United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Indian River (Florida)
The Indian River is a 121-mile long brackish lagoon in Florida, is part of the Indian River Lagoon system, which in turn forms part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It was named Rio de Ais after the Ais Indian tribe, who lived along the east coast of Florida, but was given its current name; the Indian River extends southward from the Ponce de Leon inlet in New Smyrna Beach in Volusia County southward and across the Haulover Canal and along the western shore of Merritt Island. The Banana River flows into the Indian River on the island's south side; the Indian River continues southward to St. Lucie Inlet. At certain seasons of the year, bridges have tended to impede the flow of gracilaria, resulting in an odor of hydrogen sulfide in the area. Tributaries of the Indian River include the Merritt Island Barge Canal, the C-54 Canal, Crane Creek, the Eau Gallie River, Horse Creek, Mullet Creek, St. Sebastian River, St. Lucie River, Sykes Creek, Turkey Creek. An estuary of Indian River is Palm Bay.
The St. Johns-Indian River Barge Canal was proposed in the 1960s to provide a water link to the St. Johns River, but was cancelled in the early 1970s. Media related to Indian River at Wikimedia Commons An early 20th Century description of the Indian River Hernandez Trail History
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Everglades Headwaters NWR complex, located just off the western coast of Orchid Island in the Indian River Lagoon east of Sebastian, Florida. The refuge consists of a 3-acre island that includes an additional 2.5 acres of surrounding water and is located off the east coast of Florida of the Indian River Lagoon. Established by an executive order of President Theodore Roosevelt on March 14, 1903, Pelican Island was the first National wildlife refuge in the United States, it was created to protect other birds from extinction through plume hunting. Pelican Island is administered as part of the 8,000 acres Everglades Headwaters NWR complex along with Archie Carr NWR, Lake Wales Ridge NWR, the Everglades Headwaters NWR and Conservation Area, created in 2012 with a 10 acres donation and other lands covering 150,000 acres north of Lake Okeechobee. 100,000 acres will be held under "conservation easement"s through the U.
S. Department of the Interior and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; this allows landowners the right to retain ownership of the land, with the ability to continue farming or ranching, ensuring that the land can't be subdivided or developed. Pelican Island NWR has been placed on the List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance along with other areas of wetlands in the United States. Pelican Island's bird populations were threatened because of increased American settlement around the area in the mid-19th century. Many of the exotic birds were killed for their feathers, used in the fashion industry. Plumes from the birds were used to adorn ladies' hats of the day and at the time were worth more than their weight in gold. Paul Kroegel, a German immigrant, moved to Florida in 1881 and lived on the west bank of Indian River Lagoon, he was fascinated with the pelicans on the island. Being able to see the island from his home, Paul would watch the pelicans and other water birds, he took an interest in the island and its protection.
However, there was not any state or federal law to help him so he took control of the situation himself. Kroegel sailed to the island to protect the birds and the island. A few naturalists visited Kroegel at Pelican Island. A curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, Frank Chapman, was one of the naturalists showing interest in the island as well, he discovered that Pelican Island was one of the last rookeries of Brown pelicans on the eastern coast of Florida. The American Ornithologists' Union and the Florida Audubon Society led a campaign to pass legislation for protection of non-game birds in 1901. Knowing that the protection of Pelican Island would require more legislation and his fellow advocate, William Dutcher went to President Theodore Roosevelt at his home in New York; the two appealed their case to Roosevelt's conservative ethics. President Roosevelt signed an executive order that established Pelican Island as the first federal bird reservation; this was the first time.
The area, was open for big game hunters. During the 1960s, Pelican Island was threatened by attempts to sell the surrounding wetlands and islands to developers. Local citizens led a fight to protect Pelican Island by stopping the sale of the wetlands; the Indian River Area Preservation League, formed by local citrus growers, commercial fishermen, sportsmen, joined with Florida Audubon Society to convince the State to include the islands as a part of the refuge. "Later in 1963, Pelican Island was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the Secretary of the Interior because of its status as the first federal area set aside to protect wildlife." In 1968, Florida agreed to expand to include nearly 5000 acres of mangrove islands and other submerged lands. And in 1970, Pelican Island became the smallest wilderness area in the National Wilderness Preservation System. Since, the refuge has gained over 500 acres through purchases, management agreements, conservation easements to provide a buffer against encroaching development and to be a link to the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge.
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge was added to the list of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention signed in 1971. Today, Pelican Island is threatened by shoreline development. Shoreline development has many negative impacts associated with it. Shoreline development can reduce the water quality by increasing the runoff of sediments and pesticides; these runoffs will cause decline in water quality, this can directly affect the food base that sustains the island's nesting bird colonies. Waterfront development will lead to more boat traffic; this extra boat traffic will negatively affect the birds on the coast. Not only this, development of the shorelines of Pelican Island will permanently flaw the pristine character of this unique National Historic Landmark; the environment of Pelican Island consists of climate, geology, air quality, waterways. The climate at Pelican Island NWR is subtropical and temperate and experiences an average temperate of 67 °F. Pelican Island has long and humid summers and short, mild winters and has an average rainfall of about 55 to 60 inches annually.
Pelican Island may experience tropical storms in the period from May to November. The elevation of Pelican Island changes from east to west, it rises from sea level to about 15 feet and drops back down more to below sea level in the Indian River Lagoon
Port St. Lucie, Florida
Port St. Lucie is a city in St. Lucie County, United States, it is the most populous municipality in the county with a population of 164,603 at the 2010 census due to its rapid growth during the 2000s. It is located 125 miles southeast of Orlando, 114 miles northwest of Miami. In 2017, the United States Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 189,344; the Port St. Lucie Metropolitan Area includes the counties of St. Lucie County & Martin County and as of 2016 had an estimated population of 465,208. Port St. Lucie is contained within the Miami - Fort Lauderdale - Port St. Lucie Combined Statistic Area with an estimated population of 6,832,588. Port St. Lucie was a uninhabited tract of land south of White City in the 1950s, composed of a fishing camp, a few farms and businesses near U. S. 1. In 1958, with a budget of $5, the General Development Corporation purchased the River Park development and 40,000 acres along the North Fork of the St. Lucie River. In 1959, the GDC opened its first bridge over the St. Lucie River, allowing for direct automobile access to Port St. Lucie.
By February 25, 1961 there were 250 homes in the new city. GDC requested the state legislature to incorporate 70 miles, along with the River Park settlement, into the City of Port St. Lucie. River Park did not incorporate into the city at the request of its residents. Port St. Lucie became a city on April 1961 with the passage of House Bill No. 953, proposed by State Representative Rupert Smith and approved by Florida Governor C. Farris Bryant. In the early 1990s, Core Communities and began planning what would become St. Lucie West. St. Lucie West was to have contained about 14,000 homes over a 20-year period on 7 square miles, but after realizing the community's strategic position, they began developing it into more than just a residential area. CC began building business places of entertainment and leisure; that resulted in 7,000 jobs being brought to the small town, helping it into its boom during most of the early 2000s. In 2006, CC started development of Tradition; the community, which sits west of the Interstate 95 intersection of Gatlin Blvd. was a large cattle ranch before CC began to develop it.
There they built around 13,000,000 square feet of commercial area, room for over 18,000 residences. According to CC's website, Tradition is the largest entitled residential development area from the tip of Interstate 95 to the Canada–U. S. Border, it is modeled after a 1950s-era town. According to its website, Tradition Square, the town center of the community, holds festivities year-round, it was chosen as the site of HGTV's Green Home 2009, one of America's best 100 communities. In 2007, the housing market began to unemployment started to rise; as of February 2009, unemployment was at 10½ percent and in 2008, nearly 11,000 homes went into foreclosure. This prompted the county government to consider declaring itself a disaster area. Doing so would have given county administrators access to $17 million in county emergency reserve funds; that money, combined with a transportation fund and other accounts, would give St. Lucie $20 – $30 million to spend on building projects: research parks and other infrastructure improvements.
In 2008, Tradition and Core Communities welcomed the Florida Center of Innovation, a research laboratory and campus, which has a building in Tradition for two biotech and life science companies, the Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies and the Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute. This campus alone is projected to bring more than 30,000 jobs to the city of Port St. Lucie. In 2017, the City Electric Supply, a family-owned electrical wholesale business, created plans with the Port St. Lucie City Council to construct a $38 million, 400,000 square foot manufacturing and distribution center located in the Tradition Commerce Park. Construction of the City Electric Supply Manufacturing & Distribution facility began in 2018; as of 2000, 31.6% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.1% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, aged 65 or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.94. As of the 2010 census the population was 61.6% non-Hispanic white, 15.6% non-Hispanic black, 0.8% Hispanic black, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian Indian, 1.5% other Asian, 0.1% Pacific Island, 0.4% non-Hispanics reporting some other race alone, 3.0% from two or more races, 17.6% non-black Hispanics. In 2000, the city's population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $40,509, the median income for a family was $44,162. Males had a median income of $18,730 versus $16,702 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,059. About 15.7% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2000, 88.05% of residents spoke English as their first language, while 6.59% spoke Spanish, 1.34% spoke Italian, 1.00% spoke French, 0.60% spoke German, 0.50% spoke Haitian Creole as their mother tongue. In total, 11.94% of the total population spoke languages other than English. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 76.7 sq mi, of which 75.5 sq mi is land and 1
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge
The Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge is part of the United States National Wildlife Refuge System, located along a twenty mile section of coastline from Melbourne Beach to Wabasso Beach, Florida along State Road A1A. The 900 acre refuge was established in 1991, to protect the Green sea turtles. Since 2012 the Archie Carr NWR is administered as part of the Everglades Headwaters NWR Complex, along with Pelican Island NWR, Lake Wales Ridge NWR, the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area, through a partnership with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation and Archie Carr Working Group; the refuge provides nesting habitats for one-fourth of all sea turtles nesting in the United States. About 15,000-20,000 sea turtles nests are laid annually loggerheads, green sea turtles, some leatherbacks; the refuge provides habitat for several other threatened and endangered species. Three centers within the sanctuary are run by Brevard County under the aegis of the restrictions established by the federal government.
Archie Carr NWR is threatened by sea level rise. Scientists and researchers are studying the impacts of SLR on this unique ecosystem. Media related to Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge at U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov/southeast/climate/
Vero Beach, Florida
Vero Beach is a city in and the seat of Indian River County, United States. According to the U. S. Census Bureau's 2010 data, the city had a population of 15,220; as of the 2010 census, there were 15,220 people, 7,505 households, 3,946 families residing in the city. There were 10,258 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 87.5% White, 4.8% Black, 0.30% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 3.7% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.7% of the population. There were 7,505 households out of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.4% were non-families. 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older with 4.8% being 85 years and older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.65. In the city the population was spread out with 14.1% under the age of 16, 84.1% over 18, 4.3% from 15 to 19, 4.9% from 20 to 24, 5.5% from 20 to 25 and 29.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 50.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. The population consists of 51.3 % 48.7 % male. Vero Beach has a humid subtropical climate, with hot and humid summers and warm and dry winters; the average annual temperature is 72.7 °F, with an annual high temperature of 81.4 °F and an annual low temperature of 64 °F. On average Vero Beach is frost free. A neolithic skull was discovered in 1915, it appeared to represent a culture from 11,000 to 14,000 years ago, with 13,000 years ago as the most timeframe. In 1715, a Spanish treasure fleet wrecked off the coast of Vero. Eleven out of twelve Spanish ships carrying tonnes of silver foundered in a hurricane; the remains of the silver attracted pirates. A group of 300 unemployed English privateers led by Henry Jennings stole about £87,500 in gold and silver in their first acts of piracy. In 1872 Captain Allen W. Estes established the first land patent between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian River Lagoon. In 1893 Henry Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railway began operation through the area.
The town of Vero was chartered on June 13, 1919. Vero was renamed "Vero Beach" and was switched from being part of St. Lucie County to become the county seat of Indian River County when it was formed in June, 1925. During the war year of 1942 the U. S. Navy selected 1,500 acres surrounding the Vero Beach Municipal Airport as the site of a Naval Air Station, it was commissioned November. In 1951 Barber Bridge was built from mainland to barrier islands, it was demolished and replaced in 1995 with the Merrill P. Barber Bridge. In 1957 Piper Aircraft began development in Vero Beach. In 1961 Piper Aircraft moved administrative and manufacturing operations to Vero after completing building additions. In 1965 the A1A bridge over the Sebastian Inlet connected the two barrier islands. In 1979, the 17th Street Bridge was completed, allowing a second point of access from Vero Beach mainland to the barrier islands. Vero Beach is home to general aviation manufacturer Piper Aircraft, the largest private employer in Indian River County.
As of July 2015, Piper employed 750 people. Aside from Piper, the bulk of commercial activity in Vero Beach centers around tourism, the citrus industry and service activities. There are two large shopping malls the Indian River Mall and the Vero Beach Outlets just west of I-95 on State Road 60. There are small specialty shops along Ocean Drive on the barrier island and in what is called the "Miracle Mile." The Historic Downtown is a newly revitalized area of shopping, antique stores and art galleries. A large part of tourism in Vero Beach is taken in part by The Disney Resort in Vero The beaches in Vero Beach are part of Florida's Treasure Coast. Vero's three main public beaches are South Beach, accessible at the eastern end of State Road 656 at the eastern end of 17th Street; these beaches are lifeguard protected from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. There are 26 miles of oceanfront shore in Indian River County. Vero Beach has other free public access trails and walkways with beach access, such as Riomar Beach, Sea Cove, Sea Grape Trail, Sexton Plaza, Turtle Trail.
The Indian River Lagoon, passing through Vero Beach, forms a significant portion of the Intracoastal Waterway, is a hub for boating, water skiing, diving and other small-craft waterborne activities. Disney's Vero Beach Resort is located in Wabasso, a small town north of Vero Beach. Vero Beach is home to Historic Dodgertown, the former Spring Training facility of the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team. Since the team's departure for a new Spring home in Arizona in 2008, it now serves as a year-round multi-purpose facility for athletes of all ages. Driftwood Inn Hallstrom House Old Indian River County Courthouse Judge Henry F. Gregory House Maher Building McKee Jungle Gardens Old Palmetto Hotel Pueblo Arcade Royal Park Arcade Theodore Hausmann Estate Old Vero Beach Community Building Vero Beach Diesel Power Plant Vero Beach Woman's Club Vero Railroad Station Vero Theatre Vero Beach Regional Airport is a public airport one mile northwest of Vero Beach, offering commercial jet service by Elite Airways.
Vero Beach is served by GoLine Bus routes. The Florida East Coast Railway mainline bisects Vero Beach, with an active team track in town serving a lumber/building products customer. Fred Barnes, editor of The Weekly Standard and Fox News contributor Lake Bell, attended school in Vero Beach and her film I Do