Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes all or part of Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".

It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.

There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains geologically active, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.

It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it accounts for about 45% of Asia's population and over 25% of the world's population, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes.

More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans. These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia, and the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.

The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, now known as Pa

Xuanyuan teaching

Xuanyuandao known as Xuanyuanism or Huangdiism, is a Confucian folk religion of China, founded in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1952. The founder was a legislator; the Church of Xuanyuan aims to restore the "national religion" of archaic China, with Huangdi as the universal God. The Church of Xuanyuan subsumes all the ways of worship to local deities under one national god, Xuanyuan Huangdi. According to the Shiji, Xuanyuan was the name of Huangdi, he is traditionally considered the thearch of the Han Chinese race. Xuanyuanism is based on Confucian rationalism, therefore rejects practices it considers superstitious that are found in other sects of Chinese folk religion, such as scripture writing through god mediumship; as of 2013 the Xuanyuandao has 200,000 adherents in Taiwan and is active in China, where it runs temples and members take part in the sacrifices celebrated at the Xuanyuan Temple, the largest temple dedicated to Huangdi in the world. Huangdi is worshipped in Chinese folk religion by millions of people who do not belong to the Church of Xuanyuan.

Chinese salvationist religions Confucian church Christian Jochim, "Carrying Confucianism into the Modern World: The Taiwan Case". In Philip Clart, Charles Brewer Jones. Religion in Modern Taiwan: Tradition and Innovation in a Changing Society. University of Hawaii Press, 2003. ISBN 0824825640), pp. 48–83. Goossaert, David Palmer; the Religious Question in Modern China. University of Chicago Press, 2011. ISBN 0226304167 Patricia Eichenbaum Karetzky. Journal of Chinese Religions. Fall 1997, No. 25

Jacory Harris

Jacory Sherrod Harris is a Canadian football quarterback for the Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League. Harris started for Miami Northwestern High School during his last two years. In his senior year, Harris broke the state record for passing touchdowns and won the 2007 High School Football National Championship, he was named Florida's Mr. Football. During his freshman year of college in 2008 with the Miami Hurricanes, he split time with Robert Marve in a two-quarterback system. After the Emerald Bowl in late December, Marve transferred to Purdue making Harris the undisputed starter for the rest of his career as a Hurricane, he signed with the Philadelphia Eagles as an undrafted free agent in May 2012. Harris attended Miami Northwestern High School, located in Liberty City, Florida, he became the starting quarterback for the Northwestern Bulls football team as a junior in 2006. That year, he would lead Northwestern to an undefeated season and its third state championship while completing 275-of-425 passes for 3,542 yards, 35 touchdowns, six interceptions.

As a senior in 2007, under his leadership, the team went on to another undefeated season and state title, as well as the high school football national championship. During his senior year, he completed 222-of-333 attempts for 3,445 yards, with 49 touchdowns and only six interceptions. In total, Harris finished with a 30-0 record as a starting quarterback in high school. Harris was awarded a Class 6A first team all-state selection, the Mr. Football Award, Class 6A Player of the Year. Harris attended the 2007 Elite 11 football camp and was ranked as the seventh best pocket-passer quarterback in the nation. Harris came to University of Miami to compete for the starting quarterback position with former Mr. Florida award winner Robert Marve. Harris and Marve split time with Marve starting 11 of 13 games. Marve subsequently transferred out of Miami, leaving Harris the full-time starter heading into the 2009 season. During the 2008 season, Harris led Miami on two comeback drives against Virginia. Harris finished the season with 1,195 yards, 12 touchdowns, seven interceptions as the Hurricanes wound up 7-6.

In a July 31, 2009, interview with Dan Le Batard, Harris told the world that he will pick up his Heisman Trophy wearing a pink suit and with a "pimp cup" in hand. He earned himself a new nickname in this interview: Afro Butterfly. During the first game of his sophomore season against #18 Florida State, Harris went 21-of-34 for 386 passing yards with two touchdowns and ran for a score in Miami's 38-34 upset road victory. Harris managed just 122 of his 386 passing yards after a tough hit from FSU's blitzing cornerback Greg Reid with 11:45 left to play, which left his right arm numb until the next drive. In the second game of the 2009 season versus the Yellow Jackets at home, Harris completed 20-of-25 passes for 270 yards and three touchdowns—and the 20th-ranked Hurricanes snapped a four-game losing streak against #14 Georgia Tech with a 33-17 victory on September 17, 2009. In the third game of the season against conference rival Virginia Tech, Harris struggled, throwing for nine completions out of 25 passing attempts, 150 yards, no touchdowns in a 31-7 loss.

The Hurricanes dropped to # 17 in the polls. In the fourth game versus the favored Oklahoma Sooners, Harris started the game off throwing two interceptions finished 19-for-28 with 202 yards passing and three touchdowns; the 21-20 win brought Miami back up to #11 in the polls. In the fifth game versus Florida A&M on October 10, Harris went 16-for-24 passing for 217 yards and two touchdowns in a 48-16 win; the Hurricanes moved back up to #9 in the AP Poll. In the sixth game of the season, Harris threw for a touchdown; the Miami Hurricanes went on to beat the UCF Knights, 27-7. Miami moved up one spot in the AP Poll. In a losing effort in overtime versus the Clemson Tigers, Harris put up 256 passing yards, two touchdowns, three interceptions. In overtime, after a 20-yard Graig Cooper run and the Hurricane offense failed to push in the possible game-winning touchdown; the Hurricanes lost 40-37. The loss put Miami down to #19 in the AP Poll and out of the BCS Standings. In an ACC matchup against the Wake Forest Demon Deacons, Harris went 22-for-44, 330 yards passing, three touchdowns, one pick.

On a key 4th-and-16 on the Hurricanes final game-winning drive, Harris found Aldarius Johnson on a finger-tip catch which kept the drive alive. Harris sealed the 28-27 victory for "The U" off a 13-yard touchdown pass to Travis Benjamin; the Hurricanes moved up to #16 in the polls. The ninth game brought a change for the BCS 17th-ranked Hurricanes, as a 24-17 halftime lead against the Virginia Cavaliers broke into a dominant second half. Miami outscored Virginia 28-0 to defeat the Cavaliers 52-17. Harris went 18-of-31 with 232 yards, two touchdown passes, one interception; the previously-struggling Miami defense was not to blame for the allowed points, however, as two special teams miscues leading to two blocked punts brought 14 points to Virginia. The tide-turning play: a 66-yard punt-return by sophomore WR Thearon Collier that brought seven points for the Hurricanes. Harris and the rest of the Miami Hurricanes went up to Chapel Hill to take on the North Carolina Tar Heels. Harris went one touchdown and four interceptions.

The Hurricanes lost 33-24 and went from #14 to #21 and were out of contention for the ACC Championship and a BCS bowl game bid. In the final game at home for the Hurricanes against the Duke Blue Devils on November 21, Harris went