Progressivism in the United States
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century. It was middle reformist in nature, it arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and fears of corruption in American politics. In the 21st century, progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism and social justice. Much of the movement has been energized by religion. Historian Alonzo Hamby defined American progressivism as the "political movement that addresses ideas and issues stemming from modernization of American society. Emerging at the end of the nineteenth century, it established much of the tone of American politics throughout the first half of the century." Historians debate the exact contours, but date the "Progressive Era" from the 1890s to either World War I or the onset of the Great Depression, in response to the perceived excesses of the Gilded Age. Many of the core principles of the Progressive Movement focused on the need for efficiency in all areas of society.
Purification to eliminate waste and corruption was a powerful element, as well as the Progressives' support of worker compensation, improved child labor laws, minimum wage legislation, a support for a maximum hours that workers could work for, graduated income tax and allowed women the right to vote. According to historian William Leuchtenburg: The Progressives believed in the Hamiltonian concept of positive government, of a national government directing the destinies of the nation at home and abroad, they had little but contempt for the strict construction of the Constitution by conservative judges, who would restrict the power of the national government to act against social evils and to extend the blessings of democracy to less favored lands. The real enemy was state rights, limited government. Progressives warned that illegal voting was corrupting the political system, they identified big-city bosses, working with saloon keepers and precinct workers, as the culprits who stuffed the ballot boxes.
The solution to purifying the vote included prohibition, voter registration requirements, literacy tests. All of the Southern states used devices to disenfranchise black voters during the Progressive Era; the progressive elements in those states pushed for disenfranchisement fighting against the conservatism of the Black Belt whites. A major reason given was that whites purchased black votes to control elections, it was easier to disenfranchise blacks than to go after powerful white men. In the North, Progressives such as William U'Ren and Robert La Follette argued that the average citizen should have more control over his government; the Oregon System of "Initiative and Recall" was exported to many states, including Idaho and Wisconsin. Many progressives, such as George M. Forbes, president of Rochester's Board of Education, hoped to make government in the U. S. more responsive to the direct voice of the American people when he said: e are now intensely occupied in forging the tools of democracy, the direct primary, the initiative, the referendum, the recall, the short ballot, commission government.
But in our enthusiasm we do not seem to be aware that these tools will be worthless unless they are used by those who are aflame with the sense of brotherhood... The idea to establish in each community an institution having a direct and vital relation to the welfare of the neighborhood, ward, or district, to the city as a whole Philip J. Ethington seconds this high view of direct democracy saying: initiatives and recalls, along with direct primaries and the direct election of US Senators, were the core achievements of'direct democracy' by the Progressive generation during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Progressives fought for women's suffrage to purify the elections using purer female voters. Progressives in the South supported the elimination of corrupt black voters from the election booth. Historian Michael Perman says that in both Texas and Georgia, "disfranchisement was the weapon as well as the rallying cry in the fight for reform". Democracy or elitism? Social justice or social control?
Small entrepreneurship or concentrated capitalism? And what was the impact of American foreign policy? Were the progressives isolationists or interventionists? Imperialists or advocates of national self-determination? And whatever they were, what was their motivation? Moralistic utopianism? Muddled relativistic pragmatism? Hegemonic capitalism? Not many battered scholars began to shout'no mas!' In 1970, Peter Filene declared. The Progressives concentrated on city and state government, looking for waste and better ways to provide services as the cities grew rapidly; these changes led to a more structured system, power, centralized within the legislature would now be more locally focused. The changes were made to the system to make legal processes, market transactions, bureaucratic administration, democracy easier to manage, thus putting them under the classification of "Municipal Administration". There was a change
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
111th United States Congress
The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011. It began during the last two weeks of the George W. Bush administration, with the remainder spanning the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency, it was composed of the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U. S. Census. In the November 4, 2008 elections, the Democratic Party increased its majorities in both chambers, giving President Obama a Democratic majority in the legislature for the first two years of his presidency. A new delegate seat was created for the Northern Mariana Islands; the 111th Congress had the most experienced members in history: at the start of the 111th Congress, the average member of the House had served 10.3 years, while the average Senator had served 13.4 years. This Congress has been considered one of the most productive Congresses in history in terms of legislation passed since the 89th Congress, during Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society.
January 2009: Two Senate seats were disputed when the Congress convened: An appointment dispute over the Illinois seat vacated by President Barack Obama arose following Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich's solicitation of bribes in exchange for an appointment to the Senate. Roland Burris was appointed to the seat on December 31, 2008 but his credentials were not accepted until January 12, 2009. An election dispute over the Minnesota seat held by Norm Coleman, between Coleman and challenger Al Franken, was decided in June 30, 2009 in favor of Franken. Franken's admission gave the Senate Democratic caucus sixty votes, enough to defeat a filibuster in a party-line vote. January 8, 2009: Joint session counted the Electoral College votes of the 2008 presidential election. January 20, 2009: Inauguration of President Barack Obama. February 24, 2009: President's speech to a Joint Session April 28, 2009: Senator Arlen Specter switched from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. September 9, 2009: President Obama addressed a joint session of Congress to promote health care reform, which Representative Joe Wilson interrupted by shouting at the President.
January 21, 2010: Citizens United v. FEC: The U. S. Supreme Court struck down limits on campaign contributions by nonprofits, labor unions and other associations. January 25, 2010: 2010 State of the Union Address February 4, 2010: Republican Scott Brown's election to the Senate ended the Democratic supermajority. April 20-September 19, 2010: Deepwater Horizon oil spill November 2, 2010: 2010 general elections, in which Republicans regained control of the House while the Democrats remained in control of the Senate. January 29, 2009: Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–2 February 4, 2009: Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, Pub. L. 111–3 February 17, 2009: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–5 March 11, 2009: Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, Pub. L. 111–8 March 30, 2009: Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–11 April 21, 2009: Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act, Pub. L. 111–13 May 20, 2009: Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, Pub.
L. 111–21 May 20, 2009: Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–22 May 22, 2009: Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–23 May 22, 2009: Credit CARD Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–24 June 22, 2009: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, as Division A of Pub. L. 111–31 June 24, 2009: Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2009 including the Car Allowance Rebate System, Pub. L. 111–32 October 28, 2009: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, including the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, Pub. L. 111–84 November 6, 2009: Worker and Business Assistance Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–92 December 16, 2009: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Pub. L. 111–117 February 12, 2010: Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act, as Title I of Pub. L. 111–139 March 4, 2010: Travel Promotion Act of 2009, as Section 9 of Pub. L. 111–145 March 18, 2010: Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act, Pub. L. 111–147 March 23, 2010: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub.
L. 111–148 March 30, 2010: Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, including the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act, Pub. L. 111–152 May 5, 2010: Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–163 July 1, 2010: Comprehensive Iran Sanctions and Divestment Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–195 July 21, 2010: Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. 111–203 July 29, 2010: Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010 August 3, 2010: Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–220 August 10, 2010: Securing the Preservation of Our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act, Pub. L. 111–223 September 27, 2010: Small Business Jobs and Credit Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–240 December 8, 2010: Claims Resolution Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–291 December 13, 2010: Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–296 December 17, 2010: Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–312, H. R. 4853 December 22, 2010: Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, Pub.
L. 111–321, H. R. 2965 January 2, 2011: James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111–347, H. R. 847 January 4, 2011: Shark Conservation Act, Pub. L. 111–348, H. R. 81 January 4, 2011: Food Safety and Modernization Act, Pub. L. 111–353, H. R. 2751 At the encouragement of the Obama administration, Congress devoted significant time considering health care reform. In March 2010, Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, the first comprehensive health
Bernard Sanders is an American politician who has served as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007. The longest-serving Independent in congressional history, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1990 and caucuses with the Democratic Party, enabling his appointment to congressional committees and at times giving Democrats a majority. Sanders was born and raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, attended Brooklyn College before graduating from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student he was an active protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during the civil rights movement. After settling in Vermont in 1968, Sanders ran unsuccessful third-party political campaigns in the early to mid-1970s; as an independent, he was elected mayor of Burlington—the state's most populous city—in 1981, by a margin of ten votes. He was reelected three times, he won election to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1990, representing Vermont's at-large congressional district.
Sanders served as a U. S. Representative for 16 years before being elected to the U. S. Senate in 2006, he has been reelected to the Senate twice: in 2012 and 2018. On April 30, 2015, Sanders announced his campaign for the 2016 Democratic nomination for President of the United States. Considered a long shot, he went on to win 23 primaries and caucuses and 43% of pledged delegates, to Hillary Clinton's 55%, his campaign was noted for its supporters' enthusiasm, as well as for his rejection of large donations from corporations, the financial industry, any associated Super PAC. On July 12, 2016, he formally endorsed Clinton in her general election campaign against Republican Donald Trump, while urging his supporters to continue the "political revolution" his campaign began. On February 19, 2019, Sanders announced a second presidential campaign against incumbent President Trump, joining multiple other Democratic candidates for the presidency. A self-described democratic socialist and progressive, Sanders supports labor rights and emphasizes reversing economic inequality.
He advocates for universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, as well as tuition-free tertiary education. On foreign policy, Sanders broadly supports reducing military spending, pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation, putting greater emphasis on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements. Sanders was born on September 1941, in Brooklyn, New York City, his father, Elias Ben Yehuda Sanders, was born in Słopnice, Galicia in Austria-Hungary, to a Jewish family. His mother, Dorothy "Dora" Sanders, was born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents from Poland and Russia. Sanders became interested in politics at an early age: "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932, he won an election, 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact important." In the 1940s, many of Sanders' relatives in German-occupied Poland were killed in the Holocaust, including his uncle Abraham Schnützer, killed in 1942.
Sanders lived on East 26th Street in Brooklyn. He attended elementary school at P. S. 197 in Brooklyn, where he won a borough championship on the basketball team. He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons, celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954. Sanders's older brother, said that during their childhood, the family never lacked for food or clothing, but major purchases, "like curtains or a rug," were difficult to afford. Sanders attended James Madison High School in Brooklyn, where he was captain of the track team and took third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race. In high school, Sanders lost his first election, finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency. Not long after his high school graduation, his mother died at the age of 46. Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959–60 before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a bachelor of arts degree in political science in 1964, he has described himself as a mediocre college student because the classroom was "boring and irrelevant," while the community provided his most significant learning.
Sanders would describe his time in Chicago as "the major period of intellectual ferment in my life". While at the University of Chicago, Sanders joined the Young People's Socialist League, was active in the Civil Rights Movement as a student for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Under Sanders's chairmanship, the university chapter of CORE merged with the university chapter of SNCC. In January 1962, Sanders went to a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. "We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments," Sanders said at the protest. Sanders and 32 other students entered the building and camped outside the president's office. After weeks of sit-ins and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. Following further protests, in the summer of 1963 the University of Chicago ended official racial segregation in private university housing.
Joan Mahoney, a member of the University of Chica
John B. Anderson
John Bayard Anderson was a United States Congressman and presidential candidate from Illinois. As a member of the Republican Party, he represented Illinois's 16th congressional district from 1961 through 1981. In 1980, he ran an independent campaign for president. Born in Rockford, Anderson practiced law after serving in the Army during World War II. After a stint in the United States Foreign Service, he won election as the State's Attorney for Winnebago County, Illinois, he won election to the House of Representatives in 1960 in a Republican district. One of the most conservative members of the House, Anderson's views moderated during the 1960s regarding social issues, he became Chairman of the House Republican Conference in 1969 and remained in that position until 1979. He criticized the Vietnam War as well as President Richard Nixon's actions during the Watergate scandal. Anderson entered the 1980 Republican presidential primaries, introducing his signature campaign proposal of raising the gas tax while cutting social security taxes.
He established himself as a contender for the nomination in the early primaries, but dropped out of the Republican race, choosing to pursue an independent campaign for president. In the election, he finished third behind Republican nominee Ronald Reagan and Democratic President Jimmy Carter, he won support among Rockefeller Republicans, liberal intellectuals, college students. After the election, he resumed his legal career and helped found FairVote, an organization that advocates electoral reforms such as instant-runoff voting, he won a lawsuit against the state of Ohio, Anderson v. Celebrezze, in which the Supreme Court struck down early filing deadlines for independent candidates. Anderson served as a visiting professor at numerous universities and was on the boards of several organizations, he endorsed Ralph Nader in 2000 and helped found the Justice Party in 2012. Anderson died on December 3, 2017 in Washington D. C. at the age of 95. Anderson was born in Rockford, where he grew up, the son of Mabel Edna and E. Albin Anderson.
His father was a Swedish immigrant. In his youth, he worked in his family's grocery store, he graduated as the valedictorian of his class at Rockford Central High School. He graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1939, started law school, but his education was interrupted by World War II, he enlisted in the Army in 1943, served as a staff sergeant in the U. S. Field Artillery in France and Germany until the end of the war, receiving four service stars. After the war, Anderson returned to complete his education, earning a Juris Doctor from the University of Illinois College of Law in 1946. Anderson was admitted to the Illinois bar the same year, practiced law in Rockford. Soon after, he moved east to attend Harvard Law School, obtaining a Master of Laws in 1949. While at Harvard, he served on the faculty of Northeastern University School of Law in Boston. In another brief return to Rockford, Anderson practiced at the law firm Reno & Zahm. Thereafter, Anderson joined the Foreign Service.
From 1952 to 1955, he served in Berlin as the Economic Reporting Officer in the Eastern Affairs Division, as an adviser on the staff of the United States High Commissioner for Germany. At the end of his tour, he left the foreign service and once again returned to the practice of law in Rockford. Soon after his return, Anderson was approached about running for public office. In 1956, Anderson was elected State's Attorney in Winnebago County, first winning a four-person race in the April primary by 1,330 votes and the general election in November by 11,456 votes. After serving for one term, he was ready to leave that office when the local congressman, 28-year incumbent Leo E. Allen, announced his retirement. Anderson joined the Republican primary for Allen's 16th District seat—the real contest in this then-solidly Republican district—with four other contenders, he won first the primary in April and the general election in November. He served in the United States House of Representatives for ten terms, from 1961 to 1981.
Anderson was among the most conservative members of the Republican caucus. Three times in his early terms as a Congressman, Anderson introduced a constitutional amendment to attempt to "recognize the law and authority of Jesus Christ" over the United States; the bills died but came back to haunt Anderson in his presidential candidacy. As he continued to serve, the atmosphere of the 1960s weighed on Anderson and he began to re-think some of his beliefs. By the late 1960s, Anderson's positions on social issues shifted to the left, though his fiscal philosophy remained conservative. At the same time, he was held in high esteem by his colleagues in the House. In 1964, he won appointment to a seat on the powerful Rules Committee. In 1969, he became Chairman of the House Republican Conference, the number three position in the House Republican hierarchy in what was the minority party. Anderson found himself at odds with conservatives in his home district and other members of the House, he was not always a faithful supporter of the Republican agenda, despite his high rank in the Republican caucus.
He was critical of the Vietnam War, was a controversial critic of Richard Nixon during Watergate. In 1974, despite his criticism of Nixon, he was nearly swept out by the strong anti-Republican tide in that year's election, he was re-elected with 55 percent of the vote, what would be the lowest pe
Joseph Isadore Lieberman is an American politician and attorney who served as a United States Senator from Connecticut from 1989 to 2013. A former member of the Democratic Party, he was its nominee for Vice President of the United States in the 2000 election. During his final term in office he was listed as an independent Democrat and caucused with and chaired committees for the Democratic Party. Lieberman was elected as a "Reform Democrat" in 1970 to the Connecticut Senate, where he served three terms as Majority Leader. After an unsuccessful bid for the U. S. House of Representatives in 1980, he served as state Attorney General from 1983 to 1989, he defeated moderate Republican Lowell Weicker in 1988 to win election to the U. S. Senate, was re-elected in 1994, 2000, 2006, he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in the 2000 United States presidential election, running with presidential nominee and Vice President Al Gore, becoming the first Jewish candidate on a major American political party presidential ticket.
In the 2000 presidential election and Lieberman won the popular vote by a margin of more than 500,000 votes, but lost the deciding Electoral College to the Republican George W. Bush/Dick Cheney ticket 271–266, he unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination in the 2004 presidential election. During his Senate re-election bid in 2006, Lieberman lost the Democratic Party primary election, but won re-election in the general election as a third party candidate under the "Connecticut for Lieberman" party label. Never a member of that party, he remained a registered Democrat. Lieberman was listed in Senate records for the 110th and 111th Congresses as an "Independent Democrat", sat as part of the Senate Democratic Caucus. However, after his speech at the 2008 Republican National Convention in which he endorsed John McCain for President, he no longer attended Democratic Caucus leadership strategy meetings or policy lunches. On November 5, 2008, he met with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to discuss his future role with the Democratic Party.
The Senate Democratic Caucus voted to allow him to keep chairmanship of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Subsequently, he announced. Before the 2016 election, he endorsed Hillary Clinton for President; as Senator, Lieberman introduced and championed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 and legislation that led to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. During debate on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as the crucial 60th vote needed to pass the legislation, his opposition to the public option was critical to its removal from the resulting bill. Lieberman was born in Stamford, the son of Henry, who ran a liquor store, Marcia Lieberman, his family is Jewish. He received a B. A. in both political science and economics from Yale University in 1964 and was the first member of his family to graduate from college. At Yale he was a member of the Elihu Club, his roommate was Richard Sugarman, a Professor of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Vermont and advisor to 2016 presidential candidate Bernie Sanders.
Lieberman attended Yale Law School, receiving his LLB degree in 1967. After graduation from law school, Lieberman worked as a lawyer for the New Haven-based law firm Wiggin & Dana LLP. A spokesperson told The Hartford Courant in 1994 that Lieberman received an educational deferment from the Vietnam War draft when he was an undergraduate and law student from 1960 to 1967. Upon graduating from law school at age 25, Lieberman qualified for a family deferment because he was married and had one child, Matt. Lieberman met his first wife, Betty Haas, at the congressional office of Senator Abraham Ribicoff, where they worked as summer student interns, they married in 1965. They have two children -- Rebecca. Betty, Jewish worked as a psychiatric social worker. In 1981, the couple divorced; when asked about the divorce in an interview with New York Magazine, Lieberman said, "one of the differences we had was in levels of religious observance", adding, "I'm convinced if, the only difference, we wouldn't have gotten divorced."
In 1982, he met his second wife, Hadassah Freilich Tucker, while he was running for Attorney General of Connecticut. Hadassah Tucker's parents were Holocaust survivors. According to Washington Jewish Week, Lieberman called her for a date because he thought it would be interesting to go out with someone named Hadassah.. Since March 2005, Hadassah Lieberman has worked for Hill & Knowlton, a lobbying firm based in New York City, as a senior counselor in its health and pharmaceuticals practice, she has held senior positions at the Hospital of Saint Raphael in New Haven, the American Committee for Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-International, National Research Council, Hoffmann-La Roche, Lehman Brothers. Joe and Hadassah Lieberman have Hani. Lieberman has a stepson from Hadassah's previous marriage, Ethan Tucker. Lieberman's son, graduated from Yale University in 1989, from Yale Law School in 1994, he is the former Head of School of Greenfield Hebrew Academy in Atlanta, GA.
Rebecca, Lieberman's daughter, graduated from Barnard College in 1991, from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1997. She is married to Jacob Wisse. Ethan Tucker, son of