An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum, is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501. Incunabula are not manuscripts; as of 2014, there are about 30,000 distinct known incunable editions extant, but the probable number of surviving copies in Germany alone is estimated at around 125,000. Incunable is the anglicised singular form of incunabula, Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle", which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything". A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener"; the term incunabula as a printing term was first used by the Dutch physician and humanist Hadrianus Iunius and appears in a passage from his posthumous work: Hadrianus Iunius, Batavia, ex officina Plantiniana, apud Franciscum Raphelengium, 1588, p. 256 l. 3: «inter prima artis incunabula», a term to which he arbitrarily set an end of 1500 which still stands as a convention. Only by a misunderstanding was Bernhard von Mallinckrodt considered to be the inventor of this meaning of incunabula.

Ita igitur Iunius». So the source is only one, the other is a quotation; the term incunabula came to denote the printed books themselves in the late 17th century. John Evelyn, in moving the Arundel Manuscripts to the Royal Society in August 1678, remarked of the printed books among the manuscripts: "The printed books, being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; the convenient but arbitrarily chosen end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable does not reflect any notable developments in the printing process, many books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to be visually indistinguishable from incunables. "Post-incunable" refers to books printed after 1500 up to another arbitrary end date such as 1520 or 1540. From around this period the dating of any edition becomes easier, as the practice of printers including information such as the place and year of printing became more widespread. There are two types of incunabula in printing: the block book, printed from a single carved or sculpted wooden block for each page, employing the same process as the woodcut in art.

Many authors reserve the term incunabula for the latter kind only. The spread of printing to cities both in the north and in Italy ensured that there was great variety in the texts chosen for printing and the styles in which they appeared. Many early typefaces were modelled on local forms of writing or derived from the various European forms of Gothic script, but there were some derived from documentary scripts, in Italy, types modelled on handwritten scripts and calligraphy employed by humanists. Printers congregated in urban centres where there were scholars, ecclesiastics and nobles and professionals who formed their major customer base. Standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printed works, but as books became cheaper, vernacular works began to appear; the most famous incunabula include two from Mainz, the Gutenberg Bible of 1455 and the Peregrinatio in terram sanctam of 1486, printed and illustrated by Erhard Reuwich. Other printers of incunabula were Günther Zainer of Augsburg, Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein of Strasbourg, Heinrich Gran of Haguenau and William Caxton of Bruges and London.

The first incunable to have woodcut illustrations was Ulrich Boner's Der Edelstein, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg in 1461. Many incunabula are undated; the post-incunabula period marks a time of development during which the printed book evolved as a mature artefact with a standard format. After c. 1540 books tended to conform to a template that included the author, title-page, date and place of printing. This makes it much easier to identify any particular edition; as noted above, the end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable is convenient but was chosen arbitrarily. Books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to look much like incunables, with the notable exception of the small format books printed in italic type introduced by Aldus Manutius in 1501; the term post-incunable is sometimes used to refer to books printed "after 1500—how lon

Phyllis M. Ryan

Phyllis Milgroom Ryan was a civil rights activist from Brookline, Massachusetts. Most of her work was concentrated in fair housing, welfare reform, prison reform during the 1960s through the 1970s. Phyllis Milgroom Ryan was born on July 2, 1927 in Chelsea, Massachusetts to Arthur and Elizabeth Milgroom, who were both Russian immigrants, she grew up in Brookline and attended Brookline High School. Ryan enrolled in Northeastern University, where she found her start in political activism with the student organization Students for Henry Wallace. Ryan graduated in 1950 with a degree in English. In 1951, she married William Ryan, another social activist with whom she collaborated to organize protests; the couple had their only child, daughter Elizabeth Ryan Yuengart, in 1954. Phyllis was successful in the media relations positions she held with various political organizations and helped those organizations with the planning and coordination of their political demonstrations. Among her most famous contributions in social activism were those to the prison reform and fair housing movements.

Phyllis remained politically active throughout the rest of her life, including her last campaign, which made a public lake in Newton, Massachusetts handicap accessible after she developed multiple sclerosis. She died on May 1998 as a result of her medical condition. A series of boycotts against the Boston Public Schools, called Stayout for Freedom, were organized starting in 1963 to protest segregation of the Boston Public School System; the Stayouts began as a way to demonstrate how empty certain public schools in Boston would be if all of the non-white students did not show up. Instead of going to school, the students went to Freedom Schools, where they learned about history of blacks in America and civil disobedience as protest. Phyllis Ryan, her husband William, other fair housing activists in the suburbs of Boston organized their own Stayout, because housing practices played a major role in the segregation of schools. Instead of non-white students in Boston boycotting their schools, students from Boston's predominantly white suburban schools followed the example of earlier Stayouts and were bussed into Roxbury to participate in Freedom Schools.

Phyllis oversaw the public relations of the event and managed to get the event on the front page of major Boston newspapers. Ryan, her husband William, Hubie Jones, another social activist in Boston, created the'Should Dukakis Be Governor?' Committee in 1976 to organize the'Dump the Duke' movement. The committee sought to raise awareness of and opposition to Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis's cuts to welfare funding in 1975, their campaign sought to expose what they saw as contradictions between Dukakis's campaign promises and his actions in office in an effort to undermine his political authority and re-election. The mission of the Fair Housing Federation of Greater Boston was to eliminate housing discrimination in Boston's predominantly white suburbs. Ryan led the campaign in Brookline, where she urged other Brookline residents to sign a "Good Neighbor" statement as a declaration that race would not factor in a decision to sell their house. 80% of the residents who signed the statement added stickers to the doors of their homes.

Ryan, as part of the Ad Hoc Committee on Prison Reform, worked to improve conditions of prisons, with efforts focused in the Walpole State Prison in Walpole, Massachusetts. Ryan and the Committee started a civilian observation program that brought civilians into the prisons to witness prison conditions first-hand, she worked with inmates to advocate and help them advocate for their rights when it came to prison guard brutality. In 1972, the Senate Finance Committee amended a welfare reform bill that passed through the United States House of Representatives and added a clause that would require welfare recipients to work on Federal projects in order to continue to receive Federal aid. Ryan, a member of the Committee Against Bogus Welfare Reform, spoke out against the bill for requiring work with no guaranteed minimum wage from those who are in need, she argued that single mothers on this welfare plan would have to find daycare for their children. The amendment ended up being rescinded from the bill.

Ad Hoc Committee on Prison Reform Committee Against Bogus Welfare Reform Congress of Racial Equality Fair Housing Federation Massachusetts Freedom Movement Southern Christian Leadership Conference Geismer, Lily D.. Don't Blame Us: Grassroots Liberalism in Massachusetts, 1960-1990. University of Michigan

Sons of Society

Sons of Society is the eleventh studio album by American heavy metal band Riot, released in Japan on July 15, 1999 and in the USA on September 7, 1999 with a missing track. "Snake Charmer" - 1:04 "On the Wings of Life" - 4:36 "Sons of Society" - 4:26 "Twist of Fate" - 5:36 "Bad Machine" - 5:06 "Cover Me" - 6:47 "Dragonfire" - 3:38 "The Law" - 3:46 "Time to Bleed" - 4:38 "Queen" - 4:28 "Somewhere" - 4:16 "Promises" - 4:35"Queen" is a standard track on the original release and is missing on the USA and other countries releases. Mike DiMeo - lead vocals, Hammond organ, keyboards Mark Reale - Electric and acoustic guitars, percussion, strings arrangements, producer Mike Flyntz - Electric guitars Pete Perez - bass Bobby Jarzombek - drums Frank Carrillo - sitar, tamboura Tony Harnell, Burt Carey - backing vocals Paul Orofino - producer, mixing Chris Cubeta - engineer George Marino - mastering Jeff Allen, Jack Bart - executive producers