Ram Nath Chopra
Colonel Sir Ram Nath Chopra CIE, IMS was an Indian Medical Service officer and a doyen of science and medicine of India. He is considered the "Father of Indian Pharmacology" for his work on pharmaceuticals and his quest for self-sufficiency of India in drugs, he was a pioneer of pharmacological research in India and took a special interest in indigenous drugs. After service in the army, he established a research laboratory where he worked as a professor of a pharmacology at the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, established in 1921. Chopra was born in Gujranwala and his family came from the Jammu and Kashmir region, his father Raghu Nath was a government official. After school in Lahore he went to the Government College there and went to England in 1903 and studied at the Downing College, Cambridge. In 1905 he qualified in the Natural Sciences Tripos and was admitted BA, he received a B. Chir. in 1908 and an MA in 1909. He worked under Walter E. Dixon professor of the newly established position in pharmacology.
While at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, Chopra wrote the examination for the Indian Medical Service and stood third in it. Chopra was commissioned a lieutenant in the Indian Medical Service on 1 August 1908 and promoted to captain on 1 August 1911, he saw active service in East Africa and in the Afghan War of 1919. He was promoted to the temporary rank of major on 7 May 1919 and confirmed in the substantive rank on 1 August 1920. In 1922 he was appointed Professor of Pharmacology at the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, established the year before, he took a special interest in indigenous drugs and noted that a key aim for India should be self-sufficiency in drug resources. He conducted pioneering studies on herbal remedies including Rauwolfia serpentina, he headed a Drugs Enquiry Committee of 1930–31 which examined the need for imports and legislation. He was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in the 1934 New Year Honours list and knighted in the 1941 New Year Honours list.
Anthelmintics and their Uses in Medical and Veterinary Practice. The Williams & Wilkins Company. 1928. Chopra's Indigenous Drugs of India. Academic Publishers. 1958. Glossary Of Indian Medicinal Plants – with S. L. Nayar and I. C. Chopra A review of work on Indian medicinal plants – with I. C. Chopra A Handbook of Tropical Therapeutics Indigenous Drugs of India
Sisir Kumar Mitra
Sisir Kumar Mitra MBE, FNI, FASB, FIAS, FRS was an Indian Bengali physicist. Mitra was born in his father's hometown of Konnagar, a suburb of Kolkata located in the Hooghly District in the Bengal Presidency, he was the third son of Joykrishna Mitra, a schoolteacher at the time of Mitra's birth, Saratkumari, a medical student whose family came from Midnapore. While Mitra's paternal family were orthodox Hindus, his mother's family were adherents of the progressive Brahmo Samaj, were noted in Midnapore for their advanced outlook. In 1878, Joykrishna Mitra had joined the Brahmo Samaj and married his wife, against the wishes of his family, who responded by severing ties with him; as a consequence, the newly wed couple moved to Saratkumari's hometown of Midnapore, where Joykrishna and his wife had two sons - Satish Kumar and Santosh Kumar - and a daughter before Joykrishna moved his family to Kolkata in 1889. Mitra was born the following year. While in Kolkata, Joykrishna became acquainted with several distinguished scholars, notably Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Bipin Chandra Pal.
Sharing Saratkumari's progressive outlook, Joykrishna secured his wife's admission as a student at Campbell Medical College. In 1892, Saratkumari qualified as a physician and received an appointment at the Lady Dufferin Hospital in the city of Bhagalpur in the Bengal Presidency; the family thus moved to Bhagalpur, where Saratkumari began her new career, with Joykrishna securing a position as a municipal clerk. A third son, Mitra's younger brother Sarat Kumar, was born at Bhagalpur shortly after. In Bhagalpur, Mitra began school at the Bhagalpore Zilla School. Around 1897-1898, when aged six or seven, his interest in atomospheric science began after hearing the story of Ramchandra Chatterjee, a Bengali aeronaut who a year before Mitra's birth, on 4 May 1889, had become the first Indian to make a solo balloon flight; the story prompted Mitra to ask his elder brother Satish Kumar about the principles of lighter-than-air flight. A few years afterwards, both of Mitra's elder brothers died. Despite the family's increasing financial burdens, Saratkumari managed to educate her two surviving sons.
During his childhood and adolescence, Mitra nurtured his interest in science through reading popular scientific articles by leading Bengali scientists, including some by Jagadish Chandra Bose. After passing his examinations from the Bhagalpore Zilla school, Mitra was admitted to the FA program at the T. N. J. College. After passing his FA examinations in 1908, Mitra was admitted as a student in Presidency College of the University of Calcutta where he earned a B. Sc.. He continued to develop a passion for physics and scientific research, was accepted by Jagadish Bose as a research scholar upon completing his master's degree in 1912 with the highest honours, he worked under Professor Bose for a few months before being forced to end his studies due to his family's financial difficulties. To support his family, after leaving the University of Calcutta, Mitra secured an appointment as a lecturer at his former college, T. N. J. College. Following a brief period there, he was appointed a lecturer at Bankura Christian College.
Frustrated by the lack of research opportunities at both institutions, Mitra channelled his energy into developing innovative experiments to demonstrate to his students and writing popular scientific articles in Bengali. In 1916, he was invited by Ashutosh Mukherjee to return to Calcutta University as a post-graduate physics scholar in the new University Science College. There he conducted research into the diffraction and interference of light under C. V. Raman, enhancing Raman's previous research on the diffraction of monochromatic light in an oblique single slit and devising a better method for determining heliometer diffraction patterns. For this work, which Raman appreciated, Mitra gained a D. Sc. degree in 1919. He published three papers in the Philosophical Magazine, including one on "Asymmetry of the Illumination Curves in Oblique Diffraction", another on Arnold Sommerfeld's approaches to diffraction. After receiving his doctorate, Mitra left for France in 1920 to continue his studies at the University of Paris.
There he earned a second doctorate under Charles Fabry in 1923, for a thesis on the determination of wavelength standards in the 2000-2300 Å region of copper. He subsequently worked under Marie Curie at the Curie Institute. Made aware of continual developments in the new science of radio communications, Mitra went to the University of Nancy and joined the laboratory of Camille Gutton. Under Gutton, Mitra conducted research on radio valve circuitry before returning to India in late 1923. Prior to returning to India, Mitra had corresponded with Ashutosh Mukherjee about the growing importance of wireless science and the need to include it in the post-graduate physics curriculum at the University of Calcutta. Upon his return to Kolkata, he was appointed the university's Khaira Professor of Physics. With Mukherjee's support, in 1924 a "Wireless" course was introduced as an elective in the Physics MSc. curriculum and a Wireless Laboratory established for research in electron tubes and radio wave propagation.
He initiated a new department at the University of Calcutta that became the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics. In 1955 he retired from the university, he was given charge of the West Bengal Secondary Education Board, spent six years organizing this administra
Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Sir Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar OBE, FNI, FASc, FRS, FRIC, FInstP was an Indian colloid chemist and scientific administrator. The first director-general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, he is revered as the "father of research laboratories" in India, he was the first Chairman of the University Grants Commission. In 1958, to honour his name and legacy, the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research instituted the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology for scientists who have made significant contributions in various branches of science. Bhatnagar was born in Punjab region of British India, in a Hindu kayastha family, his father, Parmeshwari Sahai Bhatnagar, died when he was eight months old, he spent his childhood in the house of his maternal grandfather, an engineer, who helped him develop a liking for science and engineering. He enjoyed building mechanical toys, electronic batteries, string telephones. From his maternal family he inherited a gift of poetry.
He completed his elementary education from Sikandrabad. In 1911 he joined the newly established Dayal Singh College, Lahore where he became an active member of the Saraswati Stage Society and earned a good reputation as an actor, he wrote an Urdu one-act play called Karamati, the English translation of which earned him the Saraswati Stage Society prize and medal for the best play of the year in 1912. Bhatnagar passed the Intermediate Examination of the Punjab University in 1913 in first class and joined the Forman Christian College,where he obtained a BSc in physics in 1916, a MSc in chemistry in 1919. Bhatnagar was awarded a scholarship by the Dayal Singh College Trust to study abroad, he left for America via England. However, he could not find open berths on English ships, as they were all reserved for American troops, who were being demobilized due to the First World War; the Trustee permitted him to join the University College London under chemistry professor Frederick G. Donnan, he earned his Doctorate in Science in 1921.
While in London, he was supported by the British Department of Scientific and Industrial Research with a fellowship of £250 a year. In August 1921, he returned to India and joined the newly established Banaras Hindu University as a professor of chemistry, where he remained for three years, he wrote University song. Justice N. H. Bhagwati, the Vice-Chancellor of BHU said: "Many of you do not know that besides being an eminent scientist, Professor Bhatnagar was a Hindi poet of repute and that during his stay in Banaras, he composed the ‘Kulgeet’ of the University. Professor Bhatnagar is remembered with reverence in this University and will continue to be so until this University exists." He moved to Lahore as a Professor of Physical Chemistry and Director of University Chemical Laboratories of the University of the Punjab. This portion of his career was the most active period of his life in original scientific work, his research interests included emulsions and industrial chemistry, but his fundamental contributions were in the field of magneto-chemistry, the use of magnetism for the study of chemical reactions.
In 1928 he and K. N. Mathur jointly developed the Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance, one of the most sensitive instruments at the time for measuring magnetic properties, it was exhibited at the Royal Society Soiree in 1931 and it was marketed by Messers Adam Hilger and Co, London. Bhatnagar's first industrial problem was developing the process for converting bagasse into food-cake for cattle; this was done for the Grand Old Man of Punjab. He solved industrial problems for Delhi Cloth & General Mills, J. K. Mills Ltd. of Kanpur, Ganesh Flour Mills Ltd. of Layallapur, Tata Oil Mills Ltd. of Bombay, Steel Brothers & Co. Ltd. of London. His major innovation was an improvement of the procedure for drilling crude oil; the Attock Oil Company at Rawalpindi had confronted a peculiar problem, wherein the mud used for the drilling operation was hardened upon contact with saline water, thereby clogging the drill holes. Bhatnagar realised, he added an Indian gum, which had the remarkable property of lowering the viscosity of the mud suspension and of increasing at the same time its stability against the flocculating action of electrolytes.
M/s Steel Brothers was so pleased. 1,50,000/- for research work on any subject related to petroleum. The company placed the fund through the university and it was used to establish the Department of Petroleum Research under the guidance of Bhatnagar. Investigations carried out under this collaborative scheme included deodorization of waxes, increasing flame height of kerosene and utilization of waste products in the vegetable oil and mineral oil industries. Recognizing the commercial success of the research, the company increased the fund, extended the period from five years to ten. Bhatnagar persistently refused any personal monetary benefit from his research fundings, instead advocated for strengthening research facilities at the university. Meghnad Saha wrote to Bhatnagar in 1934 saying, "You have hereby raised the status of the university teachers in the estimation of public, not to speak of the benefit conferred on your Alma Mater". Bhatnagar wrote jointly with K. N. Mathur Physical Principles and Applications of Magnetochemistry, considered a standard work on the subject.
The first industrial re
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose, was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was awarded India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan in 1954 by the Government of India; the class of particles that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac. A self-taught scholar and a polymath, he had a wide range of interests in varied fields including physics, chemistry, mineralogy, arts and music, he served on many development committees in sovereign India. Bose was born in the eldest of seven children in a Bengali Kayastha family, he was the only son, with six sisters after him. His ancestral home was in the village Bara Jagulia, in the district of Nadia, in the state of West Bengal, his schooling began near his home. When his family moved to Goabagan, he was admitted into the New Indian School.
In the final year of school, he was admitted into the Hindu School. He stood fifth in the order of merit, he next joined the intermediate science course at the Presidency College, where his teachers included Jagadish Chandra Bose, Sarada Prasanna Das, Prafulla Chandra Ray. Bose chose mixed mathematics for his BSc and passed the examinations standing first in 1913 and again stood first in the MSc mixed mathematics exam in 1915, it is said that his marks in the MSc examination created a new record in the annals of the University of Calcutta, yet to be surpassed. After completing his MSc, Bose joined the University of Calcutta as a research scholar in 1916 and started his studies in the theory of relativity, it was an exciting era in the history of scientific progress. Quantum theory had just appeared on the horizon and important results had started pouring in, his father, Surendranath Bose, worked in the Engineering Department of the East Indian Railway Company. In 1914, at age 20, Satyendra Nath Bose married Ushabati Ghosh, the 11-year-old daughter of a prominent Calcutta physician.
They had nine children. When he died in 1974, he left behind his wife, two sons, five daughters; as a polyglot, Bose was well versed in several languages such as Bengali, French and Sanskrit as well as the poetry of Lord Tennyson, Rabindranath Tagore and Kalidasa. He could play an Indian musical instrument similar to a violin, he was involved in running night schools that came to be known as the Working Men's Institute. Bose attended Hindu School in Calcutta, attended Presidency College in Calcutta, earning the highest marks at each institution, while fellow student and future astrophysicist Meghnad Saha came second, he came in contact with teachers such as Jagadish Chandra Bose, Prafulla Chandra Ray and Naman Sharma who provided inspiration to aim high in life. From 1916 to 1921, he was a lecturer in the physics department of the University of Calcutta. Along with Saha, Bose prepared the first book in English based on German and French translations of original papers on Einstein's special and general relativity in 1919.
In 1921, he joined as Reader of the department of Physics of the founded University of Dhaka. Bose set up whole new departments, including laboratories, to teach advanced courses for MSc and BSc honours and taught thermodynamics as well as James Clerk Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Satyendra Nath Bose, along with Saha, presented several papers in theoretical physics and pure mathematics from 1918 onwards. In 1924, while working as a Reader at the Physics Department of the University of Dhaka, Bose wrote a paper deriving Planck's quantum radiation law without any reference to classical physics by using a novel way of counting states with identical particles; this paper was seminal in creating the important field of quantum statistics. Though not accepted at once for publication, he sent the article directly to Albert Einstein in Germany. Einstein, recognising the importance of the paper, translated it into German himself and submitted it on Bose's behalf to the prestigious Zeitschrift für Physik.
As a result of this recognition, Bose was able to work for two years in European X-ray and crystallography laboratories, during which he worked with Louis de Broglie, Marie Curie, Einstein. While presenting a lecture at the University of Dhaka on the theory of radiation and the ultraviolet catastrophe, Bose intended to show his students that the contemporary theory was inadequate, because it predicted results not in accordance with experimental results. In the process of describing this discrepancy, Bose for the first time took the position that the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution would not be true for microscopic particles, where fluctuations due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle will be significant, thus he stressed the probability of finding particles in the phase space, each state having volume h3, discarding the distinct position and momentum of the particles. Bose adapted this lecture into a short article called "Planck's Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta" and sent it to Albert Einstein with the following letter: Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal and opinion.
I am anxious to know. You will see that I have tried to deduce the coefficient 8π ν2/c3 in Planck's Law independent of classical electrodynamics, only as
M. S. Valiathan
Marthanda Varma Sankaran Valiathan is an Indian cardiac surgeon. He was an erstwhile President of the Indian National Science Academy and National Research Professor of the Government of India, he was awarded the Padma Vibushan in 2005 for his contributions to health technology in India. He was made a Chevalier in the order of Palmes Academiques, an honour bestowed by the French government, in 1999, he received the Dr. Samuel P. Asper International Award from the Johns Hopkins University Medical School in 2009 for his contributions to international medical education, he was born to Marthanda and Janaki Varma in 1934. His early education was at a government school in Mavelikara, followed by the University College, Trivandrum. Valiathan's medical education took place at the Medical College, University of Kerala, where he obtained his M B B S degree, he went to the University of Liverpool in Liverpool, England as a surgical trainee and received his fellowship from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and England in 1960 and Master's degree in surgery from the University of Liverpool.
After a brief stint as a faculty member at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh he underwent further training in cardiac surgery at the Johns Hopkins, George Washington, Georgetown University Hospitals, USA. He worked as a Fellow of Doctors Vincent Gott at the Hopkins and Charles Hufnagel at the Georgetown University He was granted the fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in cardiovascular surgery in 1970, he has served on the faculty of the Georgetown University Hospital, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras and as director of Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology. Subsequently, Valiathan became the first Vice-Chancellor of Manipal University in 1994. In 1972, Valiathan returned to India and had an uncertain beginning at the Safdarjung Hospital in New Delhi. Soon after he moved to Indian Institute of Technology Madras where his responsibility was teaching with low priority for research.
Several friends and colleagues, including Dr. Hufnagel wondered whether he had made a foolish mistake in opting to leave the United States; however he received an invitation from the Government of Kerala where the Chief Minister, Shri Achutha Menon, asked him to develop a hospital for specialities in the new, unoccupied building of Sree Chitra Tirunal Center and gave him freedom and authority to accomplish the task. The hospital was set up in two years and patients with cardiovascular and neurologic diseases admitted for treatment; the development of cardiovascular devices was initiated with the support of the Science and Engineering Research Council of the Government of India. As Sree Chitra Institute grew, it received support from prime minister Morarji Desai and was notified as "An Institution of National Importance" by an Act of Parliament within five years of Dr. Valiathan's leadership. In 1975, the demand for prosthetic valves was high in the hospital, which could not be met by imported valves in view of prohibitive cost.
The state of Kerala had but one licensed abattoir at that time in Koothattukulam, which slaughtered less than 200 pigs per month and made procine valve development unviable. As autopsies were much fewer, homograft valve development was less viable. Under these circumstances, Dr. Valiathan and his team opted to develop a mechanical valve of tilting-disc design; the marketed Chitra-TTK valve is the fourth model in a series, developed over a decade of effort. In the first model, the major and minor struts were electron beam welded and the valve was expected to withstand 360 million cycles of disc movement; the major strut fractured at the weld after a mere 100,000 cycles due to weld embrittlement. In the second model, the disk was made of single crystal sapphire, inert and blood compatible; the housing was carved out of a block of titanium. This model failed as well because of escape of the disc; the third model had a housing made of a wear- resistant superalloy, "Haynes-25", a cobalt based alloy of chromium and tungsten.
This model went through all the tests and several sheep with the implanted valve were alive and well for months until the death of one animal at 3 months after valve implantation. Necropsy showed that the sapphire disc had caused the death of the animal; this was a major crisis as media did not spare the Chitra team. However the fourth model was a success and more than 100,000 valves have been implanted in patients; the multidisciplinary team at the Sree Chitra Institute led by Dr. Valiathan developed a vascular graft and a series of disposable devices such as blood bag and cardiotomy reservoir, which are in commercial production in industrial units in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After about twenty years at Sri Chitra, Dr. Valiathan became the Vice-Chancellor of the newly set up Manipal University. After laying down office as Vice-Chancellor in 1999, he was awarded a Senior Fellowship by the Homi Bhabha Council to pursue a study of Charaka, which culminated in the publication a book "The Legacy of Charaka".
On, as a National Research Professor, he carried out a study of Sushruta and Vagbhata and completed the series of Legacy volumes on the ` Great Three' of Ayurveda. In an interview, Dr. Valiathan had observed, "At this time there is no common ground where physicists, chemists and molecular biologists can interact with Ayurvedic physicians. Ayurveda is not only the mother of medicine but of all life sciences