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Indian Army

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, a ceremonial position of great honour; the Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which became the British Indian Army, the armies of the princely states, which became the national army after independence. The units and regiments of the Indian Army have diverse histories and have participated in a number of battles and campaigns across the world, earning many battle and theatre honours before and after Independence; the primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, defending the nation from external aggression and internal threats, maintaining peace and security within its borders. It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances, like Operation Surya Hope, can be requisitioned by the government to cope with internal threats.

It is a major component of national power alongside the Indian Air Force. The army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring one with China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include: Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has conducted large peace time exercises like Operation Brasstacks and Exercise Shoorveer, it has been an active participant in numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions including those in: Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Mozambique, South Sudan and Somalia; the Indian Army has a regimental system, but is operationally and geographically divided into seven commands, with the basic field formation being a division. It comprises more than 80 % of the country's active defence personnel, it is the 2nd largest standing army in the world, with 1,237,117 active troops and 960,000 reserve troops. The army has embarked on an infantry modernisation program known as Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System, is upgrading and acquiring new assets for its armoured and aviation branches.

A Military Department was created within the Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776. Its main function was to sift and record orders relating to the Army that were issued by various Departments of the East India Company for the territories under its control. With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganised into four Departments, including a Military Department; the army in the Presidencies of Bengal and Madras functioned as respective Presidency Armies until 1 April 1895 when they were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point, namely Punjab, Bengal and Bombay; the British Indian Army was a critical force for the primacy of the British Empire both in India and across the world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in many other theatres: the Anglo-Burmese Wars and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars and Second Opium Wars in China and the Boxer Rebellion in China.

In the 20th century, the Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to the British forces in both world wars. 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I with the Allies, in which 74,187 Indian troops were killed or missing in action. In 1915 there was a mutiny by Indian soldiers in Singapore; the United Kingdom made promises of self-governance to the Indian National Congress in return for its support but reneged on them after the war, following which the Indian Independence movement gained strength. The "Indianisation" of the British Indian Army began with the formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to the scions of aristocratic and well-to-do Indian families, to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers were given a King's commission after passing out and were posted to one of the eight units selected for Indianisation; because of the slow pace of Indianisation, with just 69 officers being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, political pressure was applied leading to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned.

In World War II Indian soldiers fought alongside the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men, their mission was internal security and defence against a possible Soviet threat through Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded and troops were sent to battlefronts as soon as possible; the most serious problem was lack of equipment. Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944–45, five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three African divisions. Larger numbers operated in the Middle East; some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945. In the African and Middle-Eastern Campaigns, captured Indian troops were given a choice to join the German Army to "libera

Hypericum sphaerocarpum

Hypericum sphaerocarpum, the roundseed St. Johnswort or barrens St. John's wort, is a species of flowering plant in the St. John's wort family, it is native to the Eastern United States where it is found in the Midwest and Mid-South as well as Ontario, Canada. Its preferred habitat is dry, calcareous glades and prairies. Hypericum sphaerocarpum is a semi-woody perennial that produces clusters of yellow flowers in the summer, it is confused with Hypericum dolabriforme where their ranges overlap. H. sphaerocarpum can be distinguished by its smaller flowers, glossy leaves, patch-forming rhizomes

Arwenack

Arwenack in the parish of St Budock, Cornwall, is a historic manor on the site of what is today the town of Falmouth. It was destroyed in 1646, only a remnant survives today, it was long held by the Killigrew family, responsible for the development of the town of Falmouth, Sir Peter Killigrew, MP, having received a royal charter for its foundation in 1661. Arwenack is said to signify in the ancient Cornish language either "the beloved, still cove", or "upon the marsh"; the earliest recorded lord of the manor of Arwenack was the de Arwenack family: Thomas de Arwenack John de Arwenack and heir Robert de Arwenack and heir, who died with no sons, leaving a daughter and sole heiress Jane de Arwenack, who married Simon Killigrew Simon Killigrew, married Jane de Arwenack and sole heiress of Robert de Arwenack. He was the son of John Killigrew of Killigrew, by his wife Mary Poltesmore, daughter of Sir Richard Poltesmore, was the first of the family to hold Arwenack. Thomas Killigrew, whose wife was a member of the Beaupell family.

He had two sons: John Killigrew, Senior, of Arwenack, eldest son and heir John Killigrew, Junior, of Penryn, whose descendants soon inherited Arwenack. This branch of the family bore arms: Gules, three mascles or. John Killigrew, senior, of Arwenack, eldest son and heir, who married Mary Boleigh and heiress of John Boleigh; the Killigrews quartered the arms of Boleigh: Argent, on a chevron sable between three torteaux as many bezants, as visible on the monumental brass in St Budock's Church to John Killigrew of Arwenack, first Governor of Pendennis Castle. John Killigrew and heir, who died with no sons, leaving a daughter and sole heiress Elizabeth Killigrew, wife of John Godolphin of Godolphin, Cornwall; the estates however descended to his younger brother as heir male under an entail. Thomas Killigrew, of Arwenack, younger brother, he died on 20 September 1513 at Biscay in the Kingdom of Aragon in Spain. He married twice, firstly to Jane Darrell and heiress of William Darrell of Andover, Hampshire, by whom he had a son and heir Alexander Killigrew, secondly in 1512 to Johanna Herry, daughter of John Herry of Ruddeford Alexander Killigrew, of Arwenack, eldest son and heir by his father's first marriage.

He appears to have died without children, since his heir was his second cousin once removed John Killigrew, the son of his second cousin John Killigrew of Penryn by his wife Jane Petit, daughter and co-heiress of John Petit of Ardevera. John Killigrew of Arwenack, second cousin once removed of Alexander Killigrew, of Arwenack, he was the first Governor of Pendennis Castle, situated on land within the Arwenack estate on the tip of a peninsula about 1 mile south-east of Arwenack House, appointed by King Henry VIII. He married Elizabeth Trewennard, 2nd daughter of James Trewennard of Trewennard, in the parish of St Erth, his monumental brass survives in St Budock's Church, Budock Water to the west of Arwenack, inscribed as follows: "Heere lyeth John Killigrew, Esquier, of Arwenack and lord of ye manor of Killigrew in Cornewall, Elizabeth Trewinnard his wife. He was the first Captaine of Pendennis Castle, made by King Henry the eight and so continued untill the nynth of Queene Elizabeth at which time God tooke him to his mercye, being the yeare of Our Lord 1567.

Sr John Killigrew, his sone succeeded him in ye same place by the gift of Queene Elizabeth". He rebuilt Arwenack House, described by Martin Lister-Killigrew as "the finest and most costly in the county, as to this time in part appears by the stately hall window thereof, still standing, was possessed of one of the largest estates in the county, his lands on those parts extending from Arwenack, to Helford passage, had the propriety of sixteen parish tythes", he had five sons, including: Sir John Killigrew of Arwenack, eldest son and heir, 2nd Governor of Pendennis Castle. Peter Killigrew, 2nd son, Controller of Customs at Plymouth and Fowey. Sir Henry Killigrew, 4th son, an ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I and Member of Parliament for Newport & Launceston in 1553, Saltash in 1563 and for Truro in 1571-2. Sir William Killigrew of Hanworth, Middlesex, 5th son, Groom of the Privy Chamber to King James I, several of whose descendants were royal courtiers and were buried in Westminster Abbey where survive various monuments to the family.

He had several daughters, including Margaret, who married Sir Francis Godolphin. Alice, who married Richard Bonython of Carclew House. Jane, who married John Michell M. P. Grace, who married John Trethurffe of Trethurffe, Ladock. Sir John Killigrew of Arwenack, son, 2nd Governor of Pendennis Castle appointed by Queen Elizabeth I, as stated on his father's brass in St Budock's Church, he was MP for Lostwithiel in 1563 and twice for the family's pocket borough of Penryn, in 1571 and 1572. Together with his father he opposed the Catholic Queen Mary and her Spanish husband, used his fleet of ships to keep the Protestant exiles in France abreast of political developments and attacked Spanish shipping in the Channel. In 1556 he was released after three weeks. On the succession of the Protestant Queen Elizabe