The Triumph GT6 is a 6-cylinder sports coupé built by Standard-Triumph, based on their popular Triumph Spitfire convertible. Production ran from 1966 to 1973. In early 1963 Giovanni Michelotti was commissioned by Standard-Triumph to design a GT version of their introduced Spitfire 4. An unmodified Spitfire 4 was delivered to Michelotti's design studios in Italy and late in 1963 the prototype Spitfire GT4 was returned to England for evaluation; the styling of the vehicle was a success but the extra weight of the GT bodyshell resulted in poor performance from the Spitfire's 1,147 cc Standard SC engine, plans for producing the Spitfire GT4 were shelved. Michelotti's fastback design for the Spitfire GT4 prototype was adopted by the Triumph racing programme for the 1964 season, as it was deemed to provide an aerodynamic benefit over the standard Spitfire body shape. Fibreglass copies of the Spitfire GT4's fastback were grafted on to the race-modified Spitfires destined for competition; the Spitfire racing programme was successful, in 1965 resulted in 13th overall and a 1st in class at the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans.
The Spitfire's competitive success and the continuing commercial success of the production vehicle led Triumph to re-evaluate its shelved plans for a GT version of the Spitfire. To overcome the lack of performance inherent in the heavier body style the Spitfire's 4-cylinder engine was replaced with the more powerful 2-litre Triumph inline 6 derived from the SC and in use in the Triumph Vitesse; the car was further developed and refined and launched as the Triumph GT6 to emphasise its GT styling and its 6-cylinder engine. Contemporary Triumph marketing advertised the GT6 as being developed from the "race winning Le Mans Spitfires" to capitalize on their aesthetic similarities, whereas the Le Mans Spitfires and the GT6 were two separate development programmes. However, the marketing spin was so successful that many people erroneously believed the Le Mans Spitfires to be GT6s; the following models were produced during the production run: Production Total: 40,926 The new car was introduced in 1966 and called the Triumph GT6.
The new body was a sleek fastback design with an opening rear hatch, earning the GT6 the nickname of poor man's E-Type. It was a 2-seater, but a small extra rear seat could be ordered, large enough for small children; the family resemblance to the Spitfire Mk II was strong, the longer 6-cylinder engine necessitated a new bonnet top with a power bulge and the doors were provided with opening quarter light windows and squared-off glass in the top rear corner. The 6-cylinder engine was, like the Vitesse 2-litre, tuned to develop 95 bhp at 5000 rpm, produced 117 lb⋅ft of torque at 3000 rpm; the increased power necessitated certain changes to the Spitfire mechanics. An optional Laycock de Normanville overdrive was offered giving a 20 per cent overdrive on 3rd and 4th gears. In effect this added only one ratio; the overall gearing of overdrive and non-overdrive cars was not different as the non o/d cars came with a 3.27:1 differential while the overdrive cars’ diffs were the same as the Vitesse 2 litre at 3.89:1.
Front springs were uprated to cope with the extra weight of the new engine. The overall vehicle weight unladen was 1,904 lb; the interior of the GT6 was well equipped. The new car had some strong selling points; the new engine provided a 106 mph top speed and 0–60 mph in just under 12 seconds, a little better than the MGB GT. Moreover, the unit was comparatively smooth and tractable, in dramatic contrast to the MG's rather harsh and outdated 6-port head 4-cylinder engine. Fuel economy was reasonable for the period at 20mpg, the interior well up to the competition; the only major criticism was of its rear suspension. In the saloon it was tolerated, in the little Spitfire it was not liked and in the powerful GT6 it was criticised. Triumph had done nothing to improve the system for the GT6 and the tendency to break away if the driver lifted off the power mid-corner was not helped at all by the increased weight at the front of the car; the handling was most bitterly criticised in the USA, an important export market for Triumph, where they were traditionally strong.
Similar criticism was being levelled at the Vitesse saloon, which shared the GT6's engine and its handling problems. Triumph realised that they needed to find an answer to the handling problem, if only to maintain their reputation in the USA, their response came with the 1969 model year, with the introduction of the GT6 Mk II, known in the States as the GT6+. The rear suspension was re-engineered using reversed lower wishbones and Rotoflex driveshaft couplings, taming the handling and turning the Triumph into an MGB beater; the Vitesse was modified, but the Spitfire had to wait until 1970 for any improvements to be made. There were other changes for the Mk II.
Chevrolet Corvette (C2)
The Chevrolet Corvette is the second generation of the Chevrolet Corvette sports car, produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1963 to 1967 model years. The 1963 Sting Ray production car's lineage can be traced to two separate GM projects: the Q-Corvette, more directly, Mitchell's racing Sting Ray; the Q-Corvette, initiated in 1957, envisioned a smaller, more advanced Corvette as a coupe-only model, boasting a rear transaxle, independent rear suspension, four-wheel disc brakes, with the rear brakes mounted inboard. Exterior styling was purposeful, with peaked fenders, a long nose, a short, bobbed tail. Meanwhile, Zora Arkus-Duntov and other GM engineers had become fascinated with mid and rear-engine designs, it was during the Corvair's development that Duntov took the mid/rear-engine layout to its limits in the CERV I concept. The Chevrolet Experimental Research Vehicle was a open-wheel single-seat racer. A rear-engined Corvette was considered during 1958–60, progressing as far as a full-scale mock-up designed around the Corvair's entire rear-mounted power package, including its complicated air-cooled flat-six as an alternative to the Corvette's usual water-cooled V-8.
By the fall of 1959, elements of the Q-Corvette and the Sting Ray Special racer would be incorporated into experimental project XP-720, the design program that led directly to the production 1963 Corvette Sting Ray. The XP-720 sought to deliver improved passenger accommodation, more luggage space, superior ride and handling over previous Corvettes. While Duntov was developing an innovative new chassis for the 1963 Corvette, designers were adapting and refining the basic look of the racing Sting Ray for the production model. A functional space buck was completed by early 1960, production coupe styling was locked up for the most part by April, the interior, instrument panel included was in place by November. Only in the fall of 1960 did the designers turn their creative attention to a new version of the traditional Corvette convertible and, still its detachable hardtop. For the first time in the Corvette's history, wind tunnel testing helped refine the final shape, as did practical matters like interior space, windshield curvatures, tooling limitations.
Both body styles were extensively evaluated as production-ready 3/8-scale models at the Caltech wind tunnel. The vehicle's inner structure received as much attention as the aerodynamics of its exterior. Fiberglass outer panels were retained, but the Sting Ray emerged with nearly twice as much steel support in its central structure as the 1958—62 Corvette; the resulting extra weight was balanced by a reduction in fiberglass thickness, so the finished product weighed a bit less than the old roadster. Passenger room was as good as before despite the tighter wheelbase, the reinforcing steel girder made the cockpit both stronger and safer; the first-ever production Corvette coupe, a futuristic fastback, sported an unusual styling element for its time period – a divided rear window. The rear window's basic shape had been conceived by Bob McLean for the Q-model; the rest of the Sting Ray design was stunning. Quad headlamps were retained but newly hidden – the first American car so equipped since the 1942 DeSoto.
The lamps were mounted in rotating sections that matched the sharp-edged front end with the "eyes" closed. The Corvette continued to use hidden headlamps until the C6 model debuted in 2005. Coupe doors were cut into the roof. Faux vents were located on the coupe's rear pillars; the fastback design was adopted by another GM car, the third-generation Buick Riviera that debuted in 1971, with the "Boattail" nickname applied to the larger Buick design. The Sting Ray's interior carried a new interpretation of the twin-cowl Corvette dash motif used since 1958, It was more practical, now incorporating a roomy glovebox, an improved heater, the cowl-ventilation system. A full set of round gauges included a huge tachometer; the control tower center console returned, somewhat slimmer but now containing the clock and a vertically situated radio. Luggage space was improved as well, though due to a lack of an external trunklid, cargo had to be loaded behind the seats; the spare tire was located at the rear in a drop-down fiberglass housing beneath the gas tank (which now held 20-US-gallon instead of 16-US-gallon.
The big, round deck emblem was newly hinged to double as a fuel-filler flap, replacing the previous left-flank door. Though not as obvious as the car's radical styling, the new chassis was just as important to the Sting Ray's success. Maneuverability was improved thanks to the faster recirculating ball, or "Ball-Race", a shorter wheelbase; the latter might ordinarily imply a choppier ride, but the altered weight distribution compensated for it. Less weight on the front wheels meant easier steering, with some 80 additional pounds on the rear wheels, the Sting Ray offered improved traction. Stopping power improved, too. Four-wheel cast-iron 11-inch drum brakes remained standard but were now wider, for an increase in effective braking area. Sintered-metallic linings, segmented for cooling, were again optional. So were finned aluminum drums, which not only provided faster heat dissipation but less unsprung weight. Power assist was available with both brake packages. Evolutionary engineering changes included positive crankcase ventilation, a smaller fl
The Triumph Vitesse is a compact six-cylinder car built by Standard-Triumph from May 1962 to July 1971. The car was styled by Giovanni Michelotti, was available in saloon and convertible variants; the Vitesse name was first used by Austin on their 1914–16 Austin 20 and 30 Vitesse models, this was followed in 1922 by G. N. on their GN Vitesse Cyclecar, by Triumph on a car made between 1935 and 1938. After the last Triumph Vitesse was made in July 1971, the name remained unused until October 1982, when Rover used it on their SD1 until 1986, one final time on their Rover 800, 820 and 827 models from October 1988 to 1991, at which time that car was rebodied as the R17 version, produced until 1998 as the Rover Vitesse Sport; the Triumph Vitesse was introduced on 25 May 1962, re-using a name used by the pre-Second World War Triumph Motor Company from 1936–38, was an in-line 6-cylinder performance version of the Triumph Herald small saloon. The Herald had been introduced on 22 April 1959 and was an attractive 2-door car styled by the Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti.
Within 2 years, Triumph began to give thought to a sports saloon based on the Herald and using their 6-cylinder engine. Michelotti was again approached for styling, he came up with a car that used all body panels from the Herald, combined with a new front end with a slanted 4-headlamp design. Standard-Triumph fitted a 1596 cc version of their traditional straight-6 derived from the engine used in the Standard Vanguard Six, but with a smaller bore diameter of 66.75 mm, compared with the 74.7 mm bore on the Vanguard, equipped with twin Solex B32PIH semi-downdraught carburettors These were soon replaced by B321H carburettors, as the accelerator pumps proved a problem. The curious observer will notice a "seam" on the cylinder block between the third & fourth cylinders revealing the humble design beginnings from the 803 cc Standard SC engine block first used in the Standard Eight of 1953; the gearbox was strengthened and upgraded to much closer gear ratios, offered with optional Laycock De Normanville'D-type' overdrive that offered a top gear with a 20% higher ratio, giving more relaxed and economical cruising at the expense of slight oil drag from the pump in the overdrive unit.
Models fitted with overdrive had a chrome badge with "Overdrive" in italic text on the Left side of the boot opposite the Vitesse 6 chrome script badge on the right. Synchromesh was present on 3rd and 4th; the rear axle was changed to a uprated differential, but retaining the same 4.11:1 ratio and flange sizes as the Herald. Front disc brakes were standard as were larger rear brake drums, the Herald fuel tank was enlarged, retaining the handy reserve feature of the smaller Herald tank; the front suspension featured uprated springs to cope with the extra weight of the new engine, but the rear suspension was standard Herald—a swing-axle transverse-leaf system which proved inadequate for the powerful Vitesse. The chassis looked similar to the early Heralds but in fact was re-designed and strengthened around the differential mountings; the dash and instrument panel of the earliest Vitesse was the same as the herald, with a single speedo dial featuring fuel and temperature gauge insets. The Vitesse was available in saloon forms.
The separate chassis construction of the car meant that no additional strengthening to chassis or body was considered necessary for the convertible model, the only concession being additional door catches to prevent the doors opening during hard cornering. The gearboxes of all the Vitesse and GT6 models were a weak point being derived from the earlier Heralds; the increased power caused accelerated wear on the bearing and forward end of the main shaft which would wear through the hardened surface, leading to large amounts of play between the input and main shafts. This was characterised by growling gear noise on acceleration and deceleration in 1st, 2nd and 3rd getting high in each gear as the torque transmission from the lay shaft moved further from the rear of the box where the bearing support was intact. Repair involved either a new metal spraying/stellite repair; some engineers suggested repairs were more long lived than a new shaft as the technology 10-20 and more years after manufacture meant that the repaired mainshaft had better specifications that new old stock.
The remote lever construction suffered from the same regular bushing wear as the herald spitfire etc where sloppy gearchange and rattling can be cured with a kit of new parts. A handful of Vitesse estates were assembled to special order at Standard-Triumph's Service Depot at Park Royal in West London; the interior was much improved over the Herald. Optional extras included a vinyl/fabric, sunroof on saloon models. Exterior trim was improved with an elongated stainless steel trim piece which extended further down the body than the Herald, includeding a Vitesse specific piece of trim rearward of the petrol filler cap and satin-silver anodised alloy bumper cappings replacing the white rubber Herald items. In September 1963 the Vitesse received its first facelift, when the dashboard was revised with a full range of Smith instruments instead of the large single dial from the Herald (large spe
Chevrolet Corvette (C3)
The Chevrolet Corvette was a sports car, produced by Chevrolet for the 1968 through 1982 model years. Engines and chassis components were carried over from the previous generation, but the body and interior were new, it set. The C3 is the third generation of the Chevrolet Corvette, marks the second time the Corvette would carry the Stingray name, though only for the 1969 - 1976 model years; this time it was a single word as opposed to Sting Ray as used for the 1963 - 1967 C2 generation. The name would be retired until 2014 when it was re-introduced with the release of the C7; the Corvette C3 was patterned after the Mako Shark II designed by Larry Shinoda. Executed under Bill Mitchell's direction, the Mako II had been initiated in early 1964. Once the mid-engined format was abandoned the Shinoda/Mitchell car was sent to Chevrolet Styling under David Holls, where Harry Haga's studio adapted it for production on the existing Stingray chassis; the resulting lower half of the car was much like the Mako II, except for the softer contours.
The concept car's name was changed to Manta Ray. The C3 adopted the "sugar scoop" roof treatment with vertical back window from the mid-engined concept models designed by the Duntov group, it was intended from the beginning that the rear window and that portion of the roof above the seats to be removable. The "Shark" has the distinction of being introduced to the motoring public in an unorthodox—and unintended—fashion. GM had tried their best to keep the appearance of the upcoming car a secret, but the release of Mattel's die-cast Hot Wheels line several weeks before the C3's unveiling had a certain version of particular interest to Corvette fans: the "Custom Corvette", a GM-authorized model of the 1968 Corvette. For 1968, both the Corvette body and interior were redesigned; as before, the car was available in either coupe or convertible models, but coupe was now a notchback fitted with a near-vertical removable rear window and removable roof panels. A soft folding top was included with convertibles, while an auxiliary hardtop with a glass rear window was offered at additional cost.
Included with coupes were hold down straps and a pair of vinyl bags to store the roof panels, above the luggage area was a rear window stowage tray. The enduring new body's concealed headlights moved into position via a vacuum operated system rather than electrically as on the previous generation, the new hide-away windshield wipers utilized a problematic vacuum door; the door handles. Front fenders had functional engine cooling vents. Side vent windows were eliminated from all models, replaced with "Astro Ventilation", a fresh air circulation system. In the cabin, a large round speedometer and matching tachometer were positioned in front of the driver. Auxiliary gauges were clustered above the forward end of the console and included oil pressure, water temperature, fuel gauge, an analog clock. A fiber-optic system appeared on the console that monitored exterior lights and there was no glove box; the battery was relocated from the engine area to one of three compartments behind the seats to improve weight distribution.
New options included a rear window defroster, anti-theft alarm system, bright metal wheel covers, an AM-FM Stereo radio. All cars ordered with a radio, like the C2 cars, continued to be fitted with chrome-plated ignition shielding covering the distributor to reduce interference; the chassis was carried over from the second generation models, retaining the independent suspension and the four-wheel disc brake system. The engine line-up and horsepower ratings were carried over from the previous year as were the 3 and 4-speed manual transmissions; the new optional Turbo Hydramatic 3-speed automatic transmission replaced the two-speed Powerglide. The L30, a 327 cu in small-block V8 engine rated at 300 hp and a 3-speed manual transmission were standard, but only a few hundred 3-speed manual equipped cars were sold; the 4-speed manual was available in M20 M21 close-ratio transmission versions. The M22 “Rock Crusher”, a heavy duty, close-ratio 4-speed gearbox, was available for certain applications; the engine line-up included a 350 hp high performance version of the 327 cu in small-block.
Available were several variants of the big-block 427 cu in V8 engine, that taken together made up nearly half the cars. There was a 390 hp version with a Rochester 4-barrel carburetor. There was the L88 engine that Chevrolet designed for off-road use, with a published rating of 430 hp, but featured a high-capacity 4-barrel carb, aluminum heads, a unique air induction system, an ultra-high compression ratio. All small block cars had low-profile hoods. All big block cars had domed hoods for additional engine clearance with twin simulated vents and “427” emblems on either side of the dome; the new seven-inch wide steel wheels had F70x15 nylon bias-ply tires standard with either white or red stripe tires optional. Rare options were: J56 heavy-duty brakes, UA6 alarm system, L89 aluminum heads. In 1969, small block engine displacement increased from 327 cu in to 350 cu in, though output remained the same. All other engine
The Triumph Herald is a small two-door car introduced by Standard-Triumph of Coventry in 1959 and made through to 1971. The body design was by the Italian stylist Giovanni Michelotti, the car was offered in saloon, coupé, estate and van models, with the latter marketed as the Triumph Courier. Total Herald sales numbered well over half a million; the Triumph Vitesse, Spitfire and GT6 models are all based on modified Herald chassis and running gear with bolt-together bodies. Towards the end of the 1950s Standard-Triumph offered a range of two-seater Triumph sports cars alongside its Standard saloons, the Standard Eight and Standard Ten, powered by a small 4-cylinder engine, which by the late 1950s were due for an update. Standard-Triumph therefore started work on the Herald; the choice of the Herald name suggests that the car was intended to be marketed as a Standard, as it fits the model-naming scheme of the time. But by 1959 it was felt that the Triumph name had more brand equity, the Standard name was phased out in Britain after 1963.
Giovanni Michelotti was commissioned to style the car by the Standard-Triumph board, encouraged by chief engineer Harry Webster, produced designs for a two-door saloon with a large glass area that gave 93 per cent all-round visibility in the saloon variant and the "razor-edge" looks to which many makers were turning. As Fisher & Ludlow, Standard-Triumph's body suppliers became part of an uncooperative British Motor Corporation, it was decided that the car should have a separate chassis rather than adopting the newer unitary construction; the main body tub was bolted to the chassis and the whole front end hinged forward to allow access to the engine. Every panel – including the sills and roof – could be unbolted from the car so that different body styles could be built on the same chassis; as an addition to the original coupé and saloon models, a convertible was introduced in 1960. The Standard Pennant's 4-cylinder 948 cc OHV Standard SC engine and 4 speed manual gearbox was used with synchromesh on the top three gears and remote gear shift and driving the rear wheels.
Most of the engine parts were used in the Standard 8/10. The rack and pinion steering afforded the Herald a tight 25-foot turning circle. Coil and double-wishbone front suspension was fitted, while the rear suspension, a new departure for Triumph, offered "limited" independent springing via a single transverse leaf-spring bolted to the top of the final drive unit and swing axles. Instruments were confined to a single large speedometer with fuel gauge in the saloon on a dashboard of grey pressed fibreboard; the coupé dashboard was equipped with speedometer and temperature gauges, together with a lockable glovebox. The car had loop-pile heater as standard. A number of extras were available including twin SU carburettors, leather seats, a wood-veneered dashboard, Telaflo shock absorbers and paint options. In late 1958, prototype cars embarked on a test run from Cape Town to Tangiers. An account of the journey was embellished by PR at the time. However, only minor changes were deemed necessary between the production cars.
The new car was launched at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 22 April 1959 but was not an immediate sales success owing to its high cost, approaching £700. In standard single-carburettor form the 34.5 bhp car was no better than average in terms of performance. A saloon tested by The Motor magazine in 1959 was found to have a top speed of 70.9 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 31.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 34.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The rear suspension was criticised as yielding poor handling at the extremes of performance though the model was considered easy to drive with its good vision, light steering and controls, ease of repair. A Herald S variant was introduced in 1961 with a lower equipment level and less chrome than the Herald, it was offered in saloon form only. The 948 cc Herald Coupé and Convertible models were discontinued in 1961, the 948 cc Herald Saloon in 1962 and the Herald S in 1964. Standard-Triumph experienced financial difficulties at the beginning of the 1960s and was taken over by Leyland Motors in 1961.
This released new resources to develop the Herald and the car was re-launched in April 1961 with an 1147 cc engine as the Herald 1200. The new model featured a wooden laminate dashboard and improved seating. Quality control was tightened up. Twin carburettors were no longer fitted to any of the range as standard although they remained an option, the standard being a single down-draught Solex carburettor. Claimed maximum power of the Herald 1200 was 39 bhp, as against the 34.5 bhp claimed for the 948 cc model. One month after the release of the Herald 1200, a 2-door estate was added to the range. Disc brakes became an option from 1962. Sales picked up despite growing competition from the Ford Anglia; the coupé was dropped from the range in late 1964 as it was by in direct competition with the Triumph Spitfire. The Triumph Courier van, a Herald estate with side panels in place of rear side windows, was produced from 1962 until 1966, but was dropped following poor sales. Production in England ceased in mid-1964.
CKD assembly by MCA in Malta continued till late 1965, at least. The Courier was powered by the 1147 cc engine. An upmarket version, the Herald 12/50, was offered from 1963 to 1967, it featured a tuned engine with a claimed output of 51 bhp in place of the previous 39, along with
Fiat Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p. A., part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced. Fiat Automobiles is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy. During its more than century-long history, it remained the largest automobile manufacturer in Europe and the third in the world after General Motors and Ford for over twenty years, until the car industry crisis in the late 1980s. In 2013, Fiat S.p. A. was the second largest European automaker by volumes produced and the seventh in the world, while FCA is the world's eighth largest auto maker. In 1970, Fiat Automobiles employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, it built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue.
Fiat has manufactured railway engines, military vehicles, farm tractors and weapons such as the Fiat–Revelli Modello 1914. Fiat-brand cars are built in several locations around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader; the group has factories in Argentina and Mexico and a long history of licensing manufacture of its products in other countries. Fiat Automobiles has received many international awards for its vehicles, including nine European Car of the Year awards, the most of any other manufacturer, it ranked many times as the lowest level of CO2 emissions by vehicles sold in Europe. On 11 July 1899, Giovanni Agnelli was part of the group of founding members of FIAT, Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino; the first Fiat plant opened in 1900 with 35 staff making 24 cars. Known from the beginning for the talent and creativity of its engineering staff, by 1903 Fiat made a small profit and produced 135 cars; the company went public selling shares via the Milan stock exchange.
Agnelli led the company until his death in 1945, while Vittorio Valletta administered the firm's daily activities. Its first car, the 3 ½ CV resembled contemporary Benz, had a 697 cc boxer twin engine. In 1903, Fiat produced its first truck. In 1908, the first Fiat was exported to the US; that same year, the first Fiat aircraft engine was produced. Around the same time, Fiat taxis became popular in Europe. By 1910, Fiat was the largest automotive company in Italy; that same year, a new plant was built in Poughkeepsie, NY, by the newly founded American F. I. A. T. Automobile Company. Owning a Fiat at that time was a sign of distinction; the cost of a Fiat in the US was $4,000 and rose up to $6,400 in 1918, compared to $825 for a Ford Model T in 1908, $525 in 1918, respectively. During World War I, Fiat had to devote all of its factories to supplying the Allies with aircraft, machine guns and ambulances. Upon the entry of the US into the war in 1917, the factory was shut down as US regulations became too burdensome.
After the war, Fiat introduced its first tractor, the 702. By the early 1920s, Fiat had a market share in Italy of 80%. In 1921, workers hoisted the red flag of communism over them. Agnelli responded by quitting the company. However, the Italian Socialist Party and its ally organization, the Italian General Confederation of Labour, in an effort to effect a compromise with the centrist parties ordered the occupation ended. In 1922, Fiat began to build the famous Lingotto car factory—then the largest in Europe—which opened in 1923, it was the first Fiat factory to use assembly lines. In 1928, with the 509, Fiat included insurance in the purchase price. Fiat made military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Army and Regia Aeronautica and for the Germans. Fiat made obsolete fighter aircraft like the biplane CR.42, one of the most common Italian aircraft, along with Savoia-Marchettis, as well as light tanks and armoured vehicles. The best Fiat aircraft was the G. 55 fighter. In 1945, the year Benito Mussolini was overthrown, the National Liberation Committee removed the Agnelli family from leadership roles in Fiat because of its ties to Mussolini's government.
They were not returned until 1963, when Giovanni's grandson, took over as general manager until 1966, as chairman until 1996. In 1970, Fiat employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, Fiat built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue. Towards the end of 1976 it was announced that the Libyan government was to take a shareholding in the company in return for a capital injection Other aspects of the Libyan agreement included the construction of a truck and bus plant at Tripoli. Chairman Agnelli candidly described the deal as "a classic petro-money recycling operation which will strengthen the Italian reserves, provide Fiat with fresh capital and give the group greater tranquility in which to carry out its investment programmes". On 29 January 20
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co