Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
Hendrikus Johannes "Johan" Witteveen is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. He served as Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 1 September 1973 until 18 June 1978. A member of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Witteveen worked for the Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis as a financial analyst from 1945 until 1948, he elected Senator in 1958 and served until 1963. He was a member of the House of Representatives in 1963 and from 1965 to 1967, he was appointed Minister of Finance twice from 1963 to 1965 and from 1967 to 1971 serving as Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1967 to 1971 under Prime Minister Piet de Jong. He served as Managing Director of the IMF, he wrote books on Universal Sufism and economics. Witteveen was born on 12 June 1921 in Zeist in the province of Utrecht, he is the son of architect Willem Gerrit Witteveen and Anna Maria Wibaut and the grandson of Social Democratic politician Floor Wibaut. He went to the public secondary school Gymnasium Erasmianum in Rotterdam.
He studied economics at the Netherlands School of Economics from 1939 to 1946. He received his PhD in 1947 with the dissertation Loonhoogte en werkgelegenheid, his advisor was Nobel Prize laureate Jan Tinbergen. Witteveen worked as an economist at the Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis under Jan Tinbergen and Fred Polak from 1947 until 1963, he is a member of the People's Party for Democracy. He served as a Senator from 23 December 1958 until 5 June 1963 and as member of the House of Representatives from 5 June 1963 until 24 July 1963, he became Minister of Finance in the Marijnen cabinet serving from 24 July 1963 until 14 April 1965. He served as a Member of the House of Representatives again from 21 September 1965 until 5 April 1967, when he returned as Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister serving from 5 April 1967 until 6 July 1971 in the De Jong cabinet, he again returned to the Senate, serving from 8 June 1971 until 1 September 1973. Afterwards he became the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, serving from 1 September 1973 until 18 June 1978.
From 1978 to 1985 he was the first chairman of the Washington-based economics body, the Group of Thirty. He has been member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1980. Witteveen was married to Liesbeth de Vries Feijens, they had four children. His son Willem Witteveen was a politician, until he died on 17 July 2014 when Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down over Ukraine. Official Dr. H. J. Witteveen Parlement & Politiek Dr. H. J. Witteveen Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Samuel L. Lewis
Samuel L. Lewis known as Murshid Samuel Lewis and Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti was an American mystic and horticultural scientist who founded what became the Sufi Ruhaniat International, a branch of the Chishtia Sufi lineage. After a lifetime of spiritual study with teachers East and West Inayat Khan and Nyogen Senzaki, Lewis was recognized as a Zen master and Sufi murshid by Eastern representatives of the two traditions, he co-founded the Christian mystical order called the Holy Order of Mans. His early interest in international seed exchange and organic agriculture established him as one of the pioneers of green spirituality, his most enduring legacy may be the creation of the Dances of Universal Peace, an early interspiritual practice that has spread around the world in the 43 years since his passing. Lewis was born to Jewish parents. Lewis' father Jacob Lewis was a vice president of the Levi Strauss jeans manufacturing company, his mother was Harriett Rosenthal, the daughter of Lenore Rothschild of the international banking family.
To his parents' dismay Lewis showed a keen interest in religion and spirituality from an early age and rejected their attempts at as business career for him. In 1919 Lewis entered a Sufi community in Fairfax, California where he met Murshida Rabia Martin, a student of the Sufi teacher and musician Inayat Khan. A year he began Zen study with Nyogen Senzaki, a disciple of the Rinzai Zen Buddhist Abbot Soyen Shaku; the twin spiritual influences of Sufism and Zen were to remain central to him throughout his life. Lewis remained in the Fairfax Sufi community through the early 1920s. In 1923 a vision of Inayat Khan led Lewis into initiation by the Pir-O-Murshid. In 1926 he collaborated with Nyogen Senzaki, a Rinzai Zen Buddhist monk, in opening the first official Zen meditation hall in San Francisco. Lewis continued to study Sufism and Zen, as well as yoga, the latter with Swami Ramdas of Anandashram, he developed an interest in horticulture and promoted seed exchanges internationally. He was an adherent and promoter of the General Semantics approach to psychology and translation begun by Alfred Korzybski.
In 1956, he visited Japan, India and Egypt, seeking the company of other mystics and teachers. In 1960-62, while visiting Pakistan, he reported that he was publicly recognized as a Murshid by Pir Barkat Ali, founder of Dar ul Ehsan. In 1966, after further Zen study with, among others, Sokei-An Sasaki and Sagaku Shaku, Lewis was ordained a "Zen-Shi" by Korean Zen master Dr. Kyung-Bo Seo. In 1967, whilst recovering from a heart attack in a hospital Lewis reported that he heard the voice of God say, "I make you spiritual leader of the hippies."For the remainder of his life Lewis traveled around California developing and teaching new forms of walking meditation as well as the Dances of Universal Peace, which draw on all the spiritual traditions he had encountered. Lewis' work in the Dances of Universal Peace was inspired by his time with American dance pioneer Ruth St. Denis, whom he acknowledged their "grandmother." In 1982, the organization now known as the International Network for the Dances of Universal Peace was founded by Saadi Neil Douglas-Klotz and Tasnim Hermila Fernandez for the purpose of promoting Lewis' vision of the Dances as a form of "peace through the arts."
The organization subsequently published many of St Denis' unpublished writings on spiritual dance and the mysticism of the body. In the late 1960s, Lewis began initiating and training students first under the banner of Zen and of Sufism. Just before his passing in 1971, Lewis formed an esoteric organization now known as the Sufi Ruhaniat International to help carry on his Sufi initiatic lineage in the Chishti Sufi tradition. Lewis died in January 1971 as a result of a fall one month earlier. Before his passing, he appointed his as his successor his Khalif Moineddin Jablonski, who directed the organization from 1971 until his own passing in 2001. Jablonski was succeeded by Shabda Kahn as Pir of the lineage; when Samuel Lewis died, he asked that his body be buried at the interspiritual community of Lama Foundation, near Taos, New Mexico. The grave was rebuilt several times in the intervening years. In August 2017, work was called a "dargah," surrounding the gravesite, it is designed to facilitate visits by pilgrims in the same way that Sufi dargahs in other parts of the world do.
"No mechanical means, no rules, no rituals, nothing controlled by man alone can liberate man""The Sufi dervishes, using their feet...rid their minds of useless luggage. The ridding of luggage is more important than the method. What is needed is a method that works, not a philosophy about method which can be confusing.""Words are not peace. Thoughts are not peace. Plans are not peace. Programs are not peace. Peace is fundamental to all faiths. Peace is fullness, all inclusive...and must be experienced.""One of the reasons I am teaching this music and dancing is to increase Joy, not awe towards another person, but bliss in our own self. This is finding God within, through experience." Pir Moineddin Jablonski Pir Shabda Kahn Murshid Wali Ali Meyer In the Garden The Jerusalem Trilogy: Song of the Prophets Sufi Vision & Initiation: Meetings with Remarkable Beings Spiritual Dance & Walk: An Introduction to the Dances of Universal Peace & Walking Meditations of Samuel L. Lewis This is the New Age in Person Published by Sufi Islamia Ruhaniat Society.
Omen Press Murshid - A Personal Memoir of Life with American Sufi Samuel L. Lewis by spiritual secretary o
Shaikh-ul-Mashaik Pyaromir Maheboob Khan was born in Baroda, India. An Indian classical musician and younger brother of Inayat Khan, he became the representative of the International Sufi Movement on the latter's death in 1927, their grandfather Maula Bakhsh recognized his ability in improvisation and trained him in music with Inayat. As he grew up Maheboob was exposed more to European music than Inayat had been, he conducted and took some interest in Western musical theory; when Inayat began to travel from Baroda, he entrusted his musical students to Maheboob, but when Inayat sailed to the West in 1910 Maheboob Khan accompanied him. He settled in The Hague, marrying a Dutch disciple, Shadbiy van Goens, who bore him two children and Mahmood. In Europe, Maheboob learned musical composition and singing with composer and musicologist Edmond Bailly. Maheboob had a strong voice, but Maheboob, intelligent and retiring, would sing for others. There is a story that Inayat and his brother Ali Khan would sometimes pretend to go out, slamming the front door wait in the front hall to hear Maheboob practise his singing.
He composed more than 60 sacred songs. Barbara Blatherwick, the coloratura soprano, performed his songs in her recital in 1937 at the New York Town Hall. Maheboob composed a song on a sacred poem by Inayat Khan but could not bring himself to show it to his brother who died without having heard it. Upon the passing of Inayat Khan in 1927, Maheboob Khan took the responsibility of leading the International Sufi Movement, a post he held until his own death in 1948, he kept the Sufi message through the difficulties of WW2 time and is remembered with love and gratitude. A time over than 12 years had been sent on the making of "Mughal-e- Azam". Maheboob Khan. "Qawwali Asti Bulbul" mp3 Maheboob Khan. "Qawwali Saki. Derwish Song" mp3 "Ishk me tere Kohegam". Song, with P. F. accompaniment, by Maheboob Khan.. London: Indian Art & Dramatic Society, 1916 "Molood" - Song with music. "The Sufi" magazine 1915 February "Kaseeda", music and song. "The Sufi" magazine 1915 May "Naat", music and text. "The Sufi" magazine 1915 September "Kawwali", Song and music.
"The Sufi" magazine 1915 November "text and scores. "The Sufi" magazine 1916 April "Gazal I Hafiz". "The Sufi" magazine 1916 November "Masnavi". "The Sufi" magazine 1917 May "The Wine Divine". "The Sufi" magazine 1917 October Maheboob Khan - Hindustani songs. Words by Pir'o Murshid Inayad. French words by François de Bretevil. II. Hindou song to the soul of the saint - Genève: Henn, PN A. 521 H. cop. 1924. - 3 S. Kl. Randschaden. Gering gebräunt. Texte in Hindi/Französisch/Englisch. Maheboob Khan - Hindustani Songs / Words by Pir'o Murshid Inayad. Genève: Edition Henn. Nr. 1: Bhajan Hindou — Nr. 2: Hindou Song to the soul of the saint — Nr. 3: Bibhas Hindou — Song to the Sun. "Jahanara Begam: en indisk kejsardotter". Butenschøn, Andrea Publication 1927 209 s. pl. mus.. Songs of Maheboob Khan - 1. Before you judge 2. Thy wish 3. You are my life 4; every breath in thy thought 5. Turn me not away 6. Kalyan. Lyrics words from the book'Gayan, Nirtan' by Inayat Khan. 1932. Songs by Shaikh-ul-Mashaik Pyaromir Maheboob Khan.
13 original songs for Voice and Piano. Hague, East-West Publications Fonds, 1988 ISBN 90-70104-76-8 "Sufi songs". Songs composed by Maheboob Khan based on words of Inayat Khan. Ute Döring, mezzo-soprano, J. van Lohuizen, piano. Recorded and мanufactured in Germany by: CES in 1998 "The Sun of Love". Symphonic compositions by Inayat Khan, Maheboob Khan and Hidayat Inayat Khan. Novosibirsk String Quintet. Recorded and мanufactured in Russia by SufiMovement.ru in 2004. Spirituality - the Tuning of the Heart by Shaikh-ul-Mashaikh Maheboob Khan. "Toward the One" Volume four. USA. Spring 2003 pp. 66–68 Inayat Khan by Ronald A. L. Mumtaz Armstrong. Geneva, The Sufi Publishing Association, 1927 The Sufi Movement by Inayat Khan. 1964 Barrie and Rockliff. London pp. 10 Hazrat Inayat Khan a Brief Sketch of His Life and Teaching L. Hayat Bouman; the Hague, East-West Publications Fonds, 1982 Musharaff Moulamia Khan. Pages in the life of a Sufi, Den Haag - East West Publications, 1982. 155pp.. ISBN 90-6271-662-8. Third Edition sufimovement.org
Noor Inayat Khan
Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan, GC, aka Nora Inayat-Khan, was a British heroine of World War II renowned for her service in the Special Operations Executive. She went by the name Nora Baker and was a published author of Indian and American descent, posthumously awarded the George Cross for her service in the SOE, the highest civilian decoration in the UK; as an SOE agent she became the first female wireless operator to be sent from Britain into occupied France to aid the French Resistance during World War II, was Britain's first Muslim war heroine. Inayat Khan, the eldest of four children, was born on 1 January 1914 in Moscow, her siblings were Vilayat and Khair-un-Nisa. Her father, Inayat Khan, came from a noble Indian Muslim family—his mother was a descendant of the uncle of Tipu Sultan, the 18th-century ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, he lived in Europe as a teacher of Sufism. Her mother, Pirani Ameena Begum, was an American from Albuquerque, New Mexico, who met Inayat Khan during his travels in the United States.
Ora Baker was the half-sister of American yogi and scholar Pierre Bernard, her guardian at the time she met Inayat. Vilayat became head of the Sufi Order International. In 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the family left Russia for London, lived in Bloomsbury. Inayat Khan attended nursery at Notting Hill. In 1920 they moved to France, settling in Suresnes near Paris, in a house, a gift from a benefactor of the Sufi movement. After the death of her father in 1927, Inayat Khan took on the responsibility for her grief-stricken mother and her younger siblings; as a young girl, she was described as quiet, shy and dreamy. She studied child psychology at the Sorbonne and music at the Paris Conservatory under Nadia Boulanger, composing for harp and piano, she began a career writing poetry and children's stories, became a regular contributor to children's magazines and French radio. In 1939, her book, Twenty Jataka Tales, inspired by the Jataka tales of Buddhist tradition, was published in London.
After the outbreak of the Second World War, when France was overrun by German troops, the family fled to Bordeaux and, from there by sea, to England, landing in Falmouth, Cornwall, on 22 June 1940. Although Khan was influenced by the pacifist teachings of her father and her brother Vilayat decided to help defeat Nazi tyranny: "I wish some Indians would win high military distinction in this war. If one or two could do something in the Allied service, brave and which everybody admired it would help to make a bridge between the English people and the Indians." In November 1940, she joined the Women's Auxiliary Air Force and, as an Aircraftwoman 2nd Class, was sent to be trained as a wireless operator. Upon assignment to a bomber training school in June 1941, she applied for a commission in an effort to relieve herself of the boring work there. Khan was recruited to join F Section of the Special Operations Executive and in early February 1943 she was posted to the Air Ministry, Directorate of Air Intelligence, seconded to First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, sent to Wanborough Manor, near Guildford in Surrey, after which she was sent to Aylesbury, in Buckinghamshire, for special training as a wireless operator in occupied territory.
She would be the first woman to be sent over in that capacity, all the woman agents before her having been sent as couriers. Having had previous wireless telegraphy training, she had an edge on those who were just beginning their radio training, was both fast and accurate. From Aylesbury she went on to Beaulieu, where the security training was capped with a practice mission – in the case of wireless operators, to find a place in a strange city from which they could transmit back to their instructors without being detected by an agent unknown to them who would be shadowing them; the ultimate exercise was the mock Gestapo interrogation, intended to give agents a taste of what might be in store for them if they were captured and some practice in maintaining their cover story. Her escaping officer found her interrogation "almost unbearable" and reported that "she seemed terrified... so overwhelmed she nearly lost her voice", that afterwards "she was trembling and quite blanched."Her finishing report, which the official historian of F Section found in her personal file long after the war, read: "Not overburdened with brains but has worked hard and shown keenness, apart from some dislike of the security side of the course.
She has an unstable and temperamental personality and it is doubtful whether she is suited to work in the field." Next to this comment, Maurice Buckmaster, the head of F Section, had written in the margin "Nonsense" and that "We don't want them overburdened with brains."Her superiors held mixed opinions on her suitability for secret warfare, her training was incomplete due to the need to get trained W/T operators into the field. Khan's "childlike" qualities her gentle manner and "lack of ruse", had worried her instructors at SOE's training schools. One instructor wrote that "she confesses that she would not like to have to do anything'two faced'", while another said she was "very feminine in character eager to please ready to adapt herself to the mood of the company, the one of the conversation, capable of strong attachments, kind hearted, imaginative."A further observer said: "Tends to give far too much information. Came here without the foggiest idea what she was being trained for." Others commented that she was physically unsuited, claiming that she would not disappear into a crowd