A cult film or cult movie commonly referred to as a cult classic, is a film that has acquired a cult following. Cult films are known for their dedicated, passionate fanbase, an elaborate subculture that engage in repeated viewings, quoting dialogue, audience participation. Inclusive definitions allow for major studio productions box office bombs, while exclusive definitions focus more on obscure, transgressive films shunned by the mainstream; the difficulty in defining the term and subjectivity of what qualifies as a cult film mirror classificatory disputes about art. The term cult film itself was first used in the 1970s to describe the culture that surrounded underground films and midnight movies, though cult was in common use in film analysis for decades prior to that. Cult films trace their origin back to controversial and suppressed films kept alive by dedicated fans. In some cases, reclaimed or rediscovered films have acquired cult followings decades after their original release for their camp value.
Other cult films have since become reassessed as classics. After failing in the cinema, some cult films have become regular fixtures on cable television or profitable sellers on home video. Others have inspired their own film festivals. Cult films can both form their own subcultures. Other media that reference cult films can identify which demographics they desire to attract and offer savvy fans an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge. Cult films break cultural taboos, many feature excessive displays of violence, sexuality, profanity, or combinations thereof; this can lead to controversy and outright bans. Films that fail to attract requisite amounts of controversy may face resistance when labeled as cult films. Mainstream films and big budget blockbusters have attracted cult followings similar to more underground and lesser known films. Fans who like the films for the wrong reasons, such as perceived elements that represent mainstream appeal and marketing, will be ostracized or ridiculed.
Fans who stray from accepted subcultural scripts may experience similar rejection. Since the late 1970s, cult films have become popular. Films that once would have been limited to obscure cult followings are now capable of breaking into the mainstream, showings of cult films have proved to be a profitable business venture. Overbroad usage of the term has resulted in controversy, as purists state it has become a meaningless descriptor applied to any film, the slightest bit weird or unconventional. Films are stated to be an "instant cult classic" now before they are released. Fickle fans on the Internet have latched on to unreleased films only to abandon them on release. At the same time, other films have acquired massive, quick cult followings, owing to spreading virally through social media. Easy access to cult films via video on demand and peer-to-peer file sharing has led some critics to pronounce the death of cult films. A cult film is any film that has a cult following, although the term is not defined and can be applied to a wide variety of films.
Some definitions exclude films that have been released by major studios or have big budgets, that try to become cult films, or become accepted by mainstream audiences and critics. Cult films are defined by audience reaction as much as by their content; this may take the form of elaborate and ritualized audience participation, film festivals, or cosplay. Over time, the definition has become more vague and inclusive as it drifts away from earlier, stricter views. Increasing use of the term by mainstream publications has resulted in controversy, as cinephiles argue that the term has become meaningless or "elastic, a catchall for anything maverick or strange". Academic Mark Shiel has criticized the term itself as being reliant on subjectivity. According to feminist scholar Joanne Hollows, this subjectivity causes films with large female cult followings to be perceived as too mainstream and not transgressive enough to qualify as a cult film. Academic Mike Chopra‑Gant says that cult films become decontextualized when studied as a group, Shiel criticizes this recontextualization as cultural commodification.
In 2008, Cineaste asked a range of academics for their definition of a cult film. Several people defined cult films in terms of their opposition to mainstream films and conformism, explicitly requiring a transgressive element, though others disputed the transgressive potential, given the demographic appeal to conventional moviegoers and mainstreaming of cult films. Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock instead called them mainstream films with transgressive elements. Most definitions required a strong community aspect, such as obsessed fans or ritualistic behavior. Citing misuse of the term, Mikel J. Koven took a self-described hard-line stance that rejected definitions that use any other criteria. Matt Hills instead stressed the need for an open-ended definition rooted in structuration, where the film and the audience reaction are interrelated and neither is prioritized. Ernest Mathijs focused on the accidental nature of cult followings, arguing that cult film fans consider themselves too savvy to be marketed to, w
Nakba Day is commemorated on 15 May, the day after the Gregorian calendar date for Israeli Independence Day. For the Palestinians it is an annual day of commemoration of the displacement that preceded and followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948; the day was inaugurated by Yasser Arafat in 1998. During the 1948 Palestine war, an estimated 700,000 Palestinians fled or were expelled, hundreds of Palestinian towns and villages were depopulated and destroyed; these refugees and their descendants number several million people today, divided between Jordan, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, with at least another quarter of a million internally displaced Palestinians in Israel. The displacement and dispersal of the Palestinian people is known to them as an-Nakba, meaning "catastrophe" or "disaster”. Prior to its adoption by the Palestinian nationalist movement, the "Year of the Catastrophe" among Arabs referred to 1920, when European colonial powers partitioned the Ottoman Empire into a series of separate states along lines of their own choosing.
The term was first used to reference the events of 1948 in the summer of that same year by the Syrian writer Constantine Zureiq in his work Macnā an-Nakba. The use of the term Nakba among Palestinians was not universal. For example, many years after 1948, Palestinian refugees in Lebanon avoided and actively resisted using the term, because it lent permanency to a situation they viewed as temporary, they insisted on being called "returnees." In the 1950s and 1960s, terms they used to describe the events of 1948 included al-'ightiṣāb, or were more euphemistic, such as al-'aḥdāth, al-hijra, lammā sharnā wa-tla'nā. Nakba narratives were avoided by the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Lebanon in the 1970s, in favor of a narrative of revolution and renewal. Interest in the Nakba by organizations representing refugees in Lebanon surged in the 1990s due to the perception that the refugees' right of return might be negotiated away in exchange for Palestinian statehood, the desire was to send a clear message to the international community that this right was non-negotiable.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict has prompted Palestinians like Mahmoud Darwish to describe the Nakba as "an extended present that promises to continue in the future.” Nakba Day is commemorated on 15 May, the day after the Gregorian calendar date for Israel's Independence. In Israel, Nakba Day events have been held by some Arab citizens on Yom Ha'atzmaut, celebrated in Israel on the Hebrew calendar date; because of the differences between the Hebrew and the Gregorian calendars, Independence Day and the official 15 May date for Nakba Day only coincide every 19 years. As early as 1949, one year after the establishment of the State of Israel, 15 May was marked in several West Bank cities by demonstrations, the raising of black flags, visits to the graves of people killed during the 1948 war; these events were organized by worker and student associations and sports clubs, scouts clubs, committees of refugees, the Muslim Brotherhood. The speakers in these gatherings blamed the Arab governments and the Arab League for failing to "save Palestine", according to author Tamir Sorek.
By the late 1950s, 15 May would be known in the Arab world as Palestine Day, mentioned by the media in Arab and Muslim countries as a day of international solidarity with Palestine. Commemoration of the Nakba by Arab citizens of Israel who are internally displaced persons as a result of the 1948 war has been practiced for decades, but until the early 1990s was weak; the memory of the catastrophe of 1948 was personal and communal in character and families or members of a given village would use the day to gather at the site of their former villages. Small scale commemorations of the tenth anniversary in the form of silent vigils were held by Arab students at a few schools in Israel in 1958, despite attempts by the Israeli authorities to thwart them. Visits to the sites of former villages became visible after the events of Land Day in 1976. In the wake up of the failure of the 1991 Madrid Conference to broach the subject of refugees, the Association for the Defense of the Rights of the Internally Displaced in Israel was founded to organize a March of Return to the site of a different village every year on 15 May so as to place the issue on the Israeli public agenda.
By the early 1990s, annual commemorations of the day by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel held a prominent place in the community's public discourse. Meron Benvenisti writes that it was "…Israeli Arabs who taught the residents of the territories to commemorate Nakba Day." Palestinians in the occupied territories were called upon to commemorate 15 May as a day of national mourning by the Palestine Liberation Organization's United National Command of the Uprising during the First Intifada in 1988. The day was inaugurated by Yasser Arafat in 1998; the event is marked by speeches and rallies by Palestinians in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, in Palestinian refugee camps in Arab states, in other places around the world. Protests at times develop into clashes between Palestinians and the Israel Defense Forces in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In 2003 and 2004, there were demonstrations in New York City. In 2002, Zochrot was established to organize events raising the awareness of the
Jewish holidays known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim, are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews throughout the Hebrew calendar. They include religious and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot. Jewish holidays occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian; this is because the Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar, whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar. Certain terms are used commonly for groups of holidays; the Hebrew-language term Yom Tov, sometimes referred to as "festival day," refers to the six Biblically-mandated festival dates on which all activities prohibited on Shabbat are prohibited, except for some related to food preparation. These include the first and seventh days of Passover, both days of Rosh Hashanah, first day of Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret. By extension, outside the Land of Israel, the second-day holidays known under the rubric Yom tov sheni shel galuyot are included in this grouping. Colloquially, Yom Kippur, a Biblically-mandated date on which food preparation is prohibited, is included in this grouping.
The tradition of keeping two days of Yom Tov in the diaspora has existed since 300 BCE. The English-language term High Holy Days refers to Yom Kippur collectively, its Hebrew analogue, Yamim Nora'im, "Days of Awe”, is more flexible: it can refer just to those holidays, or to the Ten Days of Repentance, or to the entire penitential period, starting as early as the beginning of Elul, ending as late as Shemini Atzeret. The term Three Pilgrimage Festivals refers to Passover and Sukkot. Within this grouping Sukkot includes Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah. Certain terminology is used in referring to different categories of holidays, depending on their source and their nature: Shabbat, or Sabbath, is referred to by that name exclusively. Rosh Chodesh is referred to by that name exclusively. Yom tov: See "Groupings" above. Moed, plural moadim, refers to any of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover and Sukkot; when used in comparison to Yom Tov, it refers to Chol HaMoed, the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot.
Ḥag or chag, plural chagim, can be used whenever yom moed is. It is used to describe Hanukkah and Purim, as well as Yom Ha'atzmaut and Yom Yerushalayim. Ta'anit, or, less tzom, refers to a fast; these terms are used to describe the rabbinic fasts, although tzom is used liturgically to refer to Yom Kippur as well. The most notable common feature of Shabbat and the Biblical festivals is the requirement to refrain from melacha on these days. Melacha is most translated as "work". Speaking, Melacha is defined in Jewish law by 39 categories of labor that were used in constructing the Tabernacle while the Jews wandered in the desert; as understood traditionally and in Orthodox Judaism: On Shabbat and Yom Kippur all melacha is prohibited. On a Yom Tov which falls on a weekday, not Shabbat, most melacha is prohibited; some melacha related to preparation of food is permitted. On weekdays during Chol HaMoed, melacha is not prohibited per se. However, melacha should be limited to that required either to enhance the enjoyment of the remainder of the festival or to avoid great financial loss.
On other days, there are no restrictions on melacha. In principle, Conservative Judaism understands the requirement to refrain from melacha in the same way as Orthodox Judaism. In practice, Conservative rabbis rule on prohibitions around melacha differently from Orthodox authorities. Still, there are a number of Conservative/Masorti communities around the world where Sabbath and Festival observance closely resembles Orthodox observance. However, many, if not most, lay members of Conservative congregations in North America do not consider themselves Sabbath-observant by Conservative standards. At the same time, adherents of Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism do not accept halacha, therefore restrictions on melacha, as binding at all. Jews fitting any of these descriptions refrain from melacha in practice only as they see fit. Shabbat and holiday work restrictions are always put aside in cases of pikuach nefesh, saving a human life. At the most fundamental level, if there is any possibility whatsoever that action must be taken to save a life, Shabbat restrictions are set aside and without reservation.
Where the danger to life is present but less immediate, there is some preference to minimize violation of Shabbat work restrictions where possible. The laws in this area are complex; the Torah specifies a single date on the Jewish calendar for observance of holidays. Festivals of Biblical origin other than Shabbat and Yom Kippur are observed for two days outside the land of Israel, Rosh Hashanah is observed for two days inside the land of Israel. Dates for holidays on the Jewish calendar are expressed in the Torah as "day x of month y." Accordingly, the beginning of month y needs to be determined before the proper date
Israeli Declaration of Independence
The Israeli Declaration of Independence, formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization, Chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, soon to be first Prime Minister of Israel. It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day; the event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Independence Day on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar. The possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. In 1917, the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, stated in a letter to British Jewish community leader Walter, Lord Rothschild, that: His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
Through this letter, which became known as the Balfour Declaration, British government policy endorsed Zionism. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, which it had conquered from the Ottomans during the war. In 1937 the Peel Commission suggested partitioning Mandate Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state, though the proposal was rejected as unworkable by the government and was at least to blame for the renewal of the 1936–39 Arab revolt. In the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the established United Nations; the result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. The Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem; the plan rejected by much of the Arab populace. On 29 November 1947, the resolution to recommend to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union was put to a vote in the United Nations General Assembly.
The result was 33 to 13 with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181: PART I: Future constitution and government of Palestine: A. TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE: Clause 3 provides:Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem... shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not than 1 October 1948. The Arab countries proposed to query the International Court of Justice on the competence of the General Assembly to partition a country, but the resolution was rejected; the first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, the Histadrut trade union's legal advisor and a Justice of the Supreme Court, at the request of Pinchas Rosen. A revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett and Aharon Zisling.
A second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence. Three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States; the meeting ended after midnight. The decision was between declaring independence; the latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it: For: David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett. Against: Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez. Chaim Weizmann, the Chairman of the World Zionist Organization, soon to be first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after asking "What are they waiting for, the idiots?" The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13:50 and ended at 15:00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, despite ongoing disagreements, with a unanimous vote in favour of the final text.
During the process, there were two major debates. The borders were not specified in the Declaration. However, its 14th paragraph included a commitment to implement the UN Partition Plan: THE STATE OF ISRAEL is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947 The original draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen a
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Shabbat or Shabbos, or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews and certain Christians remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities with great rigor, engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins. Variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions. According to halakha, Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. Shabbat is ushered in by reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three festive meals are eaten: in the evening, in the early afternoon, late in the afternoon.
The evening meal and the early afternoon meal begin with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the following evening with a havdalah blessing. Shabbat is a festive day, it offers an opportunity to spend time with family. The word "Shabbat" derives from the Hebrew verb shavat. Although translated as "rest", another accurate translation of these words is "ceasing ", as resting is not denoted; the related modern Hebrew word shevita, has the same implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is regarded as more consistent with an omnipotent God's activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis. Other significant connotations are to shevet which means sitting or staying, to sheva meaning seven, as Shabbat is the seventh day of the week. Sabbath is given special status as a holy day at the beginning of the Torah in Genesis 2:1–3, it is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16:26 and in Exodus 16:29, as in Exodus 20:8–11.
Sabbath is commended many more times in the Torah and Tanakh. Sabbath is described by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea and Nehemiah; the longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The origins of Shabbat and a seven-day week are not clear to scholars. Seventh-day Shabbat did not originate with the Egyptians; the first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu, dated 630 BCE. Connection to Sabbath observance has been suggested in the designation of the seventh, nineteenth, twenty-first and twenty-eight days of a lunar month in an Assyrian religious calendar as a'holy day' called ‘evil days’; the prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, the avoidance of eating meat by the King. On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day".
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia advanced a theory of Assyriologists like Friedrich Delitzsch that Shabbat arose from the lunar cycle in the Babylonian calendar containing four weeks ending in Sabbath, plus one or two additional unreckoned days per month. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language; the Tanakh and siddur describe Shabbat as having three purposes: To commemorate God's creation of the universe, on the seventh day of which God rested from his work. Judaism accords Shabbat the status of a joyous holy day. In many ways, Jewish law gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar: It is the first holy day mentioned in the Bible, God was the first to observe it with the cessation of Creation. Jewish liturgy treats Shabbat as a "bride" and "queen"; the Sefer Torah is read during the Torah reading, part of the Shabbat morning services, with a longer reading than during the week.
The Torah is read over a yearly cycle of one for each Shabbat. On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven sections, more than on any other holy day, including Yom Kippur; the Haftarah reading from the Hebrew prophets is read. A tradition states that the Jewish Messiah will come if every Jew properly observes two consecutive Shabbatoth; the punishme