click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Indian elephant

The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia. Since 1986, the Asian elephant has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the wild population has declined by at least 50% since the 1930s to 1940s, i.e. three elephant generations. The Asian elephant is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on the head; the tip of their trunk has one finger-like process. Their back is level. Indian elephants reach a shoulder height of between 2 and 3.5 m, weigh between 2,000 and 5,000 kg, have 19 pairs of ribs. Their skin colour is lighter than of maximus with smaller patches of depigmentation, but darker than of sumatranus. Females are smaller than males, have short or no tusks; the largest Indian elephant was 3.43 m high at the shoulder. In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in Bardia National Park, named Raja Gaj and Kanchha.

They roamed the park area together and visited female herds. Raja Gaj had a massive body weight, his forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants. His appearance has been compared to that of a Stegodon and mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head. Indian elephants have smaller ears, but broader skulls and larger trunks than African elephants. Toes are broad. Unlike their African cousins, their abdomen is proportionate with their body weight but the African elephant has a large abdomen as compared to the skulls; the Indian elephant is native to mainland Asia: India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, China and Vietnam. It is regionally extinct in Pakistan, it inhabits grasslands, dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests. In the early 1990s, the estimated wild populations included: 27,785–31,368 in India, where populations are restricted to four general areas:in the Northwest — at the foot of the Himalayas in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, ranging from Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary to the Yamuna River.

In 2002, estimates ranged from 106 to 172 resident and migratory elephants, with most of them in Bardia National Park. There are a total of 138 state elephant corridors, 28 interstate corridors and 17 international state corridors where Indian elephant populations are found; the table below enlists the corridors. Elephants consume up to 150 kg of plant matter per day, they are generalist feeders, both grazers and browsers. In a study area of 1,130 km2 in southern India, elephants were recorded to feed on 112 different plant species, most of the order Malvales, the legume, palm and true grass families, they graze on the tall grasses. When the new flush appears in April, they remove the tender blades in small clumps; when grasses are higher than 0.5 m, they uproot entire clumps, dust them skilfully and consume the fresh leave tops, but discard the roots. When grasses are mature in autumn, they clean and consume the succulent basal portions with the roots, discard the fibrous blades. From the bamboos, they eat seedlings and lateral shoots.

During the dry season from January to April, they browse on both leaves and twigs preferring the fresh foliage, consume thorn bearing shoots of acacia species without any obvious discomfort. They feed on the bark of white thorn and other flowering plants, consume the fruits of wood apple, tamarind and date palm. In Nepal's Bardia National Park, elephants consume large amounts of the floodplain grass during the m

Brian Surtees Phillpotts

Lieutenant Colonel Brian Surtees Phillpotts, DSO was an officer of the Royal Engineers who fought in the Great War and was awarded the D. S. O.. He was killed in action in September 1917. Brian "Broo" Surtees Phillpotts was the second surviving son of James Surtees Phillpotts, the reforming headmaster of Bedford School, of Marian Hadfield Phillpotts, his sisters included Dame Bertha Surtees Phillpotts, a scholar of Scandinavian studies, Marjory Surtees Phillpotts, captain of the England Ladies Hockey Team.  He was born in 1875 and educated at Bedford School, where he showed an aptitude for craft work including the construction of small boats. He opted for a military career and in 1893 entered the Royal Military Academy, from where he pursued a course at the Royal School of Military Engineering in Chatham. After leaving Chatham he specialised in submarine mining and was stationed successively at Plymouth, Halifax and Hong Kong, he was in charge of the submarine defences of the Thames. When the Great War broke out he was at County Cork.

He was promoted major on 30 October 1914 and appointed to train a field company, which he took to the front in September 1915. In the autumn of 1916 he was appointed chief royal engineer of a division, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, he was wounded in the Somme offensive. He was mentioned in despatches twice in 1916 and once again in 1917, received the Distinguished Service Order in January 1917, he was died of his wounds two days later. Brian Phillpotts had many hobbies which developed his resource. At school he was fond of chemistry and explosives, from the last of which he had more than one narrow escape, he was a keen sailor and used to venture out in heavy seas in small homemade boats constructed of painted calico stretched on a lath framework. He was a clever mechanic. While in the army he used to have his own car, undertaking all the maintenance and repair work himself, he always had a working lathe somewhere in his quarters. "Anyone who met "Broo" Phillpotts could not fail to be attracted by the charm of his manner, by his unfailing good humour and by his complete lack of'side'.

The most distinctive trait in his character was the independence of his thought and judgment and of his actions, coupled as it was with the widest tolerance of the views of others. Where there was any work to be done, whether on duty or in connection with any of his hobbies, there was no shirking, he would not allow himself to be defeated, his unerring instinct and ingenuity led him straight to the essential result by the shortest cut." In preparation for the July 1916 offensive Major Phillpotts had to plan and supervise the construction of trenches for the assault troops within 150 yards of the enemy's position, the construction of roads and tramway lines so that ammunition, rations and other supplies could be transported up to the front. He was charged with the extension of the tramway lines into the enemy's position and the bridging of a canal. All these tasks had to be carried out under constant shell fire. " always appeared oblivious to danger. No officer set a finer example of utter contempt of all danger.

He showed to others. The weather and the state of the ground were appalling, yet he overcame them, in a short space of time we had a tramway and two roads up to our new front line in the captured position; this was over two and a half miles of Flanders mud, waist deep in most places. Through his exertions the Infantry in the front line had their full rations and were kept supplied with everything." In 1916 the headquarters for Phillpotts' company were established at Ville-sous-Corbie. A large barn in a barren field was all the accommodation available. Within a fortnight Major Phillpotts made comfortable beds of timber and wire netting for everyone as well as cook houses and stables, he rigged up a simple crane and installed a band saw, two circular saws, a drilling machine, a lathe and a grindstone. All this equipment was driven from one shaft by two ten horsepower steam engines and a small petrol engine. Most of the machinery was salvaged from damaged French factories at Albert; the saws were used to form sleepers out of logs culled from nearby woods.

The waste wood chippings and bark were used as fuel to heat water for two communal bath tubs set up by the major. During the Somme operation Major Phillpotts constructed improvised shelters consisting of curved steel bowers made of salvaged lengths of rail covered over and reinforced with timber and sandbags. "Such covers saved many lives during the eight days' bombardment which preceded the July offensive in 1916." "After repeated attacks had failed to capture Fricourt, whilst a bombardment of the village was taking place, got out of our front line trench and waved his hat. Finding no one shot at him, he walked across, in the open, to a point two hundred yards in front of Fricourt Farm, an enemy strong point. Again finding no one shot him on his waving his hat, he returned to our line and sent this message to Divisional Headquarters'Only thing stopping our Infantry entering Fricourt is our artillery barrage!'"

Buhl, Haut-Rhin

Buhl is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It inhabitants are called Buhloises. Buhl is situated in the valley of the Lauch, at the foot of the Vosges Mountains and the Grand Ballon and surrounded by forests whose hills reach altitudes ranging from 395 to 860 metres; the village is crossed by the Lauch, a gentle stream with clear, limpid water, in the heart of the Florival valley, 3 km from Guebwiller. Buhl owes its name to its picturesque site on the Bühele hill, from which the village and church dominate a large part of the valley; the commune extends into two confluent valleys. The commune is crossed by the Lauch, the Murbach and the Krebsbach. Buhl looks over several forested hills which border the village: le Demberg le Schimerg whose steep sides are covered with vines le Geisskopf l'Ebeneck le Hochkopf above the Château du Hugstein The presence of a vicar in Buhl is recorded since 1243. Of the original 13th-century church, all that remains is the tower, whose two upper levels were remodelled in the 18th century.

The nave and choir were probably remodelled in the 18th century. Following a large growth in population in the 19th century, a new church was built to replace the old shrine. With a population of 2000, the municipality had decided, it was replaced by a vast Neo-Romanesque edifice. Between 1868 and 1870, the architect Langestein built a new nave perpendicular to the old one which served as a choir; the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 interrupted construction, so it was not until 1877 that the remainder of the old church was demolished and a new choir was built by the architect Hartmann. The top of the original tower was demolished in 1899 amid fears, it was replaced with an octagonal bell tower by the architect Kreyer. The church houses a 15th-century altarpiece consecrated to the Passion of Christ and to the Virgin Mary: the Buhl Altarpiece; this masterpiece was taken to Colmar during the French Revolution when the convents were emptied of their furniture. After the Revolution, two inhabitants of Buhl brought the altarpiece back to the village hidden in a load of fodder.

The altarpiece originated in a Dominican convent probably that of the Catherinettes of Colmar. The style of the altarpiece suggests. From top to bottom, the picture shows the carrying of the cross; the Château du Hugstein is a ruined 13th-century castle. Chapelle des Maquisards Chapelle Notre-Dame Calvaire du Rimlishof Chapelle du cimetière Chapelle Sainte Catherine Menhirs de l'Appenthal Maurice Koechlin: structural engineer, designer of Eiffel Tower, born in Buhl Alexandre Bida: 19th-century painter, died in Buhl. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE

Unconquered Bandit

Unconquered Bandit is a 1935 American western film directed by Harry S. Webb and starring Tom Tyler, Lillian Gilmore and Slim Whitaker. Tom Tyler as Tom Morgan Lillian Gilmore as Helen Cleyburn Slim Whitaker as Jose Porfirio aka The Night Hawk William Gould as Frank Cleyburn John Elliott as Mr. Morgan, Tom's Father Earl Dwire as Pedro Gonzales Joe De La Cruz as Gasparo De Gama George Chesebro as Cleyburn Henchman Dick Lew Meehan as Cleyburn Henchman Richard Alexander as Night Hawk Henchman Pat George Hazel as Night Hawk Henchman Alonzo Pitts, Michael R. Poverty Row Studios, 1929–1940: An Illustrated History of 55 Independent Film Companies, with a Filmography for Each. McFarland & Company, 2005. Unconquered Bandit on IMDb

Radio Bay of Plenty

Radio Bay of Plenty is a radio company based in Whakatane, New Zealand. Its flagship station, One Double X, reaches the entire Bay of Plenty, with specific frequencies Ohope Beach and Te Puke and live streaming on its website, it owns and operates subsidiary network Bayrock in the Bay Of Plenty and Ohope Beach, with an additional frequency in Wanaka in the South Island and similar live-streaming on a separate website. The New Zealand radio market is consolidated into large nationwide networks with powerful brands and limited local content. Radio Bay of Plenty produces independent local programming and news coverage for the Bay of Plenty with a specific focus on the eastern part of the region; the stations carry and contributes to national news bulletins produced by NZME Radio through Newstalk ZB. One Double X began broadcasting to the Eastern Bay Of Plenty on 1240 kHz at 10:30 am on 30 June 1971; the original company name was Radio Whakatane but changed to Radio Bay Of Plenty in 1978 when the station's AM frequency changed to 1242 kHz.

In the mid-late 1970s 1XX 1240 was known on air from time to time as Coastline Radio, Coastline One 24, Coastline 1-2-4, One 24 Double X or Coastline Double X. 1XX began broadcasting on 90.5 MHz at 12:12:12 pm on 12 December 1988. The idea of a locally based and owned Eastern Bay of Plenty station was first floated in 1969, prompted by the efforts of pirate station Radio Hauraki, broadcasting to Auckland from boats in the Hauraki Gulf. One Double X was granted a broadcasting license in 1970, with the 1 in the call-sign signifying the upper North Island location, the first X representing private ownership and the second X chosen by the station, its original slogan included the words "from the Eastern Bay of Plenty, wherever you may go, the entertainment's better when you dial 1 2 4 0". Broadcasting Minister H. J. Walker opened the station at 10.30am on Wednesday 30 June 1971. It broadcast 19.5 hours of live original local content from 5.00am to 12.30am each day with additional 24-hour licenses granted during some summer holiday seasons.

The station was not allowed to broadcast advertising on Sundays and did all its own local and international news and sports reporting. It gave away one of the country's first colour televisions in a contest in 1974, it was the feature of a television documentary in July 1977. In January 1982 1XX ran a short term station as the first FM stereo radio station in New Zealand, under the name FM 90.7. It ran from 5 January until 31 January 1982, over the summer of 1982 to 1983, it was only on the air from 16:00 to midnight and outside these broadcast times the station was off the air, as 1XX was not allowed to broadcast their programme on this FM frequency. The programme was separate to the 1XX programme that continued to broadcast on AM, 1XX did not begin permanently broadcasting on FM until 1988; the station only operated during the late afternoon and evenings from 4pm to midnight operating 2 shifts. Each night of the week FM 90.7 would play a different format programme to cater to different audiences.

Monday was country music, Tuesday was album rock, Wednesdays were classical music, Thursdays were jazz music and Fridays were rock music and soul music. On Saturdays, top 40 music got its first play on FM radio in New Zealand, while Sundays were dedicated to big band music and "beautiful music". One Double X became a major source of information for Bay of Plenty residents during the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Local newsreader Chris Bullen provided an initial report on 2 March that "a series of what the D. S. I. R. Describes as major earthquakes have hit the Eastern Bay of Plenty this afternoon"; the station was taken off-air for 30 to 40 minutes due to a landline disconnection, but a radio link allowed the station to get back on air. Announcer Cliff Stockwell and newsreader Chris Bullen hosted around-the-clock coverage, while outdoor broadcast equipment allowed staff to provide live updates from the Civil Defence bases in Whakatane and Edgecumbe. A similar approach was taken to reporting a mini tornado in Whakatane that year.

In Summer 1987/1988 1XX ran another summer FM station from Ohope Beach – 93 Splash FM. Splash FM began broadcasting in December 1987 and ran to May 1988; the Splash FM programme was simulcast on 1XX between 7pm and 6am the next morning while Splash FM was on the air. During this time the Rock N Roll 500 was played. In Summer 1991-1992 99.3 Moro FM was run from Ohope Beach by 1XX, under sponsorship from Moro chocolate bar manufacturer Cadbury. The 1XX programme was played on Cadbury Moro FM between 6 am the next morning; the complete transition to FM broadcasting was made on 12 December 1988. Announcer Terry Casserly had to ad-lib during the opening broadcast, when a live cross to company chairman Ross Neiderer was lost to dead air; the 90.5 FM from Mount Putauaki was the most powerful FM signal in the Bay of Plenty and was used as the station's main frequency, with a simulcast on the station's previous AM frequency. Another frequency on 93.0 FM was used to relay 1XX in Ohope Beach from Waitangi Day 4 February 1989.

In September 2001 Radio 1XX started a small local station in Te Puke called 92.9 Kiwi FM as a short term station for the annual Kiwifruit Festival, the station went back on the air in September 2002 and 2003. A local breakfast show was broadcast to Te Puke residents between 6 am and 10 am and outside these times the 1XX programme was played; the station reached Puke, Mount Maunganui and Matata and was not related to Kiwi FM network stations operated by MediaWorks New Zealand. In November 2004 92.9 Kiwi FM extended to round-the-year broadcasting, with local programming 6am-6pm Monday–Friday and 6am–10am Saturday. Outside this time the 1XX programme was simulcast. Kiwi FM changed

La usurpadora (Mexican TV series)

La Usurpadora is a Mexican romantic drama telenovela produced by Salvador Mejia Alejandre and broadcast on Canal de las Estrellas from February 9 to July 24, 1998. It starred Gabriela Spanic and Fernando Colunga, was based on La Intrusa, a novela broadcast in Venezuela, itself a remake of Radio Caracas Television's 1971 telenovela La Usurpadora, which starred Marina Baura and Raúl Amundaray; this was one of the last telenovelas to feature Libertad Lamarque, who here portrayed the character of Abuela Piedad Bracho. The show's premise revolves around a pair of twin sisters who were separated when they were young, as adults the younger sister is forced to act as a "replacement" for her wealthy twin who wants to temporarily leave her husband and his family to enjoy a life of luxury with multiple lovers; the telenovela had huge success in Mexico with ratings of 38.4 and has been exported and ported to various languages across the world. Gabriela Spanic has a dual role as the protagonist/main antagonist, Fernando Colunga starred as the protagonist.

Chantal Andere, Dominika Paleta, Azela Robinson, Mario Cimarro and Juan Pablo Gamboa starred as the antagonists. Yadhira Carrillo as special guest antagonist at Mas Alla de la Usurpadora. Paola and Paulina are twins. Paulina is a good-hearted and honest woman who lives in poverty and is engaged to a simple man, Osvaldo. Paola, on the other hand, is a rich and evil woman who has many lovers, including her brother-in-law, Willy, she is married to a wealthy man. When the twins cross paths by chance, Paola attempts to convince Paulina into taking her place at the Brachos' house, so she can take a year-long vacation with her new lover, Alessandro. At first, Paulina refuses. Abandoned by her fiancé Osvaldo who leaves her to be with his mistress and left with nothing after the death of her mother, Paulina submits to Paola's plan, she is, unaware of the destruction the Bracho household was under and decides to work throughout the year righting all wrongs. Paulina strives to convince everyone that she has "changed" and become a "new person".

During the year, Paulina falls in love with Carlos Daniel. She cures Piedad from alcoholism, saves the Bracho factory from financial ruin, cuts ties with all of Paola's lovers. No matter how hard she tries, she can't make peace with Estefania because the real Paola had an affair with Willy, Estefania's husband. Nonetheless she continues to try to make amends. Paulina, being the honorable and decent woman that she is, refuses to be intimate with Carlos Daniel, telling him that she needs a year due to her "illness". Carlos Daniel, unaware she is not Paola, resents her and falls back into the arms of Gema, Paola's frenemy, who's always trying to seduce Carlos Daniel, encouraged by Estefania. Meanwhile, the real Paola is in Monaco partying with Alessandro. One night after a party, convinced she is in a dream, gets in a car crash with Alessandro in the passenger seat, they end up in a hospital in Monaco, where she spends months and recovers after multiple surgeries, although her lover Alessandro ends up paralyzed and is bound to a wheelchair.

Paola, no longer interested in him, plans her return to Mexico to take back her place as the real Paola Bracho. Paola's plan is discovered and Paulina escapes from Mexico, but Carlos Daniel's son, tries to find Paulina, who he thinks is his real mother. With a broken foot, he falls from a hill, hits his head on a rock, loses his memory. An old lady finds him and cures him. Paola returns and restarts wreaking havoc: she finds out that Carlitos and Paulina are missing. Paulina hears about Carlitos and returns to the Bracho House. Paola goes to travel the world with her famous lover Douglas Maldonado, so Paulina pretends to be Paola again because Carlos Daniel's grandmother Piedad doesn't want Paulina to go to jail. Paulina tells the whole family that Carlos Daniel hated Paulina at first, but after finding Carlitos, they both share their secret love for each other. Gema and Willy contact the Police. Willy beats Estefania up and she is hospitalized. Estefania doesn't turn Paulina to the authorities, after Paulina donates blood to her baby.

Estefania reconciles with Paulina. On the same day, Paola returns, pretending to be paralyzed and trying to take her place back; the next day, Paulina is arrested. While in prison and Carlos Daniel discover a mysterious letter by Paulina's mother, written before she died. In the letter, it were separated at birth. Paola is caught putting on make-up, by her nurse Elvira. Paola tells her she will give her money to keep her mouth shut; when Paola finds out that Paulina is her twin, she gets furious. Many men come forward to help hire a lawyer for Paulina. Paulina is cleared of all charges. Paola decides to go to the Bracho house with Elvira. Paulina takes Carlitos to her hotel to avoid Paola, so Paola stays in a wheelchair to prove that she is disabled. Returning to her old ways, Paola inflicts damage on Paulina; the whole Bracho family is horrified to see Paola walk. Elvira tells the whole family the truth about Paola never being paralyzed. Paola overhears this, so she and Willy set out to get revenge on Paulina, Carlos Daniel and Paulina's lawyer because she was set free.

They plot to kill Elvira for being a traitor. Paola takes Elv