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Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows. The filament is enclosed in a bulb to protect the filament from oxidation. Current is supplied to the filament by wires embedded in the glass. A bulb socket provides electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs, work well on either alternating current or direct current; as a result, the incandescent bulb became used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, flashlights, for decorative and advertising lighting. Incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than other types of electric lighting, converting less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light; the remaining energy is lost as heat. The luminous efficacy of a typical incandescent bulb for 120 V operation is 16 lumens per watt, compared with 60 lm/W for a compact fluorescent bulb or 150 lm/W for some white LED lamps.

Some applications use the heat generated by the filament, such as incubators, brooding boxes for poultry, heat lights for reptile tanks, infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, lava lamps, the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Quartz tube heat lamps are used for space heating. Incandescent bulbs have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting. Incandescent bulbs can be replaced by fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps, light-emitting diode lamps; some areas have implemented phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs to reduce energy consumption. Historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison, they conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve and a high resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable. Historian Thomas Hughes has attributed Edison's success to his development of an entire, integrated system of electric lighting.

The lamp was a small component in his system of electric lighting, no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo generator, the Edison main and feeder, the parallel-distribution system. Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting. In 1761, Ebenezer Kinnersley demonstrated heating a wire to incandescence. In 1802, Humphry Davy used what he described as "a battery of immense size", consisting of 2,000 cells housed in the basement of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, to create an incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an high melting point, it was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years. Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century, many experimenters worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon rods, evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures.

Many of these devices were demonstrated and some were patented. In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland, he stated that he could "read a book at a distance of one and a half feet". However he did not develop the electric light any further. In 1838, Belgian lithographer Marcellin Jobard invented an incandescent light bulb with a vacuum atmosphere using a carbon filament. In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it; the design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity. Although a workable design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use. In 1841, Frederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained within a vacuum bulb.

He used carbon. In 1845, American John W. Starr acquired a patent for his incandescent light bulb using carbon filaments, he died shortly after obtaining the patent, his invention was never produced commercially. In 1851, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin publicly demonstrated incandescent light bulbs on his estate in Blois, France, his light bulbs are on display in the museum of the Château de Blois. In 1859, Moses G. Farmer built an electric incandescent light bulb using a platinum filament, he patented a light bulb, purchased by Thomas Edison. In 1872, Russian Alexander Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb and obtained a Russian patent in 1874, he used as a burner two carbon rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed, filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been consumed. He lived in the US, changed his name to Alexander de Lodyguine and applied and obtained patents for incandescent lamps having chromium, rhodium, osmium and tungsten filaments, a

Temple ring

Temple rings were part of Slavic and others' medieval women's dress. Most were made of base metals such as copper alloys or iron, though silver and gold were used; these were known as temple rings because they were worn on the head, near the temples of a woman or a girl. A temple ring may refer to an altar ring used in rites at a temple in Germanic paganism. Temple rings were characteristic decorations of Slavic women. Different tribes had their own designs and they were made out of various metals; the rings were attached to a string that became part of a headdress or they were woven directly into braids of hair. The earliest archeological evidence of temple rings was found in the Catacomb culture, Unetice culture and Karasuk culture, they were found in the Chernoles culture. Temple rings were most popular between the 8th and 12th centuries influenced by the Arab and Byzantine cultures. In fashion styles, a temple ring was replaced by the kolt hanging from a ryasna. Types of Slavic temple rings Temple rings, female headdress of the Eastern Slavs in Rus’

Rotterdam Rules

The "Rotterdam Rules" is a treaty proposing new international rules to revise the legal framework for maritime affreightment and carriage of goods by sea. The Rules address the legal relationship between carriers and cargo-owners; the aim of the convention is to extend and modernize existing international rules and achieve uniformity of International trade law in the field of maritime carriage, updating or replacing many provisions in the Hague Rules, Hague-Visby Rules and Hamburg Rules. The convention establishes a comprehensive, uniform legal regime governing the rights and obligations of shippers and consignees under a contract for door-to-door shipments that involve international sea transport. Although the final text was greeted with much enthusiasm, a decade little has happened; as of December 2018, the rules are not yet in force as they have been ratified by only four states, three of which are minor West African states. The Rotterdam Rules are extensive, with nearly ten times as many Articles as existing "tackle-to-tackle only" Rules.

Although some have argued that the new Rules have flaws, the Hague-Visby Rules which dominate the sector are insufficient for modern multimodal transport. One possible way forward might be the interim adoption of a "Rotterdam-Lite Convention"; the Hague Rules of 1924 were updated in 1968 to become the Hague-Visby Rules, but the changes were modest. The modified convention still covered only "tackle to tackle" carriage contracts, with no provision for multimodal transport; the industry-changing phenomenon of containerization was acknowledged. The 1978 Hamburg Rules were introduced to provide a framework, both more modern, less biased in favour of ship operators. Although the Hamburg Rules were adopted by developing countries, the new convention was shunned by richer countries who stuck with Hague and Hague-Visby, it had been expected that a Hague/Hamburg compromise might arise, but instead the vast Rotterdam Rules appeared. The final draft of the Rotterdam Rules, assembled by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, was adopted by the United Nations on 11 December 2008, a signing ceremony was held in Rotterdam on 23 September 2009.

Signatories included the United States, Greece, Denmark and the Netherlands. Signatures were allowed after the ceremony at the U. N. Headquarters in New York City, United States; the World Shipping Council is a prominent supporter of the Rotterdam Rules. In 2010, the American Bar Association House of Delegates approved a resolution supporting U. S. ratification of the Rotterdam Rules. The following are critical provisions and law changes found in the Rotterdam Rules: The Rules apply only if the carriage includes a sea leg, it extends the period that carriers are responsible for goods, to cover the time between the point where the goods are received to the point where the goods are delivered. It approves more forms of electronic documentation, it increases the limit liability of carriers to 875 units of account per shipping unit or three units of account per kilogram of gross weight. It eliminates the "nautical fault defence" which had protected carriers and crew from liability for negligent ship management and navigation.

It extends the time that legal claims can be filed to two years following the day the goods were delivered or should have been delivered. It allows parties to so-called "Volume Contracts" to opt-out of some liability rules set in the convention, it properly crewed throughout the voyage. The standard of care is not "strict", but "due diligence"; the Rotterdam Rules will enter into effect a year. As of 9 August 2011, there were 24 signatories to the treaty; the most recent country to sign the treaty was Sweden, which signed on 20 July 2011. Spain was the first country to ratify the convention in January 2011. An overview of signatures and ratifications is shown below: Upon entry into force of the convention for a country, it should denounce the conventions governing the Hague-Visby Rules as well as the Hamburg Rules as the convention does not come into effect without such denouncements. Hague-Visby Rules Hamburg Rules Seaworthiness ratifications