Independent music is music produced independently from commercial record labels or their subsidiaries, a process that may include an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing. The term indie is sometimes used to describe a genre, as a genre term, "indie" may include music, not independently produced, many independent music artists do not fall into a single, defined musical style or genre and create self-published music that can be categorized into diverse genres; the term ‘indie’ or ‘independent music’ can be traced back to as early as the 1920s after it was first used to reference independent film companies but was used as a term to classify an independent band or record producer. Independent labels have a long history of promoting developments in popular music, stretching back to the post-war period in the United States, with labels such as Sun Records, King Records, Stax. In the United Kingdom during the 1950s and 1960s, the major record companies had so much power that independent labels struggled to become established, until the launch of new concepts like Virgin Records.
Several British producers and artists launched independent labels as outlets for their work and artists they liked. In the United States, independent labels and distributors banded together to form organizations to promote trade and parity within the industry; the Recording Academy, famous as the organization behind the Grammy Awards, began in the 1950s as an organization of 25 independent record labels including Herald and Atlantic Records. The 1970s saw the founding of the National Association of Independent Record Distributors, which became A2IM in 2004. Smaller organizations existed including the Independent Music Association, founded by Don Kulak in the late 1980s. At its zenith, it had 1,000 independent labels on its member rosters; the 1990s brought Affiliated Independent Record Companies, whose most notable member was upstart punk-thrash rock label Mystic Records, The Independent Music Retailer's Association, a short-lived organization founded by Mark Wilkins and Don Kulak. The latter is most notable for a lawsuit involving co-op money it filed on behalf of its member Digital Distributors in conjunction with Warehouse Record Stores.
The adjudication of the case grossed $178,000,000 from the distribution arms of major labels. The proceeds were distributed amongst all plaintiffs. During the punk rock era, the number of independent labels grew; the UK Indie Chart was first compiled in 1980, independent distribution became better organized from the late 1970s onward. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, certain UK independent labels came to contribute something in terms of aesthetic identity to the acts whose records they released. In the late 1980s, Seattle-based Sub Pop Records was at the center of the grunge scene. In the late 1990s and into the 2000s as the advent of MP3 files and digital download sites such as Apple's iTunes Store changed the recording industry, an indie neo-soul scene soon emerged from the urban underground soul scenes of London, New York, Philadelphia and Los Angeles due to commercial radio and the major labels' biased focus on the marketing, promotion & airplay of pop and hip hop music during this period.
Independent labels such as Dome Record and Expansion Records in the U. K. and Burger and Ubiquity Records in the U. S. and a plethora of others around the world continue to release independent bands and music. Many acts choose to go from an independent label to a major label if given the opportunity, as major labels have more power and financial means to promote and distribute product, sometimes increasing the chances of greater success; some acts, may choose not to go to a major label if given the opportunity, as independence offers more freedom. Others may become independent label acts after having experienced recording on a major label. Bradley Joseph asked to be let go from his major label deal with Narada/Virgin Records and subsequently became an independent artist, he says, "As an independent, business can take over if not controlled. A lot of musicians don't learn the business. You just have to be well-rounded in both areas. You have to understand publishing. You have to understand how you make money, what's in demand, what helps you make the most out of your talent.
But some artists just want to be involved in the music and don't like the added problems or have the personality to work with both". Joseph suggests newer artists read and study both courses and pick one that best suits their own needs and wants. A successful independent label with a strong musical reputation can be appealing to a major label. Major labels look at independent labels to stay current with the ever-changing music scene. If an act moves to a major label from an independent, they are awarded greater opportunity for success, but it does not guarantee success. About one in ten albums released by major labels make a profit for the label; some artists have recorded for independent record companies for their entire careers and have had solid careers. Independent labels tend to be more open creatively, however, an independent label, creatively productive is not financially lucrative. Independent labels are operations of one, two, or only half a dozen people, with no outside assistance and run out of tiny offices.
This lack of resources can make it difficult for a band to make revenue from sales. It can also
Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England. It was created by the Local Government Act 1972, consists of the metropolitan boroughs of Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton and the city of Liverpool. Buildings are listed on the recommendation of English Heritage to the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, who makes the decision whether or not to list the structure. Grade I listed buildings are defined as being of "exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important"; this is a complete list of Grade I listed churches in the metropolitan county of Merseyside as recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Christian churches have existed in Merseyside since the Anglo-Saxon era, but no significant Saxon features remain in its listed churches; the churches in this list fall principally into two groups: those originating from the medieval period, which are in Gothic style, those built during the 19th and 20th centuries, which are in Gothic Revival style, with only a few churches created between those periods.
Gothic churches from the medieval era include St Andrew and All Saints, Childwall – both of which incorporate Norman material – St Mary, St Helen, Sefton. During the 19th century, some of the country's finest architects designed churches in Gothic Revival style. Examples include St Agnes and St Pancras, Toxteth Park, by J. Loughborough Pearson, St John the Baptist, Tuebrook, by G. F. Bodley, All Hallows, Allerton, by G. E. Grayson. Liverpool Cathedral, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott and built during the 20th century, is in Gothic Revival style. Chapels built between the two periods were the Ancient Chapel of Toxteth, The Oratory by John Foster; the Oratory and the steeple of St Mary, are the only buildings in the list in Neoclassical style. Two of the churches in the list were pioneers in the use of cast iron in their structure and decoration: St Michael, St George, Everton. All the churches referred to above are Anglican; the churches in the list from other denominations are the Roman Catholic church of St Clare, Sefton Park, Ullet Road Unitarian Church.
In 2017 the Roman Catholic Church of St. Monica, designed in Modernist style, was promoted to Grade I; the region covered by this list was sparsely populated until the part of the 19th century. Its largest conurbation is the city of a port and commercial centre. There is industry in and around Liverpool and in the town of St Helens, but the economy of much of the region is agricultural; the bedrock consists of sandstone, the stone chiefly used for building the churches of the region. The superficial deposits are of boulder clay. Bibliography
In the United States, the state police is a police body unique to each U. S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. In general, state police officers, known as state troopers, perform functions that do not fall within the jurisdiction of the county sheriff, such as enforcing traffic laws on state highways and interstate expressways, overseeing the security of the state capitol complex, protecting the governor, training new officers for local police forces too small to operate an academy and providing technological and scientific services, they support local police and help to coordinate multi-jurisdictional task force activity in serious or complicated cases in those states that grant full police powers statewide. A general trend has been to bring all of these agencies under a state-level Department of Public Safety. Additionally, they may serve under different state departments, such as the Highway Patrol under the state Department of Transportation and the marine patrol under the Department of Natural Resources.
Twenty-three U. S. states use the term "State Police." Forty-nine states have a State Police agency or its equivalent, with Hawaii being the only state with a Sheriff Division of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety with statewide jurisdiction. The Texas Rangers are the earliest form of state law enforcement in the United States, first organized by Stephen F. Austin in 1823; the original ranger force consisted of ten men charged with protecting settlers from Native American attacks. Though the rangers of this era are today considered law enforcement officers, they wore badges and were little more than volunteers; the Rangers served as a paramilitary force on the U. S.-Mexico border and in several armed military conflicts, including the Texas Revolution, the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War. They continued to fill basic law enforcement and frontier protection roles until the close of the "wild west" era. In the early 1900s, they transformed into a criminal investigative agency; the history and legacy of the Texas Rangers has spawned numerous depictions in popular culture.
The colloquial image of a Texas Ranger "always their man" has made the Rangers a revered and competitive agency within law enforcement, with fewer than 1 in 100 applicants being considered for a single position. The Pennsylvania State Police force emerged in the aftermath of the anthracite mine strike of 1902, in Pennsylvania; the passage of legislation on May 2, 1905, did not provoke controversy because it was rushed through the mine-owner dominated legislature, but the strike-breaking role of the new police elicited strong opposition from organized labor, who likened them to the repressive Russian cossacks under the tsar. President Theodore Roosevelt, himself a former President of the New York City Police Commission, noted that the Pennsylvania State Police were intended to replace the "infamous" Coal and Iron Police, the private company police used to counter union attacks on private property: When the laboring masses rocked in mortal combat with the vested interest, the State stepped in to prove her impartial justice by selling her authority into the vested interests' hands!... whenever the miners elected to go out on strike... they invariably found the power of the State bought, paid for, fighting as a partisan on their employers' side.
Nor was there any attempt made to do this monstrous thing under mask of decency. Roosevelt's assertions notwithstanding, the Iron and Coal Police continued to operate in increasing numbers into the 1930s; the formation of the New York State Police force on April 11, 1917, was done amidst controversy and public debate, the legislation creating it passed by only one vote. Proponents of a proposal to establish the New York State Police depicted state police as the policemen-soldiers of an impartial state in labor disputes, saw in them "no gendarmerie, no carabinieri," intimating that labor's opposition was "un-American". Instead, they were to be more like the trooper police of Australia, both of which had a much more respectable reputation than the maligned forces evoked by trade unionists. Outside of Pennsylvania, the new state police were established to free up the National Guard from strikebreaking duties, extensive in the 19th century and early decades of the 20th; the strikebreaking demands on the New York state police decreased over time and their mandate modernized with the creation of the inter-state highway system and proliferation of the automobile.
While the early "state troopers", as the name implies, were mounted troops, by mid-century they were motorized police forces. Two years on June 19, 1919 the newly formed West Virginia State Police was formed to combat and put down the rising violence of organized labor in the coal and mining industry. 3 West Virginia State Troopers were killed in the two years it took to put down the uprising. The WVSP was used heavily during the prohibition era for hunting down and destroying moonshine stills/operations throughout the mountainous and rural areas of West Virginia, which resulted in some deaths of WVSP Troopers. WVSP is the 4th oldest State Police agency in the United States of America. Governor John Jacob Cornwell was insistent upon having a State Police force which he said, "was mandatory in order for him to uphold the laws of our state." Part of the compromise was the name of the organization: "West Virginia Department of Public Safety" was the official name until 1995 when the name was changed to "West Virginia State Police" during the legislative session.
The federal government in the 192