Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra
French Lick, Indiana
French Lick is a town in French Lick Township, Orange County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,807 at the 2010 census. In November 2006, the French Lick Resort Casino, the state's tenth casino in the modern legalized era, drawing national attention to the small town. However, it is best known as the hometown of basketball legend Larry Bird. French Lick was a French trading post built near a spring and salt lick. A fortified ranger post was established near the springs in 1811. On Johnson's 1837 map of Indiana, the community was known as Salt Spring; the town was founded in 1857. French Lick's post office has been in operation since 1847; the sulfur springs were commercially exploited for medical benefits starting in 1840. By the half of the 19th century, French Lick was famous in the United States as a spa town. In the early 20th century it featured casinos attracting celebrities such as boxer Joe Louis, composer Irving Berlin and gangster Al Capone. Due to wartime travel restrictions, the Chicago Cubs and Chicago White Sox held spring training in French Lick from 1943-1944.
In order to conserve rail transport during World War II, 1943 spring training was limited to an area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. The French Lick Resort Casino was the focal point of most of the entertainment; the resort closed for renovation in 2005 and re-opened in 2006. Pluto Water, a best selling laxative of the first half of the 20th century, was bottled here, it was home to a large 7-Up bottling facility, which ceased operations in the mid-20th century. Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his intention to run for president at a National Governors' Convention held at the French Lick Springs Hotel; the town is famous as the hometown of NBA great Larry Bird. Bird started for French Lick/West Baden's high school team, Springs Valley High School, where he left as the school's all-time scoring leader. In his basketball career, one of Bird's nicknames was "the Hick from French Lick". French Lick is the hometown of former Sacramento Kings head coach Jerry Reynolds, who works as the team's color commentator on its television broadcasts and is the Kings' director of player personnel.
In 2015, the Pete Dye Course at French Lick Resort played host to the KitchenAid Senior PGA Championship. French Lick is located at 38°32′49″N 86°37′8″W; the area has rich mineral sources. According to the 2010 census, French Lick has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,807 people, 764 households, 439 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,020.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 924 housing units at an average density of 522.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 88.8% White, 5.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 764 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.5% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the town was 39.2 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 46.9% male and 53.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,941 people, 849 households, 513 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,196.3 people per square mile. There were 948 housing units at an average density of 584.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.18% White, 3.66% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.46% of the population. There were 849 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,197, the median income for a family was $36,583. Males had a median income of $26,046 versus $17,346 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,113. About 11.8% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. The town has a lending library, the Melton Public Library
Brown County, Indiana
Brown County is a county in Indiana which in 2010 had a population of 15,242. The county seat is Nashville; the United States acquired the land from the Native Americans, part of which forms the southwest section of what is now Brown County, in the 1809 treaty of Fort Wayne. By the treaty of St. Mary's in 1818 more territory became property of the government and this included Brown County Land. No settler was allowed in the area until the government survey was completed in 1820; the first white man known to arrive was a German, Johann Schoonover, who lived for a short time on the creek named for him to trade with the Native Americans, about 1820. In that same year William Elkins, the first pioneer, built a log cabin and cleared land in what became Johnson Township; the earliest pioneers came from Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas. They crossed the Ohio River and traveled north on narrow Indian trails through dense hardwood forest with wagons drawn by oxen. Many made their way to Bloomington east to hilly country, or they reached Jackson County and came north into future Brown County on the Sparks Ferry Road, or west from Columbus in Bartholomew County.
Pioneers who had settled on lowland near Columbus came to the hills to escape malaria. Others deliberately chose the hills having lived in mountains before they made the trip to Indiana in search of new land. By 1830 an estimated 150 settlers had arrived. By 1828 the Indiana State Legislature had divided the land of present-day Brown County between Monroe and Bartholomew counties. In 1835 settlers presented a petition to the Legislature requesting a new county. On February 4, 1836, both the House and Senate passed a bill providing for the formation from western Bartholomew, eastern Monroe, northern Jackson counties of a county to be named for Gen. Jacob Brown, who defeated the British at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor in the War of 1812; the county has 320 square miles, 16 miles from east 20 miles from north to south. In August 1836, the land was divided into five townships of Jackson, Washington and Van Buren. Nashville known as Jacksonburg, was chosen as the county seat. Banner C. Brummett was appointed County Agent to lay out Nashville in lots to be sold at auction.
It was expected. The lots sold slowly, for pioneers had little money, funds were short for a number of years. In 1837 a log court house was built, the first log jail, they were built on the same lots on which the present court log jail stand. Nashville, at that time, consisted of a cluster of 75 people; the country was wild in 1836. Bears and wolves were plentiful; the wolves were so numerous and destructive to livestock that the Commissioners paid $1 for every wolf pelt brought to them. Settlers lived a rugged pioneer type of life for many years, their cabins and small settlements were mere niches in the great forest that covered hills and valleys. The men hunted deer, squirrels, wild turkeys and pigeons for food; as soon as enough land was cleared they planted corn, wheat, hops for yeast and tobacco. Women made quilts, wove wool and flax into cloth, made the family clothes, carried water from a well or stream, cooked food in open fireplaces, raised the children, nursed them when they were sick. By the time Nashville was incorporated in 1872, water powered grist mills and sawmills were scattered over the county.
Each village served its own locality with at least one general store, a blacksmith shop, a church and a post office. A doctor, sometimes more than one, lived in every village. In 1881 there were 20 doctors in the county, 37 churches - Methodist, United Brethren, Christian and New Light. Money continued to be scarce and much business was conducted by the barter system; the first schools were built of logs. People farmed. Lumber was taken to Indianapolis tan bark, cross ties, hoop poles, barrel staves; the trees were cut recklessly and this led to deep trouble. Since there was not enough farm land on the ridge tops and in the creek bottoms, trees were eliminated on the sides of hills. Wheat and other crops were planted, erosion began in earnest. By 1900, soil was so washed from hillsides and creek bottoms that crops could not be grown. Poverty was widespread and people began to leave the county in droves. Cabins all over the valleys stood empty. In 1890, 10,308 people lived in Brown County. By 1930 only 5,168 remained.
Not until 1980 did the population exceed the 1890 figure. In 1900, villages were still the centers of Brown County life. Travel by horseback, wagon, or carriage was exceedingly limited due to rutted, rocky roads. There were people in remote areas. Many a family's only contact with the outside world was the huckster's weekly visit with his horse and wagon; as a result, the pioneer way of life continued long after other counties had adopted a new pattern of living. In 1905 the Illinois Central Railroad built a line from Indianapolis to Illinois; the line ran from Morgantown across the southwest corner of Jackson Township. Helmsburg was the main station. Two trains a day from Indianapolis, two from Effingham, brought freight and passengers. Horse drawn hacks took wagons transported mail and freight from the station to Nashville; the first cars appeared in Nashville in 1913. Their use was
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Orange County, Indiana
Orange County is located in southern Indiana in the United States. As of 2010, its population was 19,840, an increase of 2.8% from 19,306 in 2000. The county seat is Paoli; the county has four incorporated settlements with a total population of about 8,600, as well as several small unincorporated communities. It is divided into 10 townships. One U. S. route and five Indiana state roads pass into the county. Orange County was formed from parts of Knox County, Gibson County and Washington County by the Indiana Territorial Legislature, on December 26, 1815. In 1816 the Orange County seat was designated at Paoli, named after Pasquale Paoli Ash, the 12-year-old son of the sitting North Carolina Governor; the first courthouse was a temporary log structure, built for $25. In 1847, plans were made for a larger courthouse, completed in 1850 at a cost of $14,000; this building is the second oldest courthouse in the state, continuously used since its construction. Like the oldest in Ohio County, it is a Greek Revival building with two stories and a Doric portico supported by fluted columns.
In 1970, the clock tower was damaged by fire. The early settlers were Quakers fleeing the institution of slavery in Orange County, North Carolina. Jonathan Lindley brought his group of Quakers from North Carolina to the area in 1811, they were the first to build a religious structure, the Lick Creek Meeting House in 1813. It was from this group that Orange County got its name.. The name Orange derives from the Dutch Protestant House of Orange, which accessed the English throne with the accession of King William III in 1689, following the Glorious Revolution; when the North Carolina Quakers came to Indiana, they brought with several freed slaves. These free men were deeded 200 acres of land in the heart of a dense forest. Word of mouth soon spread the news, this land became part of the "underground railroad" for runaway slaves. For many years, the freed slaves in this area farmed and sold their labor to others while living in this settlement. A church and cemetery were constructed. All that remains today is the cemetery, with many lost or vandalized headstones.
Several years ago, Boy Scouts restored the cemetery, replacing the stones with wooden crosses designating a grave. The name of "Little Africa" came about because of the black settlement, but is was called "Paddy's Garden" by its early users. Much of the south part of the county, south of Paoli and French Lick, is part of the Hoosier National Forest. Patoka Lake is within the national forest. According to the 2010 United States Census, Orange County has a total area of 408.19 square miles, of which 398.39 square miles is land and 9.80 square miles is water. Lawrence County – north Washington County – east Crawford County – south Dubois County – southwest Martin County – northwest French Lick Orleans Paoli West Baden Springs. U. S. Route 150 – runs east-west through central part of county. Passes French Lick and Paoli. Indiana State Road 37 – runs north-south through central part of county. Passes Orleans and Bacon. Indiana State Road 56 – enters west line of county at 6.6 miles north of SW county corner.
Runs NE to intersection with US-150 north of West Baden Springs. Indiana State Road 60 – runs NW-SE across northeastern tip of county. Enters 2 miles west of NE corner and exits 2 miles south of NE corner. Indiana State Road 145 – enters south line of county at 3.7 miles from SW county corner. Runs north to intersection with Indiana-56 at French Lick. Indiana State Road 337 – runs SE-NW across northeastern part of county. Enters east line of county near Bromer runs NW to intersection with Indiana-37 at Orleans. Paoli Municipal Airport - public-owned public-use general-aviation airport with one paved runway. There are no railroad lines in Orange County. In recent years, average temperatures in Paoli have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1901. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.90 inches in October to 5.14 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code.
The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes. A board of commissioners is the county's executive body. Commissioners are elected in staggered four-year terms; the board is charged with executing the council's decisions, with collecting revenue, with managing the county government. The county maintains a small claims court; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court; the county has several other elected offices, includi
29th United States Congress
The Twenty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1845, to March 4, 1847, during the first two years of James Polk's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixth Census of the United States in 1840. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1845: James K. Polk became President of the United States October 10, 1845: The Naval School opened in Annapolis, Maryland December 2, 1845: President Polk announced to Congress that the Monroe Doctrine should be enforced and that the United States should aggressively expand into the West. April 25, 1846: Open conflict over border disputes of Texas's boundaries began the Mexican–American War May 13, 1846: Mexican–American War declared, ch. 16, 9 Stat. 9 July 9, 1846: District of Columbia retrocession, ch.
35, 9 Stat. 35 July 30, 1846: Walker tariff, ch. 74, 9 Stat. 42 June 15, 1846: Oregon Treaty established the 49th parallel as the border between the United States and Canada, from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Juan de Fuca January 13, 1847: Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting in the Mexican–American War in California December 29, 1845: Texas admitted as the 28th state December 28, 1846: Iowa admitted as the 29th state During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Texas and Iowa. During this congress, two House seats were added for each of the new states of Iowa. President: George M. Dallas President pro tempore: Willie P. Mangum, until March 4, 1845 Ambrose Hundley Sevier, only on December 27, 1845 David R. Atchison, from August 8, 1846 Speaker: John W. Davis This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class and Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, facing re-election in 1850; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 8 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change deaths: 3 resignations: 6 interim appointments: 1 seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 14 replacements: 12 Democrats: 1 seat net gain Whigs: 1 seat net loss deaths: 5 resignations: 6 contested election: 1 seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 17 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Charges of Corruption Contained in the Daily Times Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs International Copyright Law Judiciary Manufactures Memorial on W.
T. G. Morton Memphis Convention Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Land Claims Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Retrenchment Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Territories Smithsonian Institution Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Engraving Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Smithsonian Bequest Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: Septimus Tustin Henry Slicer, elected December 16, 1846 Secretary: Asbury Dickens Sergeant at Arms: Edward Dyer, died September 8, 1845 Robert Beale, elected December 9, 1845 Chaplain: William H. Milburn William T.
S. Sprole, elected December 7, 1846 Clerk: Benjamin B. French Doorkeeper: Cornelius C. Whitney Postmaster: John M. Johnson Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Newton Lane United States elections, 1844 United States presidential election, 1844 United States Senate elections, 1844 and 1845 United States House of Representatives elections, 1844 United States elections, 1846 United States Senate elections, 1846 and 1847 United States House of Representatives elections, 1846 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789–1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three
John Forbes Kerry is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1985 until 2013, he was the Democratic nominee in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush. Kerry was born in Aurora and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, he graduated from Yale University in 1966 with a major in political science. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, between 1968 and 1969, he served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization, in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War.
He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he described United States war policy in Vietnam as the cause of war crimes. After receiving a Juris Doctor from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked as an Assistant District Attorney in Massachusetts, he served as Lieutenant Governor under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was reelected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. On October 11, 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein," but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war. In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War, he and his running mate, U. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney.
Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and confirmed by the U. S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013. Kerry retained the position until the end of Obama's second term on January 20, 2017. John Forbes Kerry was born on December 11, 1943, at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center in Aurora, Colorado, he is the second of four children born to Richard John Kerry, a Foreign Service officer and lawyer, Rosemary Isabel Forbes, a nurse and social activist. His father was raised Catholic and his mother was Episcopalian, he was raised with an elder sister named Margaret, a younger sister named Diana, a younger brother named Cameron. The children were raised in their father's Catholic faith, John served as an altar boy. Kerry grew up a military brat until his father was discharged from the Army Air Corps, causing the family to settle in Washington, D.
C. in 1949. While in Washington, Richard took a spot in the Department of the Navy's Office of General Counsel and soon became a diplomat in the State Department's Bureau of United Nations Affairs, his maternal extended family enjoyed great wealth as members of the Forbes and Dudley–Winthrop families. Kerry's parents themselves were upper-middle class, a wealthy great-aunt paid for him to attend elite boarding schools such as Institut Montana Zugerberg in Switzerland. In 1957, his father was stationed at the U. S. Embassy in Oslo and Kerry was sent back to the United States to attend boarding school, he first attended the Fessenden School in Newton, St. Paul's, New Hampshire, where he learned skills in public speaking and began developing an interest in politics. Kerry founded the John Winant Society at St. Paul's to debate the issues of the day. In 1962, Kerry entered Yale University, majoring in political science and residing in Jonathan Edwards College. While at Yale, Kerry dated Janet Auchincloss, the younger half-sister of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy.
Through Auchincloss, Kerry was invited to a day of sailing with then-President John F. Kennedy and his family. Kerry played on the varsity Yale Bulldogs Men's soccer team, earning his only letter in his senior year, he played freshman and JV hockey and, in his senior year, JV lacrosse. In addition, he took flying lessons. In his sophomore year, Kerry became the Chairman of the Liberal Party of the Yale Political Union, a year he served as President of the Union. Amongst his influential teachers in this period was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, himself a former President of the Political Union, his involvement with the Political Union gave him an opportunity to be involved with important issues of the day, such as the civil rights movement and the New Frontier program. He became a member of Skull and Bones Society, traveled to Switzerland through AIESEC Yale. Under the guidance of the speaking coach and history professor Rollin G. Osterweis, Kerry won many debates against other college students from across the nation.
In March 1965, as the Vietnam War escalated, he won the Ten Eyck prize as the best orator in the junior class for a speech, critical of U. S. foreign policy. In the speech he said, "It is the spectre of Western imperialism that causes more fear among Africans and Asians than communism and t