The afghani is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul, although there are no pul coins currently in circulation, the first afghani was introduced in 1925. In addition to being subdivided into 100 pul,20 afghani were equal to one amani, the rate of conversion from the rupee is sometimes quoted as 1 afghani =1 rupee 6 paisa, based on the silver contents of the last rupee coins and the first Afghani coins. The Afghani initially contained 9 grams of silver, except during World War I Afghanistans foreign exchange rate has been freely determined by market forces. Bank-e Milli agreed to exchange afghanis at 4 Afs against 1 Indian rupee in 1935, after the establishment of Da Afghanistan Bank as the Central Bank of Afghanistan, such a preferential official fixed exchange rate continued to be practiced. Since 2002, Da Afghanistan Bank has adopted a floating exchange rate regime and has let the exchange rate to be determined freely by market forces, ehsan accused the firm of sending new shipments of Afghani notes to ousted president Burhanuddin Rabbani in northern Takhar province.
In April,2000, the afghani traded at 6400 AFA per USD, by 2002, the afghani was valued at 43,000 AFA per USD. In 1930, bronze and brass 1 and 25 pul were added, along with bronze 3 pul, in 1952, aluminium 25 pul and nickel-clad steel 50 pul were introduced, followed by aluminium 2 and 5 afghani in 1958. In 1961 nickel-clad steel 1,2 and 5 afghani were minted, the 1 and 2 afghani coins show years of SH1340, in 1973, the Republic of Afghanistan issued brass-clad-steel 25 pul, copper-clad steel 50 pul and cupro-nickel-clad steel 5 afghani coins. These were followed, between 1978 and 1980, by issues of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan consisting of aluminium-bronze 25 and 50 pul, a number of commemorative coins were issued by the Islamic State of Afghanistan between 1995 and 2001. Between 1925 and 1928, Treasury notes were introduced in denominations of 5,10 and 50 afghanis, in 1936,2,20 and 100 afghani notes were added. The Bank of Afghanistan took over paper money production in 1939, the 2 and 5 afghani notes were replaced by coins in 1958.
In 1993,5000 and 10,000 afghani notes were introduced. A pothole cave or mouth of a shaft is said to be visible on the 10,000 afghanis banknote as a dark area in the hillside above the ancient pol or gateway at the ruins near Lashkar Gah. This is possibly the entrance to one of the man-made undergrounds at Qala-i-Bost, between October 7,2002, and January 2,2003, a new afghani was introduced with the ISO4217 code AFN. It replaced the previous afghani at two distinct rates. S. dollar, prior to the reissue, there were more than 15 trillion afghani in circulation after unrestrained printing under Taliban rule and during wars and occupation. This was in preparation for October 8 when all prices in the Afghan marketplace were to be specified in afghani. After depreciating during the last quarter of 2003/04, the afghani has been appreciating steadily and this appreciation, at a time of increasing inflation, appears to reflect a greater willingness by the population to use the afghani as a medium of exchange and as a store of value
A per mille, spelled per mil, per mill, permill, or permille is a sign indicating parts per thousand. Per mil should not be confused with parts per million, the sign is written ‰, which looks like a percent sign with an extra zero in the divisor. It is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters and it is accessible in Windows using ALT+0137. The term is common in other European languages where it is used in contexts, such as blood alcohol content. Examples of common use include, Legal limits of blood-alcohol content for driving a vehicle in some countries. Seawater salinity, for example, the salinity is 35‰
An asterisk is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star, computer scientists and mathematicians often vocalize it as star. In English, an asterisk is usually five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces and it can be used as censorship. It is used on the Internet to correct ones spelling, the asterisk is derived from the need of the printers of family trees in feudal times for a symbol to indicate date of birth. The original shape was seven-armed, each arm like a shooting from the center. In computer science, the asterisk is used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition. Origin Adamantius is known to have used the asteriskos to mark missing Hebrew lines from his Hexapla. The asterisk evolved in shape over time, but its meaning as a used to correct defects remained. In the Middle Ages, the asterisk was used to emphasize a part of text. However, an asterisk was not always used, one hypothesis to the origin of the asterisk is that it stems from the five thousand year old Sumerian character dingir,
It appears in a variety of uses in some modern languages and is present in Unicode as code point U+00B7 · Middle dot. The multiplication dot, whose glyphs are similar or identical to the interpunct, is a multiplication sign optionally used instead of the styled ×, the same sign is used in vector multiplication to discriminate between the scalar product and the vector cross product or exterior product. As a multiplication operator, it is encountered in symbols for compound units such as the newton-meter. The multiplication dot is a separate Unicode character, but is often replaced by the interpunct or bullet. Various dictionaries use the interpunct to indicate syllabification within a word with multiple syllables, there is a separate Unicode character, U+2027 ‧ hyphenation point. In British typography, the dot is an interpunct used as the formal decimal point. Its use is advocated by laws and by academic circles such as the Cambridge University History Faculty Style Guide and is mandated by some UK-based academic journals such as The Lancet, the space dot may still be used frequently in handwriting, however.
In the Shavian alphabet, interpuncts replace capitalization as the marker of proper nouns, the dot is placed at the beginning of a word. The flown dot is used in Catalan between two Ls in cases where each belongs to a syllable, for example cel·la, cell. This distinguishes such geminate Ls, which are pronounced, from double L, in situations where the flown dot is unavailable, periods or hyphens are frequently used as substitutes, but this is tolerated rather than encouraged. Historically, medieval Catalan used the symbol ⟨·⟩ as a marker for certain elisions, much like the modern apostrophe, there is no separate keyboard layout for Catalan, the flown dot can be typed using Shift-3 in the Spanish layout. It appears in Unicode as the letters ⟨Ŀ⟩ and ⟨ŀ⟩, the larger bullet may be seen but is discouraged on aesthetic grounds. The preferred Unicode representation is ⟨l·⟩, the partition sign is used in Chinese to mark divisions in transliterated foreign words, particularly names. This is properly a full-width punctuation mark, although sometimes narrower forms are substituted for aesthetic reasons, in particular, the regular interpunct is more commonly used as a computer input, although Chinese-language fonts typically render this as full width.
When the Chinese text is romanized, the sign is simply replaced by a standard space or other appropriate punctuation. Thus, William Shakespeare is signified as 威廉·莎士比亞 or 威廉·莎士比亚, George W. Bush as 喬治·W·布殊 or 乔治·W·布什, titles and other translated words are not similarly marked, Genghis Khan and Elizabeth II are simply 成吉思汗 and 伊利沙伯二世 or 伊麗莎白二世 without a partition sign. The partition sign is used to separate book and chapter titles when they are mentioned consecutively, book first. It appears in Swedish sinologist Bernhard Karlgrens works, where an interpunct is used to represent the stop in his reconstruction of medieval Chinese
The percent sign is the symbol used to indicate a percentage, a number or ratio as a fraction of 100. Related signs include the permille sign ‰ and the permyriad sign ‱, english style guides prescribe writing the number and percent sign without any space between. In Finnish, the percent sign is always spaced, and a case suffix can be attached to it using the colon, in French, the percent sign must be spaced with a non-breaking space. In Italian, the percent sign is never spaced, in Spanish, the percent sign must always be spaced now, as almost every other symbol. In traditional Russian typography, the percent sign is never spaced, but it is not that common in Russia today. In Chinese, the percent sign is almost never spaced, probably because Chinese does not use spaces to separate characters or words at all, according to the Swedish Language Council, the percent sign should be preceded by a space in Swedish, as all other units. In German, the space is prescribed by the body in the national standard DIN5008.
In Persian and Turkish, the percent sign precedes rather than follows the number and it is often recommended that the percent sign only be used in tables and other places with space restrictions. In running text, it should be spelled out as percent or per cent, for example, not Sales increased by 24% over 2006, but rather Sales increased by 24 percent over 2006. Prior to 1425 there is no evidence of a special symbol being used for percentage. The Italian term per cento, for a hundred, was used as well as several different abbreviations, examples of this can be seen in the 1339 arithmetic text depicted below. The letter p with its crossed by a horizontal or diagonal strike conventionally stood for per, par, or pur in Mediaeval. At some point a scribe of some sort used the abbreviation pc with a loop or circle This appears in some additional pages of a 1425 text which were probably added around 1435. The pc with a loop eventually evolved into a fraction sign by 1650. In 1925 D. E. Smith wrote, The solidus form is modern, the ASCII code for the percent character is 37, or 0x25 in hexadecimal.
Names for the percent sign include percent sign, grapes, in the textual representation of URIs, a % immediately followed by a 2-digit hexadecimal number denotes an octet specifying a character that might otherwise not be allowed in URIs. In SQL, the percent sign is a character in LIKE expressions. In TeX and PostScript, a % denotes a line comment, in BASIC, a trailing % after a variable name marks it as an integer
The ditto mark is a typographic symbol indicating that the word or figure above it are to be repeated. For example, The word ditto comes from the Tuscan language, the first recorded use of ditto with this meaning in English occurs in 1625. The graphical shape of the mark may vary according to different language uses. It is generally represented by a quotation mark pointing to the right, therefore, it would be ” in English, » in French, „ in German, and so on. The abbreviation do. is used, iteration mark Dittography The dictionary definition of 〃 at Wiktionary
The cruzeiro was the currency of Brazil from 1942 to 1986 and again between 1990 and 1993. In 1994 it was replaced with the real, the name refers to the constellation of the Southern Cross, known in Brazil as Cruzeiro do Sul, or simply Cruzeiro. Visible only in the Southern Hemisphere, the Southern Cross is the astronomical reference to identify the south and is a common cultural icon in Brazilian history. The first cruzeiro circulated between 1942 and 1967 and had the symbol Cr$ or ₢, due to economic crisis and severe inflation, a second cruzeiro was issued in 1967 and circulated until 1986. Initially it had the symbol NCr and was named cruzeiro novo, the name reverted to cruzeiro and the symbol changed to Cr$ with the ISO4217 code BRB. Although the name was restored, the ₢ sign was dropped due to the lack of practical support, again after severe economic crisis and repeated currency changes, a third cruzeiro was created in 1990. It reissued the symbol Cr$ and had the ISO4217 code BRE, all three cruzeiros were subdivided into 100 centavos.
The ₢ sign is still available on the standard Brazilian keyboard layout through the combination AltGr+C but the sign is disused and most people are unaware of it. The first cruzeiro was issued from 1942 to 1967, replacing the real at a rate of 1000 réis =1 cruzeiro and was replaced in 1967 by the cruzeiro novo at a rate of 1000 cruzeiros =1 cruzeiro novo. In practice, the name cruzeiro had been used for the 1000 réis unit since at least 1926, in 1942, coins were introduced in denominations of 10,20 and 50 centavos, and 1,2 and 5 cruzeiros. The centavos were struck in cupro-nickel, switching to aluminium-bronze in 1943. The 5 cruzeiros was not struck after 1943, aluminium replaced aluminium-bronze in 1956 and 1957 in all the coins. Coinage stopped production in 1961, restarting in 1965 with aluminium 10 and 20 cruzeiros, in 1964, the centavo coins were withdrawn, and the other coins were withdrawn between 1967 and 1968. The first banknotes were overprints on earlier mil réis notes, with denominations of 5,10,20,50,100,200 and 500 cruzeiros, regular issues of banknotes began in 1943 with the addition of 1000 cruzeiro notes. 1 and 2 cruzeiro notes were introduced in 1944, followed by 5000 cruzeiros in 1963 and 10,000 cruzeiros in 1966, the 1 and 2 cruzeiros were not produced after 1958.
In 1967, Brazil introduced the cruzeiro novo, with 1 cruzeiro novo equal to 1000 old cruzeiros and it had the ISO4217 code BRB. In 1986, the country switched to the cruzado, worth 1000 cruzeiros, following 1979, with Second Oil Crisis, monetary policy decided to make some devaluation of Cruzeiro, called as maxidesvalorização. It did Cruzeiro loses 30% of its value, Coins were introduced in 1967 in denominations of 1,2,5,10,20 and 50 centavos, followed by 1 cruzeiro in 1970
The dollar sign is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world. The symbol can interchangeably have one or two vertical strokes, note that the two-stroked version is not the same symbol as the cifrão. In common usage, the sign appears to the left of the amount specified, the best documented explanation holds that the sign evolved out of the Spanish and Spanish American scribal abbreviation pˢ for pesos. A study of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century manuscripts shows that the s gradually came to be written over the p, a variation, though less plausible, of this hypothesis derives the sign from a combination of the Greek character psi and S. There are a number of hypotheses about the origin of the symbol, some with a measure of academic acceptance. Kingdom of Sicily Denaro minted in the Kingdom in Sicily at least by 1258–1266 had what could be construed as a dollar symbol. These coins were widely circulated due to the Crusades – and specifically the Crusade that targeted Tunis, several alternative hypotheses relate specifically to the dollar sign drawn with two vertical lines.
A common hypothesis holds that the sign derives from the Spanish coat of arms, in 1492, Ferdinand II of Aragon adopted the symbol of the Pillars of Hercules and added the Latin warning Non plus ultra meaning nothing further beyond, indicating this is the end of the world. But when Christopher Columbus came to America, the legend was changed to Plus ultra, the Pillars of Hercules wrapped in a banner thus became a symbol of the New World. In this example the right-hand pillar clearly resembles the dollar sign, the symbol was adopted by Charles V and was part of his coat of arms representing Spains American possessions. The symbol was stamped on coins minted in gold and silver, the coin, known as Spanish dollar, was the first global currency used in the entire world since the Spanish Empire was the first global Empire. These coins, depicting the pillars over two hemispheres and a small S-shaped ribbon around each, were spread throughout America and Asia. According to this, traders wrote signs that, instead of saying Spanish dollar, had this made by hand.
When the US got independence from the UK, they created the American dollar, a dollar sign with two vertical lines could have started off as a monogram of USA, used on money bags issued by the United States Mint. The letters U and S superimposed resemble the historical double-stroke dollar sign, robert Morris was such a zealous patriot – known as the Financier of the Revolution in the West – that conjecture does not overstep its bounds in purporting this hypothesis as viable. A similar idea claims that the letters U and S would stand for unit of silver, referencing pieces of eight again, another hypothesis is that it derives from the symbol used on a German Thaler. This refers to the Bible, Chapter 21, a similar symbol, constructed by superposition of S and I or J, was used to denote German Joachimsthaler. It was known in the English-speaking world by the 17th century, robert Morris was the first to use that symbol in official documents and in official communications with Oliver Pollock
Bitcoin is both a cryptocurrency and an electronic payment system,3 invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin was introduced on 31 October 2008 to a mailing list. The identity of Nakamoto remains unknown, though many have claimed to know it, the system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, since the system works without a central repository or single administrator, the U. S. Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed, Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value. Bitcoins are created as a reward in a competition in which users offer their computing power to verify and this activity is referred to as mining and successful miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins.
Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, when sending bitcoins, users can pay an optional transaction fee to the miners. This may expedite the transaction being confirmed, as of February 2015, over 100,000 merchants and vendors accept bitcoin as payment. Instead of a 2–3% fee typically imposed by credit card processors, despite the fourfold increase in the number of merchants accepting bitcoin in 2014, the cryptocurrency did not have much momentum in retail transactions. The European Banking Authority and other sources have warned that bitcoin users are not protected by refund rights or chargebacks, the use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and media. Criminal activities are focused on darknet markets and theft, though officials in countries such as the United States recognize that bitcoin can provide legitimate financial services. The word bitcoin occurred in the paper that defined bitcoin published in 2008.
It is a compound of the bit and coin. The white paper uses the shorter coin. There is no convention for bitcoin capitalization. Some sources use Bitcoin, capitalized, to refer to the technology and network and bitcoin, the Wall Street Journal, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and the Oxford English Dictionary advocate use of lowercase bitcoin in all cases, which this article follows. The blockchain is a ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A novel solution accomplishes this without any trusted central authority, maintenance of the blockchain is performed by a network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software, transactions of the form payer X sends Y bitcoins to payee Z are broadcast to this network using readily available software applications
The pilcrow, called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. It is present in Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN, the pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book, An Essay on Typography. The pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, the pilcrow is usually drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height, the loop can be filled or unfilled. It may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D, the word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos. This was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe, the earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte. The first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos and this notation soon changed to the letter K which was an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as head, i. e. it marks the head of a new thesis.
Eventually, to mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as head was used. In the 1100s, C had completely replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter, rubricators eventually added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it, the symbol was filled in with dark ink and eventually looked like the modern pilcrow. Scribes would often leave space before paragraphs to allow for rubricators to draw the pilcrow and this is how the indent before paragraphs was created. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the number from the top of the page. It is rarely used when citing books or journal articles, in proofreading, it indicates that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs. The proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point where a new paragraph should begin, kings College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols. This is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions, online, it is used in some blogs and wikis to denote permalinks.
The pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as word processors. It is used as the icon on a button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs, whitespace. In typing programs, it marks a return that one must type, the pilcrow symbol is available in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at codepoint 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4. The pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1, the html entity is ¶, introduced in HTML3.2. In LaTeX, the glyph is invoked by \P or \textpilcrow
The apostrophe character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. In English it is used for several purposes, The marking of the omission of one or more letters, the marking of plurals of individual characters. Apostrophe comes ultimately from Greek ἡ ἀπόστροφος, through Latin and French, the apostrophe looks the same as a closing single quotation mark, although they have different meanings. Such incorrect substitutes as ´ and are common in unprofessional texts, the apostrophe was first used by Pietro Bembo in his edition of De Aetna. It was introduced into English in the 16th century in imitation of French practice, introduced by Geoffroy Tory, the apostrophe was used in place of a vowel letter to indicate elision. It was used in place of a final e when it was elided before a vowel. Modern French orthography has restored the spelling une heure, from the 16th century, following French practice, the apostrophe was used when a vowel letter was omitted either because of incidental elision or because the letter no longer represented a sound.
English spelling retained many inflections that were not pronounced as syllables, notably verb endings and the noun ending -es, so apostrophe followed by s was often used to mark a plural, especially when the noun was a loan word. The use of elision has continued to the present day, but significant changes have made to the possessive. By the 18th century, apostrophe + s was used for all possessive singular forms. This was regarded as representing the Old English genitive singular inflection -es, the plural use was greatly reduced, but a need was felt to mark possessive plural. The solution was to use an apostrophe after the plural s, this was not universally accepted until the mid-19th century. The apostrophe is used to indicate possession and this convention distinguishes possessive singular forms from simple plural forms, and both of those from possessive plural forms. For singulars, the possessive or genitive inflection is a survival from certain genitive inflections in Old English. Summary of rules for most situations Possessive personal pronouns, serving as either noun-equivalents or adjective-equivalents, do not use an apostrophe, even when they end in s.
The complete list of those ending in the s or the corresponding sound /s/ or /z/ but not taking an apostrophe is ours, his, its, theirs. Other pronouns, singular nouns not ending in s, and plural nouns not ending in s all take ’s in the possessive, e. g. someone’s, a cat’s toys, women’s. Plural nouns already ending in s take only an apostrophe after the s when the possessive is formed