Improvisational theatre called improvisation or improv, is the form of theatre comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers. In its purest form, the dialogue, action and characters are created collaboratively by the players as the improvisation unfolds in present time, without use of an prepared, written script. Improvisational theatre exists in performance as a range of styles of improvisational comedy as well as some non-comedic theatrical performances, it is sometimes used in film and television, both to develop characters and scripts and as part of the final product. Improvisational techniques are used extensively in drama programs to train actors for stage and television and can be an important part of the rehearsal process. However, the skills and processes of improvisation are used outside the context of performing arts; this practice, known as applied improvisation, is used in classrooms as an educational tool and in businesses as a way to develop communication skills, creative problem solving, supportive team-work abilities that are used by improvisational, ensemble players.
It is sometimes used in psychotherapy as a tool to gain insight into a person's thoughts and relationships. The earliest well-documented use of improvisational theatre in Western history is found in the Atellan Farce of 391 BC. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, commedia dell'arte performers improvised based on a broad outline in the streets of Italy. In the 1890s, theatrical theorists and directors such as the Russian Konstantin Stanislavski and the French Jacques Copeau, founders of two major streams of acting theory, both utilized improvisation in acting training and rehearsal. Modern theatrical improvisation games began as drama exercises for children, which were a staple of drama education in the early 20th century thanks in part to the progressive education movement initiated by John Dewey in 1916; some people credit American Dudley Riggs as the first vaudevillian to use audience suggestions to create improvised sketches on stage. Improvisation exercises were developed further by Viola Spolin in the 1940s, 50s, 60s, codified in her book Improvisation For The Theater, the first book that gave specific techniques for learning to do and teach improvisational theater.
In the 1970s in Canada, British playwright and director Keith Johnstone wrote Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre, a book outlining his ideas on improvisation, invented Theatresports, which has become a staple of modern improvisational comedy and is the inspiration for the popular television show Whose Line Is It Anyway? Spolin influenced the first generation of modern American improvisers at The Compass Players in Chicago, which led to The Second City, her son, Paul Sills, along with David Shepherd, started The Compass Players. Following the demise of the Compass Players, Paul Sills began The Second City, they were the first organized troupes in Chicago, the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement grew from their success. Many of the current "rules" of comedic improv were first formalized in Chicago in the late 1950s and early 1960s among The Compass Players troupe, directed by Paul Sills. From most accounts, David Shepherd provided the philosophical vision of the Compass Players, while Elaine May was central to the development of the premises for its improvisations.
Mike Nichols, Ted Flicker, Del Close were her most frequent collaborators in this regard. When The Second City opened its doors on December 16, 1959, directed by Paul Sills, his mother Viola Spolin began training new improvisers through a series of classes and exercises which became the cornerstone of modern improv training. By the mid-1960s, Viola Spolin's classes were handed over to her protégé, Jo Forsberg, who further developed Spolin's methods into a one-year course, which became The Players Workshop, the first official school of improvisation in the USA. During this time, Forsberg trained many of the performers who went on to star on The Second City stage. Many of the original cast of Saturday Night Live came from The Second City, the franchise has produced such comedy stars as Mike Myers, Tina Fey, Bob Odenkirk, Amy Sedaris, Stephen Colbert, Eugene Levy, Jack McBrayer, Steve Carell, Chris Farley, Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi. Keith Johnstone's group The Theatre Machine, which originated in London, was touring Europe.
This work gave birth to Theatresports, at first secretly in Johnstone's workshops, in public when he moved to Canada. Toronto has been home to a rich improv tradition. In 1984, Dick Chudnow founded ComedySportz in Milwaukee, WI. Expansion began with the addition of ComedySportz-Madison, in 1985; the first Comedy League of America National Tournament was held in 1988, with 10 teams participating. The league boasts a roster of 29 international cities. In San Francisco, The Committee theater was active in North Beach during the 1960s, it was founded by Alan Myerson and his wife Jessica. When The Committee disbanded in 1972, three major companies were formed: The Pitchell Players, The Wing, Improvisation Inc; the only company that continued to perform Close's Harold was the latter one. Its two former members, Michael Bossier and John Elk, formed Spaghetti Jam in San Francisco's Old Spaghetti Factory in 1976, where shortform improv and Harolds were performed through 1983. Stand-up comedians performing down the street at the Intersection for the Arts would drop by and sit in.
In enzymology, a dUTP diphosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dUTP + H2O ⇌ dUMP + diphosphateThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are dUTP and H2O, whereas its two products are dUMP and diphosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases those acting on acid anhydrides in phosphorus-containing anhydrides; the systematic name of this enzyme class is dUTP nucleotidohydrolase. Other names in common use include deoxyuridine-triphosphatase, dUTPase, dUTP pyrophosphatase, desoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase, desoxyuridine 5'-triphosphatase; this enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism. This enzyme has a dual function: on one hand, it removes dUTP from the deoxynucleotide pool, which reduces the probability of this base being incorporated into DNA by DNA polymerases, while on the other hand, it produces the dTTP precursor dUMP. Lack or inhibition of dUTPase action leads to harmful perturbations in the nucleotide pool resulting in increased uracil content of DNA that activates a hyperactive futile cycle of DNA repair.
As of late 2007, 48 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1DUC, 1DUD, 1DUN, 1DUP, 1DUT, 1EU5, 1EUW, 1F7D, 1F7K, 1F7N, 1F7O, 1F7P, 1F7Q, 1F7R, 1MQ7, 1OGH, 1OGK, 1OGL, 1PKH, 1PKJ, 1PKK, 1RN8, 1RNJ, 1SEH, 1SIX, 1SJN, 1SLH, 1SM8, 1SMC, 1SNF, 1SYL, 1VYQ, 1W2Y, 2BSY, 2BT1, 2CJE, 2D4L, 2D4M, 2D4N, 2HQU, 2HR6, 2HRM, 2OKB, 2OKD, 2OKE, 2OL0, 2OL1, 2PY4. There are at least two structurally distinct families of dUTPases; the crystal structure of human dUTPase reveals that each subunit of the dUTPase trimer folds into an eight-stranded jelly-roll beta barrel, with the C-terminal beta strands interchanged among the subunits. The structure is similar to that of the Escherichia coli enzyme, despite low sequence homology between the two enzymes; the second family has a novel all-alpha fold, members of this family are unrelated to the all-beta fold found in dUTPases of the majority of organisms. Bertani Le.. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides. II. Formation". J. Biol.
Chem. 238: 3407–13. PMID 14085395. Giroir LE, Deutsch WA. "Drosophila deoxyuridine triphosphatase. Purification and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 130–4. PMID 3025197. Greenberg G, Somerville R. "DEOXYURIDYLATE KINASE ACTIVITY AND DEOXYURIDINETRIPHOSPHATASE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 48: 247–57. Doi:10.1073/pnas.48.2.247. PMC 220766. PMID 13901467. Grindey GR, Nichol CA. "Mammalian deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 240: 180–3. Doi:10.1016/0005-278790655-1. PMID 5105331
Antoine Vitez was a French actor and poet. He became a central character and influence on the French theater in the post-war period in the technique of teaching drama, he was translator of Chekhov, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Mikhail Sholokhov. Antoine Vitez was born in Paris and trained to be an actor, finding his first acting job at the age of 19 in Ils attendent Lefty at the Théâtre Maubel, he left the National Conservatory of Dramatic Art in Paris in 1950 without graduating and became a Communist activist, which he continued until 1979, when he left the Communist Party following the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR. He met Louis Aragon in 1958 and became his private secretary from 1960 to 1962, he worked in the theater Balachova Tania, wrote reviews published by Jean Vilar in the magazine Théâtre populaire. Vitez found work reading on the radio and voice-dubbing in films, he had his first opportunity as director with Sophocles' Electra at the Maison de la Culture de Caen in 1966. Vitez' production of Electra was successful and he continued directing with Russian and Greek repertoire, directing Mayakovsky's Les Bains in 1967, Eugene Schwartz's Le Dragon in 1968, Chekhov's La Mouette in 1970.
After this initial period, he began working more with French and German repertoire, directing works by Racine, Jakob Lenz, Goethe and René Kalisky. He expanded his work to both traditional and classical theatrical repertoire, including Sophocles, Molière, Paul Claudel, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Pierre Guyotat, Jean Metellus and Jean Audureau. Vitez became a professor at the National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts in 1968, in 1972 he founded the Théâtre des Quartiers d'Ivry. In the same year, he founded the Ateliers d'Ivry workshop, where amateurs and professionals could share a common theatrical practice, he became director at the Chaillot National Theatre in 1981, was appointed deputy head of the Comédie-French in June 1988, a post he held until his sudden death in Paris in 1990. In 1978, Vitez' workshop sessions were recorded by film-maker Maria Koleva, who made five films on different workshop sessions. Vitez presented his plays in locations with non-theatrical elements and without any descriptive function, employing an aesthetic of "free play" and "association of ideas," according to Georges Banu.
Vitez' work required thought on the part of the audience, more than the reality of a set. He saw the theater as a "force field" and demanded an "elitist theater for all." He defended the great classical texts as "sunken galleons," works that were remote and mythological. Théâtre Antoine Vitez on the campus of the University of Provence, now Aix-Marseille University is named for him. Théâtre d'Ivry Antoine Vitez in Ivry-sur-Seine, is named for him
Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation is a tactical role-playing game for the Game Boy Advance, developed by Banpresto and published by Atlus. The game was released in Japan on November 22, 2002, stars various original characters created by Banpresto for their Super Robot Wars series. Like the much earlier Super Robot Wars Gaiden, the game features no licensed mecha or characters at all - instead, it uses only Banpresto's own creations, in an original story; the games sold well in Japan, adapted for a short animated OVA called Super Robot Wars Original Generation: The Animation, which takes place after the second game in the series. A television series, Super Robot Wars Original Generation: Divine Wars, retells the story of the first game. Original Generation was released in the United States on August 8, 2006, it is the first game in the Super Robot Wars series to be commercially released overseas, unlike the rest of the series, it contains no characters from other media, therefore, no legal entanglements were involved in a foreign release.
A sequel, Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation 2, was available on February 3, 2005 in Japan and was released in North America on November 21, 2006. On June 27, 2007, Super Robot Wars: Original Generations, an enhanced remake of both Original Generation games, was released in Japan for the PlayStation 2, it is two hundred years after the beginning of the "Space Era", a time period when civilization began expanding into space. However, by the start of the 21st century, two meteors struck and destroyed much of the Earth, sending humanity into chaos. By year 179 of the Space Era, secret technology, dubbed Extra-Over Technology, or EOT, was discovered by the Earth Federal Government within a third meteor that had hit Earth at the Marquesas Islands in the South Pacific. Dr. Bian Zoldark, while investigating the meteor found out that the creators of the Extra-Over Technology were heading to Earth to reclaim it. In order to defend earth, the government starts to develop a group of humanoid mecha, known as Personal Troopers.
The alien race that created Extra-Over Technology, called the Aerogaters by the Earth Federal Government attacks an Earth ship sent out to investigate their presence in the far reaches of the solar system. This initial skirmish ends in a defeat for the Aerogaters, prompting them to sue for negotiations with the Earth Federation Army. Talks are arranged to take place at a secret facility in Antarctica, but the talks are targeted by a rogue faction called the Divine Crusaders; the Divine Crusaders destroys the Aerogater delegation turn on the Federation forces. Bian Zoldark, revealing himself to be the leader of the Divine Crusaders, announces the existence of the Aerogaters to the world and rebel against the Earth Government; as Earth spins into civil war, a new Aerogater force is on the move, seeking to reclaim their lost technology... Original Generation offers the player a choice to play the game from the perspective of either two male protagonists, both of whom find themselves fighting the Divine Crusaders and the Aerogaters from different fronts.
While both routes share similarities, each character has his own unique missions to follow, as well as meeting different people and piloting different mechs in their respective scenarios. Regardless of who the player chooses, both protagonists and their parties will join up to form one large cast, with brief branching stages, based on the character chosen in the beginning of the game; as a first in the Super Robot Wars franchise, Original Generation allows the player to equip or remove weapons on mechs. For example, the Plasma Saber equipped on the Weiss Ritter can be removed and placed on the R-1 for its pilot to utilize during sorties. However, this unique system is only available on mechs that are of the real-type, while super robots are not capable of switching weapons but you can still equip a weapon that decreases movement, weapon attack etc; the game allows the use of customizing playable pilots, through a set of pilot skills, bought by Pilot Points, received from defeating enemy units.
These Pilot Points can upgrade their stats that determine how well he/she performs in battle as well as their terrain adaptivity. The characters and setting in Original Generation are all taken from the following games: Shin Super Robot Wars Super Robot Wars Gaiden: Masō Kishin – The Lord Of Elemental 2nd Super Robot Wars Super Robot Wars F Super Robot Wars F Final Super Robot Wars Alpha Super Robot Wars Alpha Gaiden Super Robot Wars Compact 2 Super Robot Wars Impact Super Hero Operations Hero Senki: Project Olympus Super Robot Wars Scramble Gather On release, Famitsu magazine scored the game a 32 out of 40. Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation 2 Super Robot Wars Super Robot Wars Original Generation: Divine Wars Super Robot Wars: Original Generations Official site Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation at GameSpot Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation at IGN Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation at MobyGames
Maro is a genus of dwarf spiders, first described by Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1907. As of May 2019 it contains sixteen species: Maro amplus Dondale & Buckle, 2001 – Canada, USA Maro borealis Eskov, 1991 – Russia Maro bulbosus Zhao & Li, 2014 – China Maro bureensis Tanasevitch, 2006 – Russia Maro flavescens – Russia, Mongolia Maro khabarum Tanasevitch, 2006 – Russia Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971 – Europe Maro lepidus Casemir, 1961 – Europe Maro minutus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1907 – Europe Maro nearcticus Dondale & Buckle, 2001 – Canada, USA, Mexico Maro pansibiricus Tanasevitch, 2006 – Russia Maro perpusillus Saito, 1984 – Japan Maro saaristoi Eskov, 1980 – Russia Maro sibiricus Eskov, 1980 – Russia Maro sublestus Falconer, 1915 – Europe, Russia Maro ussuricus Tanasevitch, 2006 – Russia List of Linyphiidae species
This article details the qualifying phase for wrestling at the 2016 Summer Olympics. The competition at these Games will comprise a total of 344 athletes coming from the different nations. Four places have been reserved for the host nation Brazil, four more shall be decided by the Tripartite Commission to invite wrestlers; the remaining spots are allocated through the qualification process, wherein the athletes earn places for their respective nation. For each place obtained by the host country in the qualification phase, one of these three reserved places will be allocated to the Tripartite Commission. Quota places are allocated to the respective NOC and not to competitor that achieved the place in the qualification event. Quota places are allocated to the respective NOC and not to competitor that achieved the place in the qualification event. Quota places are allocated to the respective NOC and not to competitor that achieved the place in the qualification event. A b Poland's Magomedmurad Gadzhiev and Ukraine's Andriy Kvyatkovskyi secured quota places for their respective countries in men's freestyle 65 kg at the European Qualification Tournament, but have had their results nullified and associate Olympic licenses revoked due to doping violations for meldonium.
As a result, the Olympic licenses were redistributed to Armenia. C d Georgia secured a quota place in men's freestyle 65 kg at the first World Olympic Qualifier. Following the adjustment of Olympic qualifying nations as a response to doping violations, the nation's license was transferred to Bulgaria. Moreover, the unused license won by Bulgaria at the final World Olympic Qualifier was awarded to the United States. E Egypt earned a quota place in men's freestyle 97 kg at the African & Oceania Qualification Tournament, but have had its results nullified and associate Olympic license revoked for failing the doping test; the Olympic license was transferred to Guinea-Bissau. F g Belarus' Yusup Jalilau and Ukraine's Alen Zasyeyev secured quota places for their respective countries in the men's freestyle 125 kg at the European Qualification Tournament, but have had their results nullified and associate Olympic licenses revoked due to doping violations for meldonium; as a result, the Olympic licenses were redistributed to Hungary.
H Hungary secured a quota place in men's freestyle 125 kg at the first World Olympic Qualifier. Following the adjustment of Olympic qualifying nations as a response to doping violations, the nation's license would have been awarded to Bulgaria, but the country earned the quota at the European Qualifier. Instead, who finished in third, took the unused berth won by Hungary in the same tournament. I Kyrgyzstan's Janarbek Kenjeev earned a quota place in men's Greco-Roman 85 kg at the Asian Qualification Tournament, but tested positive for doping, giving his nation's Olympic license to India. J Mongolia's Erdenechimegiin Sumiyaa earned a quota place in women's freestyle 53 kg at the Asian Qualification Tournament, but tested positive for doping, giving her nation's Olympic license to India. K Ukraine's Oksana Herhel earned a quota place in women's freestyle 58 kg at the European Qualification Tournament, but tested positive for doping, giving her nation's Olympic license to Moldova. L On 9 July 2016, United World Wrestling, following recent meldonium guidelines outlined by the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency, has announced the reinstatement of National Olympic Committee qualification spots for the 2016 Olympic Games based on the performances of the following athletes: Magomedmurad Gadzhiev, Janarbek Kenjeev, Erdenechimegiin Sumiyaa, Andriy Kvyatkovskyi, Oksana Herhel.
Ukraine's 125 kg wrestler Alen Zasyeyev, the only other athlete disqualified based on meldonium results, is not included in the above list as Ukraine qualified for an Olympic allocation during the 2nd World Qualifier in Istanbul. All National Olympic Committees granted Olympic qualification spots will not be impacted by this adjustment. M Australian Vinod Kumar Dahiya earned a quota place in men's Greco-Roman 66 kg at the African & Oceania Qualification Tournament, but tested positive for doping, giving his nation's Olympic license to New Zealand. N Russia's Viktor Lebedev earned a quota place at the 2015 World Championships, but because of new regulations set by the IOC, he was not allowed to participate due to a positive doping test at the 2006 Junior World Championships, his spot has been replaced by Belarus, the nation of the next best-ranked wrestler from the 2015 World Championships. That decision was reverted by CAS. United World Wrestling