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Inderøy

Inderøy is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Innherad region; the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Straumen. Other villages include Framverran, Hylla, Kjerknesvågen, Kjerringvik, Røra, Sandvollan, Småland, Trongsundet, Utøy, Venneshamn; the municipality is an agricultural community, but has some industry. The 366-square-kilometre municipality is the 253rd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Inderøy is the 155th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 6,785; the municipality's population density is 19.3 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 1.3% over the last decade. Inderøy was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. On 1 January 1907, the municipality was divided into three municipalities: Røra in the southeast, Hustad in the north, Inderøy in the west. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1962, the three neighboring municipalities of Røra, Inderøy to form a new, larger municipality of Inderøy.

On 1 January 2012, the neighboring municipality of Mosvik was merged into Inderøy. This added about 800 more residents to the municipality, bringing the total population to 6,716 people. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Nord-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the municipality is named Inderøy which comes from the Old Norse form of the name: Eynni iðri, meaning is "the inner island" referring to the Inderøya peninsula which sticks out into the fjord. Neighboring Ytterøy, meaning "the outer island", is named; the coat of arms was granted on 5 October 1984. The arms show four gold-colored European plaice on a red background; this fish was once plentiful and was one of the main sources of income for the area until around 1940. The arms were re-approved after the Inderøy-Mosvik merger in 2012; the old arms of Inderøy were continued since fishing is still important to the culture and history of the new municipality. The four fish shown on the arms now represent the four original municipalities that now make up Inderøy: Inderøy, Mosvik, Røra, Sandvollan.

The Church of Norway has four parishes within the municipality of Inderøy. It is part of the Nord-Innherad prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. During the Middle Ages Inderøy was called Eynni iðri, meaning the inner island, still the meaning of the word Inderøy. Saurshaug was an important political centre until the 20th century. In the Middle Ages it was the centre of the county Øynafylket including Beitstad and Verran; the Old Sakshaug Church was opened by Archbishop Eysteinn Erlendsson in 1184 and was the county church. Many of the construction techniques used in the archbishop's cathedral Nidarosdomen in Trondheim were experimented with on Old Sakshaug Church; the village of Sandvollan has a church from the Middle Ages, Hustad Church. During the late Middle Ages and until the breakup of the union between Sweden and Norway Inderøy was the seat of the Governor and Tax Collector of Nordre Trondhjems amt, thus it was the county capital of the old Nord-Trøndelag county; the district court for the north central part of Trøndelag county is still named after Inderøy.

The city was first described by a Norwegian poet, Aasmund Olavsson Vinje, in 1860 who depicted its panorama from Rolsbakken. All municipalities in Norway, including Inderøy, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal; the administrative centre of Inderøy is Straumen. Municipal services are located about 1 kilometre at Sakshaug. There are several boroughs in Inderøy: Kjerknesvågen, Mosvik, Røra, Sakshaug, Utøy; each has its own primary community centre. The municipal council of Inderøy is made up of 25 representatives that are elected to four-year terms; the party breakdown of the council is as follows: After the 2011 municipal election the centre-right block led by the Centre Party won a majority in the municipal council and Ida Stuberg was elected Mayor while Trine Berg Fines was elected Deputy Mayor.

Inderøy is an agricultural area. Most of the municipality is cultivated, with grass and grains being the most common crops, but strawberries are common. Most farmers have forests. All dominant industry is oriented around agriculture, with factories producing distillery products, animal feed, flat bread and juice, other meat products. In addition there are numerous farms who sell it on the farm. There are a number of service institutions in Inderøy, including stores, public services, schools. Quite a lot of people work in the neighboring municipalities of Levanger and Verdal—Inderøy being a suburb of those. Inderøy is located on two peninsulas in the inner sections of the Trondheimsfjord, bordering the municipalities of Indre Fosen, Steinkjer and Verran; the Skarnsund strait lies between the Inderøy

Offspring of Empire

Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Korean Capitalism, 1876-1945 is a book by Carter Eckert. The book examines the activities of Kyungbang, the first large scale industrial enterprise owned and operated by Koreans. Eckert uses Kyungbang as a "window through which one can explore at a concrete and human level the origins and early development of Korean capitalism." The book attributes the Miracle on the Han River to the legacy of Japanese colonial rule in Korea. Eckert argues that despite some notable trends towards commercialization in Korea before 1876, Korea did not have a large-scale market for its goods. Between 1876 and 1919, Japan provided Korean landlords with a market for their rice; the Kims, a landowning family from the North Jeolla Province operated a successful rice operation during this period which allowed them to amass capital. Around 1919, a younger generation of Koreans invested significant amounts of capital in non agricultural industries; some Koreans believed.

Eckert argues that while nationalism contributed to Korean industrialization, Japan's decision to halve rice prices made agricultural enterprises unattractive, the repeal of the Company Law which required all new business in Korea to receive a license from the colonial government removed a significant barrier to industrialization. Kim Seong-su, a member of the Kim family from North Joella founded Kyungbang in 1919, a company devoted to the production of yarn and cloth. From 1919 to 1945, Kyungbang grew substantially. Paid in capital grew from 250,000 to 10,500,000 yen and the number of company looms increased from 100 to 1080. Eckert attributes this growth to Japanese colonial rule. Eckert argues that because Kyungbang had difficulty establishing a niche in a textile market dominated by Japanese imports, it could not have survived without government subsidies or loans. Eckert argues that the Japanese colonial government's control over Korean businesses forced enterprises like Kyungbang to work in accordance with industrial goals of the Japanese colonial government.

As a result, the Japanese colonial government protected the interests of Korean businesses like Kyungbang. Eckert argues that Kyungbang relied on Japan for its raw materials and technical expertise. Furthermore, Eckert argues that Kyungbang's support of the Japanese ideology of Naisen Ittai, which stressed the unity of Japanese and Korean peoples, reveals that the Korean bourgeois had a weak commitment to Korean nationalism. Gi-Wook Shin thought that the book was "well-written" and "provocative", he argued that Eckert did not adequately explore Korea's transformation from an agricultural to industrial economy. Martina Deuchler praised the book saying, "this book must become require reading for all students of East Asia in the twentieth century." Meredith Woo Cummings criticized the book for equating capitalism with industrialization and for characterizing Korean businessmen as being driven by "myopic self interest." Cummings, Meredith Woo. "Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Capitalism, 1876-1945."

American Historical Review 98, no. 2: 546-547. Deuchler, Martina. "Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Capitalism, 1876-1945." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 56, no. 1: 182-183. Eckert, Carter J. Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Capitalism, 1876-1945. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991. Shin, Gi-Wook. "Offspring of Empire: The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Capitalism, 1876-1945." American Journal of Sociology 98, no. 5: 1237-1239

Rambynas Regional Park

Rambynas Regional Park is one of the Regional Parks in Lithuania, situated at Pagėgiai municipality on the right Nemunas river bend in Lithuanian Republic near the border of Kaliningrad Oblast. The park was founded in 1992 with its area of 4,786 ha.... Life is a constant movement. A Wide variety of different forms emerge and disappear... Over the thousand years, stones decay. Life explodes and people are born and so lost... These days, people learn, and life effects are visible in a strong relationship with nature as if the person opens the whole mystery of nature, all of the Mysteries... The Rambynas Regional Park territory for its natural and cultural heritage has been divided into eight protection and conservation zones which are: Bitėnai Geomorphological Reserve Šilėnai Botanical Reserve Bitėnai Botanical and Zoological Reserve Ragainė Inflection Hydro-logical Reserve Šereitlaukis Architectural Reserve Jūra River Ichtiological Reserve Vilkyškių Geo-morphological Reserve Vilkyškiai Urban ReserveOther areas include: recreation areas, defense areas, business areas and a park territory tangled in a dense network of roads with about 5.4 km of roads in an area of 100 acres.

Among the eight park reserves the biggest protected park attractions are - the Nemunas valley landscape, Wetland meadows and their typical flora communities, Rambynas hill and its woods, Bitėnai and Bardėnai villages with preserved natural and cultural attractions, The ridge crest of Vilkyškiai, Regional forests characterized by a variety of woods, The environment of Šereitlaukis estate, The old town of Vilkyškiai and unique white stork colonies nesting in the pine trees. In the park area, there are eight villages: Bitėnai, Bardinai, Šereitlaukis, Pempynė, Vilkyškiai and part of Lumpėnai, with a population of 1340 inhabitants, 247 hectares of water ponds. 13 kilometers from the Nemunas and Jūra river confluence to the Rambynas park boundary is the largest river in Lithuania, the Nemunas, the Lithuanian state border with Russia's Kaliningrad enclave. The Nemunas valley is washed with the largest - the Merguva and Bitežeris. State Service for Protected Areas under the Ministry of the Environment, together with a number of Authorities for protected areas in Lithuania will implement the EU Structural Funds for the project “Protected Areas Management" The project objectives are: Facilitate public access to protected environments Facilitate visits to protected areas without harming the environment Create conditions for the “Natura 2000” sites improvement“Phase I” completion of the following activities: Organisation and adaption of 4 heritage sites for visitors: Rambynas new stone altar ensemble Opstainiai I mound, Opstainiai II mound, Šereiklaukis mound Completion of Rambynas Regional Park Visitors Center in the Bitėnai village Completion of Visitor Centre exposition and display stands“Phase II” implementation and outgoing works of the following activities: Installation of field information system and visitors infrastructure Completed “Natura 2000” territory network of Šereiklaukis forest meadows In collaboration of Rambynas Regional Park direction and “Sandūra” Society in Pagėgiai implemented newspaper and magazine - almanac “Rambynas” publishing project.

The newspaper “Rambynas” issued 2 times a year. This 8 -page publication is dedicated to Rambynas Regional Park residents and introduces park visitors to the park values how Rambynas Regional Park Authority operates in a variety of topical issues related to the park. Magazine –almanac "Rambynas” released once a year; this is a richly illustrated 86 - page publication, a prominent Lithuanian historians and scientists examine Rambynas and Pagėgiai surrounding areas, as well as culture, environmental issues and to provide a wide popular readership of Lithuania Minor. The journal provides a summary in English language. Press, Radio Support Fund supports and funds project “Rambynas - Lithuania Minor ethnographic identity preservation" - several years presented on magazine “Rambynas”. Preserve the Nemunas River landscape, its natural ecosystem and cultural heritage and manage park resources rationally. Protect existent natural and cultural heritage. Restore destroyed cultural heritage. Observe, gather information and conservation of cultural heritage protection, promote the natural and cultural heritage and its protection.

Tourism development and renewal of recreational areas. An observation deck on the Rambynas hill Lithuanian Minor pantheon - Bitėnai Cemetery Educational eco-tourism walking trails White stork colony in Bitėnai village Martynas Jankus Museum Šereiklaukis and Opstainiai mounds Barrow Place of Šereiklaukis Manor 39 “Oak Alley” Natural Monument "Witches Spruce" Vilkyškiai town urban reserve Viewing Platform ( Beautiful views from 15 meters high viewing platform of Merguva lake, wetland meadows and Ragainė town in th