Israeli Declaration of Independence

The Israeli Declaration of Independence, formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization, Chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, soon to be first Prime Minister of Israel. It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day; the event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Independence Day on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar. The possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. In 1917, the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, stated in a letter to British Jewish community leader Walter, Lord Rothschild, that: His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

Through this letter, which became known as the Balfour Declaration, British government policy endorsed Zionism. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, which it had conquered from the Ottomans during the war. In 1937 the Peel Commission suggested partitioning Mandate Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state, though the proposal was rejected as unworkable by the government and was at least to blame for the renewal of the 1936–39 Arab revolt. In the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the established United Nations; the result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. The Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem; the plan rejected by much of the Arab populace. On 29 November 1947, the resolution to recommend to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union was put to a vote in the United Nations General Assembly.

The result was 33 to 13 with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181: PART I: Future constitution and government of Palestine: A. TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE: Clause 3 provides:Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem... shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not than 1 October 1948. The Arab countries proposed to query the International Court of Justice on the competence of the General Assembly to partition a country, but the resolution was rejected; the first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, the legal advisor of the Histadrut trade union and a Justice of the Supreme Court, at the request of Pinchas Rosen. A revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett and Aharon Zisling.

A second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence. Three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States; the meeting ended after midnight. The decision was between declaring independence; the latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it: For: David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett. Against: Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez. Chaim Weizmann, the Chairman of the World Zionist Organization, soon to be first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after asking "What are they waiting for, the idiots?" The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13:50 and ended at 15:00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, despite ongoing disagreements, with a unanimous vote in favour of the final text.

During the process, there were two major debates. The borders were not specified in the Declaration. However, its 14th paragraph included a commitment to implement the UN Partition Plan: THE STATE OF ISRAEL is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947 The original draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Ros


Akbara is an Arab neighborhood in the Israeli municipality of Safed, which included in 2010 more than 200 families. It is 2.5 km south of Safed City. The village was built by the state of Israel in 1977, close to the old village destroyed in 1948 during the Israeli war of independence; the village of'Akbara was situated 2.5 km south of Safad, along the two sides of a deep wadi that ran north–south. Southeast of the village lay Khirbet al-'Uqeiba, identified as the Roman village Achabare, or Acchabaron; this khirba was a populated village as late as 1904. The first'Akbara mention is during Second Temple period by Josephus Flavius, he noted the rock of Acchabaron among the places in the Upper Galilee he fortified as a preparation for the Jewish Revolt. At the time Josephus Flavius was commanding Jewish rebel forces fighting Romans in the Galilee; the nearby Khirbet al-'Uqeiba was first excavated during the Mandate period, was shown to contain remains such as building foundations, hewn stones, wine presses.

Cisterns, oil press and walls of ancient synagogue have been found. Foerster identifies the ruins as the "early Galilean type" synagogue. Above the settlement, a 135 m high vertical cliff is located. There are one hundred and twenty-nine natural and man-made caves interconnected by passages in the cliff. According to tradition, those caves were used for shelter by Jews during their war with Romans. During archeological excavations, coins from Dor and Sepphoris were found in the caves, dating to the Roman emperor Trajan period. Akbara/Akbari/Akbora/Akborin is mentioned several times in Rabbinic literature as early as second half of the third century CE. According to some traditions Rabbi Yannai disciplines lived in'Akbara forming an agricultural community; the earliest mention of this bet midrash is in the context of discussions between Rabbi Yohanan and sages of'Akbara. According to Talmud school of Rabbi Jose bar Abin was in Akbara. Several of the rabbis mentioned in Pirkei Avot lived in'Akbara.

Akbara is mentioned as the burial place of several Talmudic sages: Rabbi Nehurai Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Dostai his son are buried "in the gardens" "by the spring". According to tradition, the body of Rabbi Elazar ben Simeon was laying for twenty two years in his widow's garret in Akbara since he told her not to allow his colleagues to bury him. Rabbi Elazar ben Simeon feared to be dishonoured due to his aid to the Romans; the local Jewish community is attested during Fatimid rule of 969 to 1099 by the Cairo Geniza. Samuel ben Samson visited'Akbara during his 1210 Palestine pilgrimage, he described the tomb of Rabbi Meir he had found there. In 1258 Jacob of Paris visited Akbara and found there, according to Pirkei Avot, tombs of Rabbi Nehurai.'Akbara, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Moshe Basola visited the village In 1522 and said that he had found there "destroyed synagogue, 3 cubits high remaining on two sides". In 1968 the remains of the synagogue were identified by Foester.

In the census of 1596 the village was part of the nahiya of Jira, part of Liwa Safad, with a population of 36 households and 1 bachelor, all Muslims. It paid taxes on a number of crops and produce, including wheat, summer crops, occasional revenues, beehives, a press, either used for processing grapes or olives. 6/24 of the revenue went to a waqf. In 1648 a Turkish traveler Evliya Tshelebi visited Galilee and reflected on history of Akbara cliff caves, which according to tradition were used as a shelter by Jews: "The children of Israel escaped the plague and hid in these caves. Allah sent them a bad spirit which caused them to perish within the caves, their skeletons, heaped together, can be seen there to this day."In 1838, it was noted as a village in the Safad district, while in 1875 Victor Guérin visited, described it: "The ruins of Akbara cover a hillock whose slopes were sustained by walls forming terraces. Round these are grouped the remains of ancient constructions now overthrown." "The village lies on the east of the wady.

It is dominated by a platform on which foundations can be traced of a rectangular enclosure called el Kuneiseh, measuring thirty paces in length by twenty-three in breadth. It stands east and west, was constructed of good cut stones; the interior is at present given up to cultivation. This enclosure seems to have been once a Christian church."In 1881, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described Akbara as a village built of stone and adobe with about 90 inhabitants who cultivated olive and fig trees. A population list from about 1887 showed Akbara to have all Muslims. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Akbara had a population of 147. During this period the village houses were made of masonry. In the 1945 statistics the population was 390 Muslims, the total land area was 3,224 dunums. During the siege of Safad'Akbara was targeted for occupation in line with Plan D; the Hagana attack was completed by the Palmach first battalion. It was found that many of the villagers had fled due to news of Deir Yassin and'Ein al Zeitun, the village was blown up and destroyed.

On 25 May 1948, during Operation Yiftah, under the command of Yigal Allon, Galilee was cleared of its Palestinian Arab population. The Palmach's First Battalion. Following the 25 May exodus of al-Khisas

Helmut Wielandt

Helmut Wielandt was a German mathematician who worked on permutation groups. He gave a plenary lecture Entwicklungslinien in der Strukturtheorie der endlichen Gruppen at the ICM in 1958 at Edinburgh and was an Invited Speaker with talk Bedingungen für die Konjugiertheit von Untergruppen endlicher Gruppen at the ICM in 1962 in Stockholm. Collatz–Wielandt formula Wielandt, Finite permutation groups, Boston, MA: Academic Press, MR 0183775 Wielandt, Huppert, Bertram. Vol. 1. Group theory, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. ISBN 978-3-11-012452-1, MR 1272467 Wielandt, Huppert, Bertram. Vol. 2. Linear algebra and analysis, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. ISBN 978-3-11-012453-8, MR 1430098Among his work in Algebra is an elegant proof of the Sylow Theorems, in the standard textbooks on Abstract Algebra, i.e. Group Theory. Deutsch, E.. Helmut Wielandt", Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung, 103: 74–78, ISSN 0012-0456 O'Connor, John J.. "Helmut Wielandt", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.

Curriculum vitae from Mathematische Werke, Bd. 1 Oberwolfach Photo Collection Prof. Dr. Helmut Wielandt Literature by and about Helmut Wielandt in the German National Library catalogue