Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. Border controls are put in place to control the movement of people, specialized government agencies are usually created to perform border controls. Such agencies may perform various functions such as customs, security, official designations and command structures of these agencies vary considerably. In some countries, controls may be targeted at the national origin or other countries that have been visited. Others may need to be certain the traveler has paid the fees for their visas and has future travel planned out of the country. Yet others may concentrate on the contents of the travelers baggage, sometimes border controls exist on internal borders within a sovereign state. For example, in the Peoples Republic of China, there are border controls at the borders among the mainland, all persons need to present their passports or other types of travel documents to cross the border. For example, Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card and Home Return Permit are required for Hong Kong Permanent Residents who are Chinese citizens to cross the border, another example is the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, each having separate border controls from the rest of Malaysia.
Also Norway exercise passport check when travelling between mainland Norway and the archipelago of Svalbard which is non-Schengen area, in some cases countries can introduce controls that functions as border controls but arent border controls legally and dont need to be performed by government agencies. Normally they are performed and organised by companies, based on a law that they have to check that passengers dont travel into a specific country if they arent allowed to. Such controls can take effect in one country based on the law of another country, even if they arent border controls they function as such. The most prominent example is airlines which check passports and visa before passengers are allowed to board the aircraft, for some passenger boats such check are performed before boarding. Border Biosecurity Border guard Coast guard Visa Susan and aramis Residues of Border Control, Southern Spaces,17 April 2011
United States presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of a president of the United States. This ceremony takes place for new presidential term, even if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place on January 20, which is 72 to 78 days after the November presidential election, the term of a president commences at noon on that day, when the Chief Justice administers the oath to the president. However, when January 20 falls on a Sunday, the Chief Justice administers the oath to the president on that day privately and again in a ceremony the next day, on Monday. The most recent presidential inauguration ceremony was the swearing in of Donald Trump to a term of office on Friday. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to an event, including parades. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has held at the west front of the United States Capitol.
Other swearing-in ceremonies have taken place at the Capitols east portico, inside the Old Senate Chamber, the House chamber, additionally, on two occasions—in 1817 and 1945—they were held at other locations in Washington, D. C. Although the Constitution does not mandate that anyone in particular should administer the oath of office. Since 1789, the oath has been administered at 58 scheduled public inaugurations, by 15 chief justices, one associate justice, when a new president assumed office under these circumstances the inauguration is kept low key, and conducted without pomp or fanfare. The first inauguration, that of George Washington, took place on April 30,1789, all subsequent inaugurations from 1793 until 1933, were held on March 4, the day of the year on which the federal government began operations under the U. S. The exception to this pattern being those years in when March 4 fell on a Sunday, when it did, the public inauguration ceremony would take place on Monday, March 5. This happened on four occasions, in,1821,1849,1877, Inauguration Day moved to January 20, beginning in 1937, following ratification of the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, where it has remained since.
A similar Sunday exception and move to Monday is made around this date as well, there is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees or students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. Most presidential inaugurations since 1801 have been held in Washington D. C. at the Capitol Building, prior inaugurations were held, first at Federal Hall in New York City, and at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Each city was, at the time, the nations capital, the location for James Monroes 1817 swearing in was moved to the Old Brick Capitol in Washington due to on-going restoration work at the Capitol building following the War of 1812. Three other inaugurations—Franklin D. Roosevelts fourth, Harry S. Trumans first, Presidential inaugurations have traditionally been outdoor public ceremonies. Andrew Jackson, in 1829, was the first of 35 held on the east front of the Capitol
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Philippine presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of the Philippines is a ceremonial event marking the commencement of a new six-year term of a President of the Philippines. The day a presidential inauguration occurs is June 30 as mandated by the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Under the previous 1935 Constitution, the date was December 30, which is Rizal Day, the most recent public presidential inauguration ceremony, the swearing in of President Rodrigo Duterte to begin his six-year term in office, took place on Thursday, June 30,2016. The only inauguration element mandated by the Philippine Constitution is that the president make an oath or affirmation before that person can enter on the Execution of the office of the presidency. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to an event, including parades, speeches. When a new president takes over mid-term due to the death or resignation of a president, the ceremony since 1992 traditionally begins with the President-Elect fetching the incumbent in Malacañan Palace on the morning of June 30.
At the Palaces State Entrance, the President-Elect will wait for the incumbent to descend the Grand Staircase, upon meeting at the foot of the staircase, the President-Elect would greet the incumbent. Both travel to the Quirino Grandstand aboard any of the Presidential cars, following protocol, the outgoing President takes the back right-hand seat of the vehicle, while the President-Elect is seated behind the chauffeur. At the Grandstands parade grounds, the outgoing President will be welcomed with arrival honours, the outgoing President conducts a final troop review and is presented to the public before departing the Grandstand aboard their own private vehicle. Only Corazón Aquino broke with the custom of leaving the Grandstand immediately, the inauguration proper begins with the singing of the National Anthem. An ecumenical Invocation follows, led by leaders of the different major religions of the Philippines, since the Third Republic, the Vice-President-Elect is sworn in before the President-Elect to immediately secure the line of succession.
During his inauguration, President Manuel L. Quezon took the Oath of Office first to mark a new start, the Oath is customarily administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, but that is not required. Due to political differences, Benigno Aquino III instead had then-Associate Justice Conchita Carpio-Morales administer the Oath instead of then-Chief Justice Renato Corona. A 21-gun salute is fired, followed by four ruffles and flourishes. The new President delivers an Inaugural Address, previous inaugurations saw a full military and civil parade in the same manner as the Independence Day celebrations on 12 June right after the address. From the late 1940s to the late 1960s, similar parades were held on Rizal Day on 30 December as well. The new President returns to Malacañan Palace to formally take possession of the residence and this formal entry is symbolised by the President ascending the Grand Staircase and proceeding to the Ceremonial Hall. Juan Lunas painting, The Blood Compact, is displayed at the top of the Staircase
Religion in ancient Rome
The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety in maintaining good relations with the gods. According to legends, most of Romes religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, the way of the ancestors or simply tradition, as Rome came into contact with foreign cultures, and conquered them, foreign religions increasingly attracted devotees among Romans, who increasingly had ancestry from elsewhere in the Empire. The emperors promoted the Imperial cult around the empire, and this, Roman polytheism was brought to an end with the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes, there was no principle analogous to separation of church and state in ancient Rome.
During the Roman Republic, the men who were elected public officials might serve as augurs. Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives, Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, Roman religion was thus practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, I give that you might give. Even the most skeptical among Romes intellectual elite such as Cicero, for ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. Each home had a shrine at which prayers and libations to the familys domestic deities were offered. Neighborhood shrines and sacred such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances, women and children all participated in a range of religious activities. The Romans are known for the number of deities they honored. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks, adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature, etruscan religion was a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury.
The mysteries, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of magic, conspiratorial, or subversive activity. Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, one way that Rome incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the worship of local and Roman deities. Because Romans had never been obligated to one god or one cult only
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a field of inquiry with a diverse scope its fundamental goal, is to advance management and policies so that government can function. Public administrators are public servants working in departments and agencies. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Webers theory of bureaucracy there was not much interest in a theory of public administration. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action. In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. One year later, Gordon Clapp, Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be completely realized.
This implies that it must relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings and is concerned with people, with ideas. The key term product refers to items that are constructed or produced such as prisons, laws, schools. As implementors, public managers engage these products and they participate in the doing and making of the living democracy. A living democracy is an environment that is changing, imperfect, more recently scholars claim that public administration has no generally accepted definition, because the scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define. Public administration is a field of study and an occupation, scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration as a subfield within political science. The moral purpose of administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximisation of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants. The North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration, dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs and emperors have required pages and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government.
Prior to the 19th century, staffing of most public administrations was rife with nepotism and political patronage, Public administrators have long been the eyes and ears of rulers. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add, as the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powers extended their hold over other continents and people, the need for a sophisticated public administration grew. Far in advance of the rest of the world until almost the end of the eighteenth century, the eighteenth-century noble, King Frederick William I of Prussia, created professorates in Cameralism in an effort to train a new class of public administrators. The universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic and social disciplines, johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known professor of Cameralism
Brazilian presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of Brazil is composed of several ceremonies that happen in the same day. Through democratic elections or coups and deaths, presidential inaugurations have been important events in Brazilian history. The only essential part of the ceremonies, according to Brazils Federal Constitution, is the taking of the constitutional oath of office before a joint session of the National Congress. The ceremonies described below are observed for planned inaugurations since Brasilia became the federal capital. The president-elect and the vice-president elect ride to Congress, where they are to take the oath of office, the inauguration parade starts at the Cathedral of Brasília, located at the beginning of Ministries Esplanade. A number of presidents-elect have chosen to attend Mass at the Cathedral of Brasilia before the start of the inaugural ceremonies, in that case, a Solemn Mass is scheduled to take place in the Cathedral before the time set for the beginning of the State-sponsored inauguration ceremonies.
The president-elect hears Mass and leaves the Cathedral at or around the time scheduled for the start of the inauguration parade, the parade ends at foot of the entrance ramp to the Palace of Congress. Arriving at the National Congress, the president and vice-president elect are greeted by the President of the Senate, inside the National Congress, a joint session of Congress takes place. The center seat of Congress directing boards table is taken by the President of Congress, the President-elect of the Republic is seated at the right hand side of the President of Congress, and the Vice President-elect of the Republic seats at the President of Congresss left hand side. Although the President of the Supreme Court is not a member of Congress, other members of Congress directing board take the remaining seats at the table, to the right of the President of the Chamber of Deputies, and to the left of the President of the Supreme Court. All those present are asked to stand, and the president-elect, the president-elect and vice-president-elect take their oaths of office, and each oath is followed by applause.
At that time, immediately taking the oaths, they become President and Vice-President of the Republic. Once the National Anthem ends, one of the Secretaries of Congress reads out the instrument recording the oaths taken, the document is signed by the President of the Supreme Federal Court. Once that deed is signed by all who are to sign it, the inaugural address of the President of the Republic and the concluding speech by the President of Congress are only delivered in the case of planned inaugurations. During the firing of the salute, the National Anthem is again played, a brief military ceremony takes place outdoors. The president reviews the troops and salutes their colours, after that, the president and the vice-president take the ceremonial state cars to the Planalto Palace, the seat of the presidency of the Republic. Arriving at the Planalto Palace, the new president and vice-president pause at the foot of the Palaces entrance ramp, while a military band of the presidential guard plays the Presidential Salute.
Once the salute is given, the new president and vice-president ascend the entrance ramp, troops of the 1st Guards Cavalry Regiment, forming a guard of honour, are lined at both sides of the entrance ramp during the entire ceremony
Inauguration of John F. Kennedy
The inauguration of John F. Kennedy as the 35th President of the United States was held on Friday, January 20,1961 at the eastern portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. The inauguration marked the commencement of John F. Kennedys only term as President, johnsons only term as Vice President. Kennedy died 2 years,306 days into this term, Kennedy took office following the November 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon, the then–incumbent Vice President. He was the first Roman Catholic to become President, and became the youngest person elected to the office and his inaugural address encompassed the major themes of his campaign and would define his presidency during a time of economic prosperity, emerging social changes, and diplomatic challenges. This inauguration was the first in which a poet, Robert Frost, frank Sinatra and Peter Lawford organized and hosted a pre-inaugural ball at the D. C. Armory on the eve of Inauguration day, January 19,1961, considered as one of the biggest parties ever held in Washington, D. C.
With tickets ranging from $100 per person to $10,000 per group, davis eventually switched his support to the Republican Party and Richard Nixon in the early 1970s. Harry Belafonte expressed sadness at the controversy, stating It was the ambassador, sammy not being there was a loss. On inauguration day, January 20,1961, the skies began to clear but the snow created chaos in Washington and this task force employed hundreds of dump trucks, front-end loaders, plows and flamethrowers to clear the route. Over 1,400 cars which had been stranded due to the conditions, the snowstorm dropped visibility at Washington National Airport to less than half a mile, preventing former President Herbert Hoover from flying into Washington and attending the inauguration. Before the proceeding to the Capitol in company with outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the invocation and prayers lasted a total of 28 minutes. Marian Anderson sang The Star-Spangled Banner, and a composition by musical Leonard Bernstein titled Fanfare for the Inauguration of John F.
Kennedy was played, the oath of office for Vice President was administered by the Speaker of the House of Representatives Sam Rayburn to Lyndon Johnson. Robert Frost, 86 years old, recited his poem The Gift Outright, Kennedy requested Frost to read a poem at the inauguration, suggesting The Gift Outright, considered an act of gratitude towards Frost for his help during the campaign. Kennedy would state that he admired the courage, the skill and daring of Frost, and adding that Ive never taken the view the world of politics. I think politicians and poets share at least one thing, American poet William Meredith would say that the request focused attention on Kennedy as a man of culture, as a man interested in culture. Frost composed a new poem titled Dedication specifically for the ceremony as a preface to the poem Kennedy suggested, to the surprise of Kennedys friends. On the morning of the inauguration, Frost asked Stewart Udall, Kennedys future Secretary of the Interior, to have his handwritten draft type scripted for easier reading, once at the presidential podium, the glare of the sun and snow prevented him from reading his papers.
When Frost started reading, he stumbled on the first three lines, squinting at his papers in view of the crowd and cameras
Oath of office
Such oaths are often required by the laws of the state, religious body, or other organization before the person may actually exercise the powers of the office or any religious body. It may be administered at an inauguration, enthronement, or other connected with the taking up of office itself. In some cases it may be administered privately and repeated during a public ceremony, some oaths of office are a statement of loyalty to a constitution or other legal text or to a person or other office-holder. Under the laws of a state it may be considered treason or a crime to betray a sworn oath of office. The word oath and the phrase I swear refer to a solemn vow, for those who choose not to, the alternative terms solemn promise and I promise are sometimes used. All members of the Australian Parliament are required to take before taking their seat in Parliament an Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance before the Governor-General of Australia. The requirement to take the oath is set out in section 42 of the Australian Constitution, the oath is, I, do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her heirs and successors according to law.
In addition to swearing, the Oath of Allegiance upon becoming a Member of Parliament, the wording of this oath is not prescribed within the Constitution and is ultimately determined by the Prime Minister of the day. Traditionally the oath has repeated the swearing of allegiance to the Sovereign, the President, Prime Minister, Chief Justice, Ministers take their oath of office. The oath is taken in Bengali, The President takes oath from the Speaker, আমি. I shall possess pure faith and obedience to Bangladesh, I shall preserve and secure the constitution and I shall deal with all with equity as suggested by laws, without being affected by fear or mercy, love or hatred. Ministers, The members of the cabinet is appointed and sworn in by the President, I shall possess pure faith and obedience to Bangladesh. I shall preserve and secure the constitution and I shall deal with all with equity as suggested by laws, without being affected by fear or mercy, love or hatred. Speaker, The Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, takes the oath of his or her office as well as the oath, since the acts of president is practiced by the Speaker, whenever necessary.
I shall possess pure faith and obedience to Bangladesh, I shall preserve and secure the constitution and I shall deal with all with equity as suggested by laws, without being affected by fear or mercy, love or hatred. The deputy speaker takes a likely oath, Chief Justice, The Chief Justice, Justices of the Appelate Division and High Court Division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh takes the following oath of office from the President, আমি. I shall possess pure faith and obedience to Bangladesh, I shall preserve and secure the constitution and the laws and I shall deal with all with equity as suggested by laws, without being affected by fear or mercy, love or hatred. Others, The Election Commissioners, members of the Public Service Commission, the representatives of the people in the local government takes oath from the Prime Minister or the minister in charge of the Local Government Division
President of Croatia
The President maintains regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The President has the power to call elections for the Croatian Parliament as well as referendum, the President appoints Prime Ministers on the basis of the balance of power in the Parliament, grants pardons and awards decorations and other state awards. The President and Government cooperate in the conducting the foreign policy, in addition, the President is the commander-in-chief of the Croatian Armed Forces. The President appoints the director of the Security and Intelligence Agency with the Prime Minister, the President may dissolve the Parliament as provided by the Constitution. Although enjoying immunity, the President is impeachable for violation of the Constitution, in case of incapability to discharge duties of office, the Speaker of the Parliament assumes the office of acting President until the President resumes duty, or until election of a new President.
The Office of the President of the Republic consists of the staff of the president of Croatia. The office is seated in the Presidential Palace in the Pantovčak area of Zagreb, the President is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a five-year term. If no candidate in the elections more than 50% of all votes cast. The Constitution of Croatia sets a limit to a maximum of two terms in office, the president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the judges of the Constitutional Court. Franjo Tuđman won the first Croatian presidential elections in 1992 and 1997, after his death in 1999, the constitution was amended and much of the presidential powers were transferred to the parliament and the government. Stjepan Mesić won two terms, in 2000 and in 2005. Ivo Josipović won the elections held in 2009–2010. Winner of the most recent presidential elections, held in 2014–15, was Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and she succeeded Josipović on 19 February 2015. The president is barred from executing any other public or professional duty while in office, the President of Croatia calls elections for the Croatian Parliament and convenes the first meeting of the parliamentary assembly.
The president is required to appoint a prime minister, on the basis of the balance of power in the parliament. The appointed candidate is in turn required to seek confirmation from the parliament through a confidence vote, the president may call referenda, grant pardons and award decorations and other forms of recognition defined by legislation. The President of Croatia and the Government cooperate in the formulation and implementation of Croatias foreign policy and this provision of the constitution is an occasional source of conflict between the president and the government. The president receives letters of credence and letters of recall from foreign diplomatic representatives, the President of Croatia is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Croatia and appoints and relieves military commanders of duty, conforming to applicable legislation
The augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world. This was known as taking the auspices, the ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society—public or private—including matters of war and religion. Roman augurs were part of a college of priests who shared the duties and responsibilities of the position, at the foundation of the Republic in 510 BC, the patricians held sole claim to this office, by 300 BC, the office was open to plebeian occupation as well. Senior members of the collegium put forth nominations for any vacancies, in the Regal period tradition holds that there were three augurs at a time, by the time of Sulla, they had reached fifteen in number. Augury sought the divine will regarding any proposed course of action which might affect Romes pax, political and civil actions were sanctioned by augury, historically performed by priests of the college of augurs and by haruspices on behalf of senior magistrates. The presiding magistrate at an augural rite thus held the “right of augury”, magistracies were therefore religious offices in their own right, and magistrates were directly responsible for the pax and salus of Rome and everything that was Roman.
The effectiveness of augury could only be judged retrospectively, the divinely ordained condition of peace was an outcome of successful augury and those whose actions had led to divine wrath could not have possessed a true right of augury. Of all the protagonists in the Civil War, only Octavian could have possessed it, writing during the Principate, described the recent Civil War as unnatural - a mirror to supernatural disturbances in the greater cosmos. His imagery is apt to the principles of augury and its broader interpretation by Stoic apologists of the Imperial cult. In the Stoic cosmology, pax deorum is the expression of natural order in human affairs, according to Cicero, the auctoritas of ius augurum included the right to adjourn and overturn the process of law, consular election could be - and was - rendered invalid by inaugural error. For Cicero, this made the augur the most powerful authority in the Republic, Cicero himself was co-opted into the college only late in his career. In the Republic, augury came under the supervision of the college of pontifices, the office of pontifex maximus eventually became a de facto consular prerogative.
In ancient Rome the auguria were considered to be in equilibrium with the sacra and were not the way by which the gods made their will known. The augures publici concerned themselves only with related to the state. The jus augurale was rigorously secret, therefore very little about the aspects of ceremonies. We have only the names of some auguria, e. g, the first one required the sacrifice of red dogs and took place before wheat grains were shelled but not before they had formed. Of the second we know only the name implies a ritual related to the harvest. Augurium and auspicium are terms used indifferently by the ancient, modern scholars have debated the issue at length but have failed to find a distinctive definition that may hold for all the known cases
A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community, Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and performance. Rituals are a feature of all human societies. Even common actions like hand-shaking and saying hello may be termed rituals, the field of ritual studies has seen a number of conflicting definitions of the term. One given by Kyriakidis is that a ritual is an outsiders or etic category for a set activity that, to the outsider, seems irrational, non-contiguous, or illogical. The term can be used by the insider or emic performer as an acknowledgement that this activity can be seen as such by the uninitiated onlooker, the English word ritual derives from the Latin ritualis, that which pertains to rite. In Roman juridical and religious usage, ritus was the way of doing something, or correct performance.
The word ritual is first recorded in English in 1570, there are hardly any limits to the kind of actions that may be incorporated into a ritual. Catherine Bell argues that rituals can be characterized by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, Ritual utilizes a limited and rigidly organized set of expressions which anthropologists call a restricted code. Maurice Bloch argues that ritual obliges participants to use this formal oratorical style, which is limited in intonation, vocabulary, loudness, in adopting this style, ritual leaders speech becomes more style than content. Because this formal speech limits what can be said, it induces acceptance, Bloch argues that this form of ritual communication makes rebellion impossible and revolution the only feasible alternative. Ritual tends to support forms of social hierarchy and authority. Rituals appeal to tradition and are concerned to repeat historical precedents accurately. Traditionalism varies from formalism in that the ritual may not be yet still makes an appeal to historical.
An example is the American Thanksgiving dinner, which may not be formal, the appeal to history is important rather than accurate historical transmission. Catherine Bell states that ritual is invariant, implying careful choreography and this is less an appeal to traditionalism than a striving for timeless repetition. The key to invariance is bodily discipline, as in prayer and meditation meant to mold dispositions. This bodily discipline is frequently performed in unison, by groups, Rituals tend to be governed by rules, a feature somewhat like formalism