Independent Labour Party

The Independent Labour Party was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority. A sitting independent MP and prominent union organiser, Keir Hardie, became its first chairman; the party was positioned to the left of Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour Representation Committee, founded in 1900 and soon renamed the Labour Party, to which the ILP was affiliated from 1906 to 1932. In 1947, the organisation's three parliamentary representatives defected to the Labour Party, the organisation rejoined Labour as Independent Labour Publications in 1975; as the nineteenth century came to a close, working-class representation in political office became a great concern for many Britons. Many who sought the election of working men and their advocates to the Parliament of the United Kingdom saw the Liberal Party as the main vehicle for achieving this aim; as early as 1869, a Labour Representation League had been established to register and mobilise working-class voters on behalf of favoured Liberal candidates.

Many trade unions themselves became concerned with gaining parliamentary representation to advance their legislative aims. From the 1870s a series of working-class candidates financially supported by trade unions were accepted and supported by the Liberal Party; the federation of British unions, the Trades Union Congress, formed its own electoral committee in 1886 to further advance its electoral goals. Many socialist intellectuals those influenced by Christian socialism and similar notions of the ethical need for a restructuring of society saw the Liberals as the most obvious means for obtaining working-class representation. Within two years of its foundation in 1884, the gradualist Fabian Society committed itself to a policy of permeation of the Liberal Party. A number of so-called "Lib-Lab" candidates were subsequently elected Members of Parliament by this alliance of trade unions and radical intellectuals working within the Liberal Party; the idea of working with the middle-class Liberal Party to achieve working-class representation in parliament was not universally accepted, however.

Marxist socialists, believing in the inevitability of class struggle between the working-class and the capitalist class, rejected the idea of workers making common cause with the petty bourgeois Liberals in exchange for scraps of charity from the legislative table. The orthodox British Marxists established their own party, the Social Democratic Federation in 1881. Other socialist intellectuals, despite not sharing the concept of class struggle were nonetheless frustrated with the ideology and institutions of the Liberal Party and the secondary priority which it appeared to give to its working-class candidates. Out of these ideas and activities came a new generation of activists, including Keir Hardie, a Scot who had become convinced of the need for independent labour politics while working as a Gladstonian Liberal and trade union organiser in the Lanarkshire coalfield. Working with SDF members such as Henry Hyde Champion and Tom Mann he was instrumental in the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party in 1888.

In 1890, the United States imposed a tariff on foreign cloth which led to a general cut in wages throughout the British textile industry. There followed a strike in Bradford, the Manningham Mills strike, which produced as a by-product the Bradford Labour Union, an organisation which sought to function politically independently of either major political party; this initiative was replicated by others in Colne Valley, Halifax and Salford. Such developments showed that working-class support for separation from the Liberal Party was growing in strength. Further arguments for the formation of a new party were to be found in Robert Blatchford's newspaper The Clarion, founded in 1891, in Workman's Times, edited by Joseph Burgess; the latter collected some 3,500 names of those in favour of creating a party of labour independent from the existing political organisations. In the 1892 General Election, held in July, three working men were elected without support from the Liberals, Keir Hardie in South West Ham, John Burns in Battersea, Havelock Wilson in Middlesbrough, the last of whom faced Liberal opposition.

Hardie owed nothing to the Liberal Party for his election, his critical and confrontational style in Parliament caused him to emerge as a national voice of the labour movement. At a TUC meeting in September 1892, a call was issued for a meeting of advocates of an independent labour organisation. An arrangements committee was established and a conference called for the following January; this conference was chaired by William Henry Drew and was held in Bradford 14–16 January 1893 at the Bradford Labour Institute, operated by the Labour Church. It proved to be the foundation conference of the Independent Labour Party and MP Keir Hardie was elected as its first chairman. About 130 delegates were in attendance at the conference, including in addition to Hardie such socialist and labour worthies as Alderman Ben Tillett, author George Bernard Shaw, Edward Aveling, son-in-law of Karl Marx; some 91 local branches of the Independent Labour Party were represented, joined by 11 local Fabian Societies, four branches of the Social Democratic Federation, individual representatives of a number of other socialist and labour groups.

German Socialist leader Edward Bernstein was permitted to address the gathering to pass along the best wishes for success from the Social Democratic Party of Germany. A proposal was made by a Scottish delegate, George Carson, to name the new organisation the "Socialist Labour Party", but this was defeated by a large margin by a counterproposal reaffirming the name "In

Najma (Doha)

Najma is a district in Qatar, located in the municipality of Doha. Considered to be one of Doha's older districts, the bulk of Najma's commercial and office spaces are located along the arterial roads of Airport Street, C Ring Road and B Ring Road. Al Meera Supercenter on Airport Street. Al Khazem Souq on Al Mansoura Street. Souq Al Haraj on Al Mansoura Street. Labour Inspection Department of the Ministry of Labour on C Ring Road. Qatar Petroleum office on C Ring Road. Cinema Complex with Doha Cinema on C Ring Road. Gulf Snooker Center on Al Khalidiya Street. Mowasalat is the official transport company in Qatar and serves the community through its operation of public bus routes. Najma is served by three bus lines. Route 10 has stops at Najma and Al Mansoura and a terminus at Al Thumama at Bus Stop 5, running at a frequency of every 30 minutes on all days of the week. Route 11 has stops at Al Najma, Lulu Hyper Market, Old Airport and a terminus at Al Thumama near the Supreme Education Council, running at frequency of every 20 minutes on all days of the week.

Route 49 is a circular route with stops at Hamad Hospital, C-Ring Road, Al Najma and D-Ring Road and a terminus at Al Ghanim Bus Station, running at a frequency of every 30 minutes on all days of the week. Major roads that run through the district are Airport Street, Najma Street, B Ring Road, C Ring Road, Al Mansoura Street; the Qatar National Master Plan is described as a "spatial representation of the Qatar National Vision 2030". As part of the QNMP's Urban Centre plan, which aims to implement development strategies in 28 central hubs that will serve their surrounding communities, Najma has been designated a District Centre, the lowest designation. Najma District Centre includes sections of four different zones located at the crossing of B Ring Road and Airport Street: Zone 15, Zone 16, Zone 26 and Zone 27. Somewhere from 10,000 to 15,000 residents will be situated in the District Centre, thus the plan emphasizes the construction of more high density apartment buildings; the Centre will be served by the Old Airport Metro Station on Airport Street, part of the Doha Metro's Red Line, plans are in place to develop the pedestrian infrastructure around the metro station.

Other objectives of the plan are to increase public services in the Najma area and to preserve the historic architecture of the area. As of the 2010 census, the district 1,012 establishments. There were 24,763 people living in the district, of which 73% were male and 27% were female. Out of the 24,763 inhabitants, 83% were 20 years of age or older and 17% were under the age of 20; the literacy rate stood at 96.5%. Employed persons made up 74% of the total population. Females accounted for 14% of the working population, while males accounted for 86% of the working population; the following school is located in Najma

Little Egg Harbor Township School District

The Little Egg Harbor Township School District is a comprehensive community public school district that serves students in pre-kindergarten through sixth grade from Little Egg Harbor Township School, in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2017-18 school year, the district and its three schools had an enrollment of 1,570 students and 145.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 10.8:1. The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "B", the second-lowest of eight groupings. District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local districts. From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. Public school students in seventh through twelfth grades attend the schools of the Pinelands Regional School District, which serves students from Bass River Township, Eagleswood Township and Tuckerton Borough. Schools in the district are Pinelands Regional Junior High School with 802 students in grades 7-9 and Pinelands Regional High School with 815 students in grades 10-12.

The district's board of education includes nine members directly elected by the residents of the constituent municipalities to three-year terms on a staggered basis, with three seats up for election each year. Little Egg Harbor Township is allocated six of the nine seats; the district is composed of two elementary schools. The George J. Mitchell School opened in 1953 as the "Little Egg Harbor Elementary School", housing grades K-6. In 1989, a new school, the Frog Pond Elementary School opened as the "Little Egg Harbor Intermediate School", housing grades 3-6, while the Mitchell School housed grades K-2 from on. Starting with the 2009-10 school year, both schools were renovated and converted into K-6 schools, with the Intermediate School being renamed to its current name. On November 4, 2004, at around 9pm, an F-16 Fighting Falcon jet from the 113th Wing of the District of Columbia Air National Guard, based at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland on a training mission at the Fort Dix United States Army installation in Warren Grove was climbing upward at 8,000 feet.

The test was going pretty well, until a heavy gun from the left wing fired 25 rounds of 20mm ammunition up in the air, which fell to the ground, with eight striking the roof of the school, the rest hitting the parking lot and the side of the building. No one was injured in the incident. On November 1, 2006, the district and the United States Air Force announced that a settlement had been reached, whereby the district would be paid $519,070.70 to cover damage to the roof of the school caused in the incident. This is less than the $900,000 that the superintendent had indicated would be needed to cover the costs of replacing the roof damaged in the incident and in the process of evaluating the roof's condition after the incident. Schools in the district are: Robert C. Wood Sr. Early Childhood Center with 278 students in pre-kindergarten Anne Flynn, Principal George J. Mitchell Elementary School with 591 students in kindergarten through third grade Denise Guinan, Principal Frog Pond Elementary School with 703 students in grades 4 to 6 Troy Henderson, Principal Core members of the district's administration are: Dr. Melissa McCooley, Superintendent Nicholas Brown, Business Administrator / Board SecretaryThe district is governed by a directly elected board of education with seven members.

Little Egg Harbor Township School District Little Egg Harbor Township School District's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the Little Egg Harbor Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics Pinelands Regional School District