Incisors are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight. Opossums have 18. Adult humans have eight incisors, two of each type; the types of incisor are: maxillary central incisor maxillary lateral incisor mandibular central incisor mandibular lateral incisor Children with a full set of deciduous teeth have eight incisors, named the same way as in permanent teeth. Young children may have from zero to eight incisors depending on the stage of their tooth eruption and tooth development; the mandibular central incisors erupt first, followed by the maxillary central incisors, the mandibular lateral incisors and the maxillary laterals. The rest of the primary dentition erupts after the incisors. Apart from the first molars, the incisors are the first permanent teeth to erupt, following the same order as the primary teeth, among themselves. Among other animals, the number varies from species to species. Opossums have 18.

Cats, foxes and horses have twelve. Rodents have four. Rabbits and hares were once considered rodents, but are distinguished by having six—one small pair, called "peg teeth", is located directly behind the most anterior pair. Incisors are used to bite off tough foods, such as red meat. Cattle a total of six on the bottom. In cats, the incisors are small. In elephants, the upper incisors are modified into curved tusks; the incisors of rodents are worn by gnawing. In humans, the incisors serve to cut off pieces of food, as well as in the grip of other food items. Canine tooth Molar Premolar Shovel-shaped incisors Media related to Incisors at Wikimedia Commons


Grackle is the common name of any of eleven passerine birds native to North and South America. They belong to various genera in the icterid family. In all the species with this name, adult males have black or black plumage. Genus Quiscalus Boat-tailed grackle, Quiscalus major Common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula Great-tailed grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus Slender-billed grackle, Quiscalus palustris – extinct Nicaraguan grackle, Quiscalus nicaraguensis Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger Carib grackle, Quiscalus lugubris Genus Hypopyrrhus Red-bellied grackle, Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster Genus Lampropsar Velvet-fronted grackle, Lampropsar tanagrinus Genus Macroagelaius Golden-tufted grackle, Macroagelaius imthurni Colombian mountain grackle, Macroagelaius subalarisSometimes members of the starling family have been called grackles. Tristram's starling is sometimes known as "Tristram's grackle", the hill mynas in the genus Gracula have been called grackles

Pyotr Slovtsov

Pyotr Ivanovich Slovtsov was a famous Russian tenor. Slovtsov was born in the village of Ustyanskoye in Yeniseysk Governorate of the Russian Empire, to the family of a deacon, his father died when the boy was five, the mother re-located with Pyotr to Krasnoyarsk. According to family tradition, the boy attended an ecclesiastical school and a seminary. At the seminary, the boy's discant was noticed by the seminary's choir-master, Pavel Ivanov-Radkevich, who entrusted Pyotr with performing a solo; the local press was impressed with Pyotr's performance to the point of predicting a brilliant career for the boy. After the graduation, Slovtsov entered the law school of the University of Warsaw, but dropped out only six months choosing to attend Moscow Conservatory instead. There he specialized in solo singing under Professor Ivan Gordi. Slovtsov graduated from the Conservatory with its gold medal in 1912. From that time his name appeared on placards in many Russian cities, including Kiev, Saratov, St. Petersburg, Nizhny-Novgorod, Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre and Leningrad.

He made his operatic debut with the Kiev Opera in 1912, sang there until 1915, when he joined the Petrograd People's House Theatre with a repertoire that included Faust and Prince Igor. In 1920 he and his wife, the singer M. N Rioli-Slovtsova moved to Krasnoyarsk, although in 1928 he was appointed professor of solo of singing at the Russian Academy of Theatre Arts and continued his appearances the Bolshoi in a wide variety of operatic roles. Slovtsov’s records are rare and sought-after by collectors. Pyotr I. Slovtsov was called by his contemporaries "the Siberian nightingale", was ranked with such well-known tenors of the day as Vladimir Rosing, A. M. Davydov, Leonid Sobinov, Dmitri Smirnov and Andrey Labinsky; the singer had an extraordinary rare voice and mastered the high level of skill as drama actor, making him worthy of the traditions of tenor Nikolay Figner, who combined musical and stage skills in a harmonious performance of opera art. Notwithstanding the technical imperfections of the recordings he made, one can tell that the voice of Peter Slovtzov was rich and attractive, of mellow timbre and unique in its strength yet velvet sounding.

Feodor Chaliapin appreciated his talent, they sang together in the operas Prince Igor, Faust and Salieri and The Barber of Seville. For long years the bosom friendship connected Slovtzov with well-known masters of drama as Leonid Sobinov, Nadezhda Obukhova, Vasili Kachalov and Antonina Nezhdanova. Many newspapers and journals at that time appreciated Slovtzov's talent: "Slovtzov has a wonderful school, his voice, though of mellow timbre, impeccably obeys to its master." His best roles included Vladimir Igorevich, the Prince, Vladimir Dubrovsky, the Indian visitor, Tsar Berendey, Lensky, Count Almaviva, Faust, Nadir, Dzherald. Other roles he sang included Vasya. Partners on stage included A. M. Bragin, R. G. Gorskaja, L. Lipkovskaja, V. Sokovnin, Antonina Nezhdanova, V. K. Pavlovskaya and M. O. Reizen, Feodor Chaliapin. Conductors Slovtsov sang under included Mark Golinkin, Abram Markson, Ariy Pazovsky, etc. Slovtsov was a talented director and a vocal coach, he was not a bit plump with an open Russian face.

He attracted people with his simple-heartedness. Organizing abilities helped Slovtsov to unite talented people around him. In Krasnoyarsk he organized the vocal school for the People’s Conservatory, Worker’s Opera and society "Music for the Masses", he staged 14 operas in Krasnoyarsk. In 1928 Slovtsov was invited by professor of solo singing in Russian Academy of Theatre Arts. During 22 years of his creative activity Slovtsov gave two thousand concerts, his wife, Margarita N. Rioly, was a lyrico-dramatic soprano and an opera singer, she had studied solo singing at the Moscow Conservatory under V. M. Zarudnaya-Ivanova, graduated a year earlier than Slovtzov. Rioly was not only a talented singer, but a remarkable teacher of singing, but most of all she loved the opera stage and performed leading roles on opera stages of Tiflis, Ekaterinburg, Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk. In 1915 M. Rioly married P. I. Slovtzov and from that time they cooperated in concert activity and performed together on opera stages. Margarita N. Rioly was an excellent pianist, so became Slovtzov’s favourite accompanist.

In 1934, Slovtsov caught cold while performing on his tour in one of the city of Soviet Union and soon died. His monument of white marble is located in Pokrovsky cemetery in Krasnoyarsk; the words engraved on the monument are from opera Werther: "Why awaken me, O breath of Spring?" To mark the 120th anniversary of his birth, The Central Museum of Musical Culture by