One such man, a warrior called Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa rose to prominence.
Historians such as Donald Morris hold that his political genius laid the basis for a light hegemony. This was established through a combination of diplomacy and conquest, using not extermination or slavery, but strategic reconciliation and judicious force of arms; this hegemony reduced the frequent feuding and fighting among the small clans in the Mthethwa's orbit, transferring their energies to more centralised forces. Under Dingiswayo the age grades came to be regarded as military drafts, deployed more to maintain the new order, it was including among them the eLangeni and the Zulu, that Shaka sprung. Shaka proved himself to be one of Dingiswayo's most able warriors after the military call up of his age grade to serve in the Mthethwa forces, he fought with his iziCwe regiment wherever he was assigned during this early period, but from the beginning, Shaka's approach to battle did not fit the traditional mould. He began to implement his own individual methods and style, designing the famous short stabbing spear the iKlwa, a larger, stronger shield, discarding the oxhide sandals that he felt slowed him down.
These methods proved effective on a small scale. His conception of warfare was far more extreme than the reconcilitory methods of Dingiswayo, he sought to bring combat to a swift and bloody decision, as opposed to duels of individual champions, scattered raid
Bengtsfors Church belongs to the Ärtemark parish in the Diocese of Karlstad, Sweden. It is situated on a point in the Lelång Lake in the municipality of Bengtsfors; the wooden church was built in 1926, designed by engineer Simon Svensson and was consecrated the same year by bishop Johan Alfred Eklund. A larger renovation and conversion was made in 1957 under the supervision of architect Verner Johansson; that was when the church porch was added and the sacristy extended. The style of the church is a typical 1920s Classicism. A separate bell tower was built in 1933; the inventories in the church are: The pulpit is contemporary with the church. At the renovation in 1957, wooden sculptures depicting Jesus and the Four Evangelists were added to it; the baptismal font is made of wood with a brass bowl placed in it. The font was a gift from the Bengtsfors Fraternity Society. There are one in the choir; the altarpiece is an oil painting made by artist Henkelman from Stockholm. The painting depicts the words of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount: "You are the light of the world.
A town built on a hill cannot be hidden."
Nedal "Skinny" Hussein is an Australian professional bantam/super bantam/feather/super feather/Lightweight boxer of the 1990s and 2000s who won the Australian super bantamweight title, Australian bantamweight title, International Boxing Federation Pan Pacific featherweight title, World Boxing Federation featherweight title, World Boxing Union super bantamweight title, World Boxing Organization Asia Pacific super featherweight title, International Boxing Federation Pan Pacific super featherweight title, International Boxing Organization Inter-Continental super featherweight title, Commonwealth super bantamweight title, was a challenger for the World Boxing Council International super bantamweight title against Manny Pacquiao, World Boxing Council super bantamweight title against Óscar Larios, World Boxing Organization featherweight title against Scott Harrison and Pacific Boxing Federation featherweight title against Hiroyuki Enoki, Oriental and Pacific Boxing Federation super featherweight title against Takashi Uchiyama, his professional fighting weight varied from 117 1⁄4 lb, i.e. bantamweight to 132 3⁄4 lb, i.e. lightweight.
National Record Mart, known as NRM for short, was an American music store chain. The first music store chain in the United States, it was founded in 1937 in Pittsburgh and operated more than 130 locations at its peak. Other stores under its ownership included Oasis, Music X, Waves Music, Vibes; the chain filed for bankruptcy in 2001 and closed the last of its stores in 2002. It was founded in 1937 by Hyman Shapiro and his sons and Howard, as Jitterbug Records in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the store specialized in used 78 RPM records from jukeboxes. After opening two more stores, the chain became known as National Record Mart by 1941. Hyman's third son, Jason became involved in the family business as well. National Record Mart operated 20 Pittsburgh-area stores in the 1960s, at which point the chain began locating in regional shopping malls, including South Hills Village and Northway Mall; the first stores outside Pennsylvania opened in the 1970s, including Roanoke, Buffalo, New York, Chicago, Illinois.
Hyman retired with his three sons maintaining the business. In 1978, National Record Mart opened Oasis Records & Tapes; the Shapiro brothers expanded National Record Mart to 76 stores before retiring and selling the chain to a group of investors headed by William A. Teitelbaum. Under his ownership, the chain planned expansion to over 200 stores, increased its ad campaigns, introduced a shopping mall-based store called Waves Music, which specialized in compact disc sales. Due to heavy debts assumed by Teitelbaum's leveraged buyout of the chain, 20 locations were sold to The Wall, a music chain owned by British company WHSmith, in 1991. National Record Mart went public in 1993, generating $10 million in capital that year and receiving a new line of credit, in addition to purchasing nine locations from Leonard Smith Music; the chain's turnaround earned it a nomination for Retailer of the Year from the National Association of Recording Merchandisers. By the middle of the decade, NRM faced increased competition as discount stores such as Kmart and Walmart began selling music at lower prices than specialty record stores, chain bookstores such as Barnes & Noble began selling music as well.
National Record Mart made a failed attempt to purchase the Wherehouse chain, under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, at the time. In the mid-1990s, the chain opened new concept stores, including an alternative music specialty store called Music X, Vibes Music, which catered to college markets. National Record Mart introduced websites for both itself and Waves Music in 1998; the sites featured the ability to sell used albums, download music, create custom-made albums. The chain expanded into Hawaii and California through a purchase of Tempo Music in 1998. During this time, two of the three Shapiro brothers died: Howard in Sam in November. One year National Record Mart entered a partnership with the World Wrestling Federation to sell exclusive licensed products; the chain had 175 stores in 30 states in 1999. Despite the addition of the websites, National Record Mart continued to lose sales through 1999 and 2000. National Record Mart filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in June 2001 after five record labels pushed for liquidation, claiming $19 million in owed revenue.
As a result, creditors attempted to force Teitelbaum to step down as owner and replace him with Michael Catain. National Record Mart closed the last of its stores in 2002
Jessica Patterson is an American former professional motocross and enduro racer. She competed in the AMA Motocross Championships from 2000 to 2013. Patterson was one of the most accomplished female racers in the history of AMA motocross, winning 7 national championships. From Tallahassee, Patterson began riding motorcycles at the age of 7 and qualified for her first Loretta Lynn's Amateur Motocross National Championship by age 12. By the time she became a professional racer in 2000, Patterson had won 42 amateur championships; as a professional rider, Patterson went on to win the AMA Women's motocross national championship seven times starting in 2000. She appeared as a playable character in the 2002 motorcross video game Freekstyle. In 2013, she announced her intention to retire from motocross competitions at the end of the season, she won the last motocross race of her career to clinch the 2013 Women's motocross national championship. Her 7 national championships are second only to the 9 championships won by Mercedes Gonzalez.
Tiglath-Pileser III was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE who introduced advanced civil and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Tiglath-Pileser III killed the royal family, he made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government improving its efficiency and security. He created Assyria's first professional standing army. Tiglath-Pileser III subjugated much of the Near East region. In the south west, Judah, Samarra, Edom, the Suteans and Nabatea fell. To the north, Urartu and Scythia in the Caucasus Mountains, Cimmeria by the Black Sea, Nairi were subjugated, in the north west much of eastern and south western Asia Minor, including the Hittites, Cilicia, Tabal and Caria. In the west, the Greeks of Cyprus and Aram, the Mediterranean city-states of Phoenicia/Caanan were subjugated. To the east he subjugated Persia, Gutium, Mannea and Elam. In his reign he was crowned king in Babylonia. Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire.
He is one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death. The governor of Kalhu and a general, the usurper Pulu assumed his Assyrian throne-name from two more-legitimate predecessors, he described himself as a son of Adad-nirari III in his inscriptions, but the accuracy of this claim remains uncertain. He seized the throne in the midst of civil war on 13 Ayaru, 745 BCE; as a result of Pulu seizing the throne in a bloody coup d'état, the old royal family was slaughtered, the new monarch set Assyria on the path to expand the empire in order to ensure the survival of the kingdom. A mutilated brick inscription states; this is quite a discrepancy for the King list places Adad-nirari III four monarchs before Tiglath-pileser's reign and depicts Ashur-nirari as both his father and immediate predecessor upon the throne. The list goes on to relate that Shalmaneser III, Ashur-dan III were brothers, being the sons of Adad-nirari.
Ashur-nirari is said to be a son of Adad-nirari, implying brotherhood with Shalmaneser III, Ashur-dan III. The Assyrian records contain little information concerning Adad-nirari and nothing about Shalmaneser III or Ashur-dan III. An alabaster stele was discovered in 1894 at Tell Abta displaying the name Tiglath-pileser imprinted over that of Shalmaneser, a successor of Adad-Nirari and the third sovereign prior to Tiglath-pileser; this find coupled with the aforementioned absence of information relative to Shalmaneser III and Ashur-dan III implies that Tiglath-pileser was a usurper to the throne and that he destroyed the records of his three immediate predecessors—Ashur-nirari, Shalmaneser III, Ashur-dan III. More so it was in Babylon that he was his son as Ululayu. Pulu and both his sons taking up Assyrian names is another suggestion that they were foreigners who had usurped the crown of Assyria at the revolt of Kalhu; the identification of Pul with Tiglath-Pileser III has been bolstered by the discovery and interpretation of the Phoenician inscription from Incirli, line 5 of which reads: פאל מל אשר רב "Pu'lu, the great king of Assyria".
Assyrian power in the Near East increased as the result of Tiglath-Pileser's military reforms and of his campaigns of conquest. Upon ascending the throne, he claimed to have annexed Babylonia, from "Dur-galzu, Sippar of Shamash... the cities bylonia up to the Uqnu river wer ", subsequently placed his eunuch over them as governor. In his first year of reign he defeated the powerful kingdom of Urartu, whose hegemony under the rulership of Sarduri II had extended to Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia, western Iran and Syria, he defeated the Medes before making war on and conquering the Neo-Hittites and Phoenicia. He took Arpad in 740 BCE after three years of siege, annexed it as a province, subjected Hamath to tribute. Assyrian inscriptions record in 740 BCE, the fifth year of his reign, a victory over Azariah, king of Judah, whose achievements appear in 2 Chronicles 26, he subjugated Damascus, the Arabs under Queen Zabibe, Menahem of Israel and Sam'al's king Azriyau, who all paid him tribute. In 737 and 736 BCE he turned his attention again to Iran, conquering the Medes and Persians and occupying a large part of Iran.
According to the royal inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser many of the inhabitants were enslaved and deported to other parts of the Assyrian empire, as done by his predecessors. At sieges, captives were slaughtered, their bodies raised on stakes and displayed before the city. In October 729 BCE, Tiglath-Pileser assumed total control of Babyl