The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state of Indiana. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the Indiana House of Representatives, an upper house, the Indiana Senate; the General Assembly meets annually at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. Members of the General Assembly are elected from districts. Representatives serve terms of senators serve terms of four years. Both houses can create bills, but bills must pass both houses before it can be submitted to the governor and enacted into law; the Republican Party holds supermajorities in both chambers of the General Assembly. Republicans outnumber Democrats in the Senate by a 40–10 margin, in the House of Representatives by a 67–33 margin; the Indiana General Assembly is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Indiana has a part-time legislature; the General Assembly convenes on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January. During odd-numbered years the legislature meets for 61 days and must be adjourned by April 30.
During even-numbered years the legislature meets for 30 days and must be adjourned by March 15. The General Assembly may not adjourn for more than three days without a resolution approving adjournment being passed in both houses; the governor has the authority to call on the General Assembly to convene a special session if legislators are unable to complete necessary work within the time allotted by the regular sessions. Special sessions of the General Assembly were called in the state's early history, but have become more commonplace in modern times; the General Assembly delegates are elected from districts. Every ten years the districts are realigned by the General Assembly using information from the U. S. Census Bureau to ensure that each district is equal in population; the districting is maintained to comply with the United States Supreme Court ruling in Reynolds v. Sims; the Indiana Senate and House of Representatives each have several committees that are charged with overseeing certain areas of the state.
Committees vary from three to eleven members. The committees are chaired by senior members of the majority party. Senators and representatives can be members of multiple committees. Most legislation begins within the committees who have responsibility for the area that the bill will affect. Once approved by a committee, a bill can be entered into the agenda for debate and vote in the full chamber. Although not common, bills can be voted on by the full house without going through the committee process. Indiana legislators make a base annual salary of $22,616, plus $155 for each day in session or at a committee hearing and $62 in expense pay every other day. Article 4, Section 7, of the Indiana Constitution states the qualifications to become a Senator or Representative; the candidate must have been a U. S. citizen for a minimum of two years prior to his candidacy and must have been resident of the district that he seeks to represent for one year. Senators must be at least twenty-five years of age and representatives must be twenty-one when sworn into office.
The candidate cannot hold any other public office in the state or federal government during their term. The candidate must be a registered voter within the district they seek to represent. Candidates are required to file papers stating their economic interests. Article 4, Section 3, of the state constitution places several limitations on the size and composition of the General Assembly; the Senate can contain no more than fifty members, the senators serve for a term of four years. The House of Representatives can contain no more than one hundred members, the representatives serve terms of two years. There is no limit to how many terms a state representative may serve. There are several checks and balances built into the state constitution that limit the power of the General Assembly. Other clauses allow the General Assembly to balance and limit the authority of the other branches of the government. Among these checks and balances is the governor's authority to veto any bill passed by the General Assembly.
The General Assembly may, in turn, override his veto by simple majority vote in both houses. Bills passed by a supermajority automatically become law without requiring the signature of the governor. Once the bill is made law, it can be challenged in the state courts which may rule the law to be unconstitutional repealing the law; the General Assembly could override the court's decision by amending the state constitution to include the law. The General Assembly has been the most powerful branch of the state government, dominating a weak governor's office. Although the governor's office has gained more power since the 1970s, the General Assembly still retains the power to remove much of that authority; the authority and powers of the Indiana General Assembly are established in the state constitution. The General Assembly has sole legislative power within the state government; each house can initiate legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not permitted to initiate legislation that will affect revenue.
Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but must be passed by both houses before they can submit to the governor. Each law passed by the General Assembly must be applied uniformly to the entire state; the General Assembly is empowered to regulate the state's judiciary system by setting the size of the courts and the bounds of their districts. The body has the authority to monitor the activities of t
The Philippists formed a party in early Lutheranism. Their opponents were called Gnesio-Lutherans. Philippists was the designation applied in the latter half of the sixteenth century to the followers of Philipp Melanchthon, it originated among the opposite or Flacian party, was applied at first to the theologians of the universities of Wittenberg and Leipzig, who were all adherents of Melanchthon's distinctive views those in which he approximated to Roman Catholic doctrine on the subject of free will and the value of good works, to the Swiss Reformers' on the Lord's Supper. Somewhat it was used in Saxony to designate a distinct party organized by Melanchthon's son-in-law Caspar Peucer, with George Cracovius, Johann Stössel, others, to work for a union of all the Protestant forces, as a means to which end they attempted to break down by this attitude the barriers which separated Lutherans and Calvinists. Melanchthon had won, by his eminent abilities as a teacher and his clear, scholastic formulation of doctrine, a large number of disciples among whom were included some of the most zealous Lutherans, such as Matthias Flacius and Tilemann Heshusius, afterward to be numbered among the vehement opponents of Philippism.
As long as Luther lived, the conflict with external foes and the work of building up the Evangelical Church so absorbed the Reformers that the internal differences which had begun to show themselves were kept in the background. But no sooner was Luther dead than did the internal, as well as the external, peace of the Lutheran Church decline, it was a misfortune not only for Melanchthon but for the whole Lutheran body, that he who had stood as a teacher by the side Luther, the original leader, was now forced into the position to head not only the University of Wittenberg but the entire Evangelical Church of Germany. There was among Luther's associates, notably Nikolaus von Amsdorf, a disinclination to accept Melanchthon's leadership. When, in the negotiations between German Protestants and Catholics that resulted in the Augsburg Interim and Leipzig Interim, Melanchthon showed himself ready to yield and make concessions on matters adiaphora, he ruined his position with a large part of the Evangelical theologians.
An opposition party was formed in which the leadership was assumed by Flacius in view of his learning, controversial ability, inflexible firmness. Melanchthon, on the other hand, with his faithful followers Joachim Camerarius, Georg Major, Justus Menius, Johann Pfeffinger, Paul Eber, Caspar Cruciger the Elder, Victorinus Strigel, others saw in the self-styled genuine Lutherans nothing but a narrow and contentious class, ignoring the inherent teaching of Luther, sought to domineer over the church by letter and name, in addition to assert its own ambitious self. On the other hand, the Philippists regarded themselves as the faithful guardians of learning over against the alleged "barbarism," and as the mean between the extremes; the genuine Lutherans claimed to be representatives of the pure doctrine, defenders of orthodoxy, heirs of the spirit of Martin Luther. Personal and ecclesiastical animosities widened the breach; the actual conflict began with the controversy over the Interim and the question of Adiaphora in 1548 and the following years.
In the negotiations concerning the Leipzig Interim the Wittenberg theologians as well as Johann Pfeffinger and the intimate of Melanchthon, George of Anhalt, were on the side of Melanchthon, thus drew upon themselves the violent opposition of the strict Lutherans, under the leadership of Flacius, who now severed his connection with Wittenberg. When the Philippist Georg Major at Wittenberg and Justus Menius at Gotha put forth the proposition that good works were necessary to salvation, or as Menius preferred to say "the new obedience, the new life, is necessary to salvation," they were not only conscious of the danger that the doctrine of justification by faith alone would lead to antinomianism and moral laxity but they manifested a tendency to bring into account the necessary connection of justification and regeneration: namely, that justification as possession of forgiving grace by faith is indeed not conditioned by obedience, but neither Major nor Menius was sufficiently firm in his view to stand against the charge of denying the doctrine of justification and going over to the Roman camp, thus they were driven back to the general proposition of justification by faith alone.
The Formula of Concord closed the controversy by avoiding both extremes, but failed to offer a final solution of the question demanded by the original motive of the controversy. The synergistic controversy, breaking out about the same time sprang out of the ethical interest which had induced Melanchthon to enunciate the doctrine of free will in opposition to his previous predestinarianism. After the clash in 1555 between Pfeffinger and Amsdorf and Flacius, Strigel went deeper into the matter in 1559 and insisted that grace worked upon sinful men as upon personalities, not natural objects without a will.
David Zayas is a Puerto Rican actor. He is best known for his roles as Angel Batista on Showtime's series Dexter, Osborne the cop in Rounders, Enrique Morales on the HBO prison drama series Oz, Lou the bodega owner in Annie and Sal Maroni on Fox's series Gotham. Zayas was raised in The Bronx, New York. Zayas joined the United States Air Force at age 19 and was a police officer with the New York City Police Department for 15 years, his experience as a police officer allowed him to develop as a character actor, leading to a series of acting jobs on television and film playing law enforcement officers, but playing characters on the other side of the law, as well, such as Enrique Morales on HBO's long-running prison-drama Oz. Zayas was a main cast member of Dexter for all of its eight seasons. Zayas has been a member of the LAByrinth Theater Company since 1992, a New York City-based traveling actors group, he branched out into television and film projects, has diversified with guest roles in such popular television series such as New York Undercover, Person of Interest, NYPD Blue.
At LAByrinth, he met actress Liza Colón. Zayas played a corrupt police officer in an NYPD officer in Michael Clayton, he is featured in the independent film Shadowboxing. He appears in Sylvester Stallone's feature film The Expendables and The Brothers Strause's film Skyline. In 2012, Zayas played Ernie Trask, a hotel super, in the twelfth episode of season 1 of Person of Interest. Zayas appeared in an episode of Fox's drama The Following, playing the part of Tyson, Ryan Hardy's FBI best friend. Zayas portrays mob boss Don Salvatore Maroni in the Batman prequel, which premiered on Fox on September 22, 2014. Shortly thereafter, he appeared in Annie as Lou, a gregarious bodega owner who helps Cameron Diaz's Hannigan learn to love herself. Official website David Zayas on IMDb "One on one with David Zayas". HoboTrashcan.com. July 3, 2008
Hamburg Stadtpark is a large urban park in the district of Winterhude, in the Hamburg borough of Hamburg-Nord. Spanning an area of 148 hectares, it is the second-largest park in the city after Altona Volkspark; the Stadtpark is regarded as the "green heart" of Hamburg, despite being located some 3km from the city centre. Opened in 1914, Hamburg Stadtpark is an important example of German landscape design and the transformation from an urban garden to an urban park. Like many cities during the Age of Industrialization, Hamburg grew in the decades of the 19th century and many former open spaces had been built over. In order to counterbalance this development, in 1901 the Senate of Hamburg and Hamburg Parliament agreed to purchase the so-called Sierich Grove, to develop an urban park. In 1908 a public design competition was hosted, however, no consensus could be reached. In January 1909, head engineer Fritz Sperber presented two designs – based on the results of the competition – on behalf of the senate, one landscaped and painterly, the other geometric.
In June 1909, Fritz Schumacher was made director of the city's Department of Planning and Building Inspection, in January 1910 he and Fritz Sperber presented a design to the Parliament, subsequently approved. The park was opened four years though it would be another 14 years before it was completed. After 1918, the gardening and landscaping work was principally carried out by Otto Linne, the first horticultural director of Hamburg. During the bombing of Hamburg in World War II, a couple of buildings within the park were destroyed, not rebuilt after the war. Need for additional office space in the 1960s led to the development of City Nord, a decentralized commercial district located to the north-east of Hamburg Stadtpark; the park's most famous landmark is a former water tower. At night, the tower is illuminated in various colours; the 64-metre-tall brick tower was designed by Oskar Menzel and built in 1914. Since 1930 it has housed Germany's largest planetarium; the tower is located in the western half of the park and can be reached via a 500-metre-long avenue on its eastern side.
This avenue leads onto the Great Meadow. Midway, the park is crossed by a street. Most of the parks's western half and the park's edges are made up of wild woods. Around the edge of the park there are a number of sporting grounds and sporting halls, an outdoor lido and an athletics stadium. Dozens of playgrounds and sport facilities are spread throughout the park; the home stadium of Hamburg Rugby Club is at Saarlandstraße in the north-east of the park. In the north-eastern corner lies the Freilichtbühne, an open air stage for music concerts; the lake is connected to Hamburg's extensive network of waterways via the Goldbekkanal. Alster ferries run services between the Jungfernstieg in the inner city; every year in September, a vintage car race takes place at Hamburg Stadtpark. 22 sponsored pieces of stone and bronze public art are displayed throughout Hamburg Stadtpark. Here are some of them: Stadtparkverein Hamburg e. V
Rena Mason is an American author of horror fiction and a three-time winner of the Bram Stoker Award. Her literary debut, The Evolutionist, won the Bram Stoker Award for Best First Novel in 2013, while her novella East End Girls was nominated for the Bram Stoker Award for Best Long Fiction, her 2014 short story "Ruminations" tied for the Bram Stoker Award for Best Short Fiction. That same year, she was a Quarter-Finalist in the 2014 First Annual Stage 32/The Blood List Presents®: The Search for New Blood Screenwriting Contest for her co-written screenplay RIPPERS. In 2018, her novelette, she received a 2014 Silver Hammer Award from the Horror Writers Association, given in recognition of extraordinary volunteerism by a member of the association. She has published a number of short stories in various anthologies, she is a member of the Horror Writers Association, Mystery Writers of America, International Thriller Writers, International Screenwriter Association. An avid scuba diver and registered nurse, Mason lives in Reno, with her family.
"The Eyes Have It". Horror For Good: A Charitable Anthology. Cutting Block Press. 2012. "Awk-Ward". The Haunted Mansion Project: Year Two Anthology. Damnation Books LLC. 2013. “Death Squared”. Fear the Reaper Anthology. Crystal Lake Publishing. 2013. East End Girls. Anthology coauthored with Gord Rollo. JournalStone. 2013. "Reclamation". Getting Better All the Time: Las Vegas Writers Explore Progress Anthology. Huntington Press. 2013. The Evolutionist. Nightscape Press. 2013. Ruminations. First published in Qualia Nous, edited by Michael Bailey. Written Backwards. 2014. “The Year After Publication…” Horror 101: The Way Forward Nonfiction. Crystal Lake Publishing. 2014. “Fathoms’ Embrace”. Another Dimension Magazine Anthology. 2015. “Jaded Winds”. The Library of the Dead Anthology. Written Backwards. 2015. “Nita Kula”. Blurring the Line Anthology. Cohesion Press. 2015. “Red Hill”. Shadows Over Main Street Anthology. Hazardous Press. 2015. “What Happened in Vegas…”. Shrieks and Shivers Anthology; the Horror Zine. 2015. “Metamorphic Apotheosis”.
Beauty of Death Vol. 1 Anthology. Independent Legions Publishing. 2016. “Sky is Falling”. Madhouse Anthology. Dark Regions Press. 2016 “Winter’s Dollhouse”. Tales from the Lake Vol. 2 Anthology. Crystal Lake Publishing. 2016. “I Will Be the Making of You”. Adam’s Ladder Anthology. Written Backwards. 2017. “Of Earth and Bone”. The Forsaken Anthology. Cemetery Dance. 2017. “The Devil’s Throat”. Hellhole Anthology. Adrenaline Press. 2018. “Clevengers of the Carrion Sea”. The Seven Deadliest Anthology. Cutting Block Books. 2019. Strange Tales of the Macabre: Haunted Journeys Anthology. Editor. 5X5 Publishing. 2019. List of horror fiction authors Official website Rena Mason at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
"Down to Earth" is a song by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber, included as a track on his debut release, My World, released on November 17, 2009. It was written by Bieber, assisted by Carlos and Steven Battey of The Jackie Boyz, as well as the song's producers, Mason "MdL" Levy, Kevin Risto and Waynne Nugent of Midi Mafia. "Down to Earth" is a teen pop song, with lyrics that were inspired by the divorce of Bieber's parents. It contains lyrical content about growing up; the song received positive reviews from critics, who embraced the song as a shift in the puppy love content of the album. After the release of My World, due to digital sales, the song charted in the lower regions of charts in the United States and the United Kingdom. "Down to Earth" was written by Bieber, Mason "MdL" Levy and Steven Battey of The Jackie Boyz, Kevin Risto and Waynne Nugent of Midi Mafia. It was recorded at Icon Studios in Atlanta, it was mixed at Larrabee Studios in North Hollywood, California; the track was one of three songs on the standard edition of My World.
In an interview in the November 14, 2009 issue of Billboard, Bieber explained the meaning behind the song stating, "It's a ballad about the feelings I had when my parents split up and how I helped my family get through it. I think a lot of kids have had their parents split up, they should know that it wasn't because of something they did. I hope people can relate to it." "Down to Earth" is a down-tempo pop song with a length of four minutes and five seconds, which includes influences of teen pop. Written in common time, with a tempo of 80 beats per minute, the song is composed in the key of D major. Bieber's vocals span from the low note of B3 to the high note of D5, it follows a simple chord progression of G-D-A-Bm. Monica Herrera of Billboard noted that lines such as "So we fight through the hurt, we cry and cry and cry and cry/ Then we live and we learn, we try" revealed a "deeper side" to the singer. Bieber performed the song while accompanying Taylor Swift on the United Kingdom leg of the Fearless Tour, as well as his own My World Tour.
During the latter performance, Bieber sits on a stool, accompanied by only a piano background. Mark Hirsh of The Boston Globe noted. Allison Stewart of the Washington Post listed the song was one of her recommended tracks from the album. Jon Caramanica of The New York Times said that "Down to Earth" and "One Less Lonely Girl" were "uncomplicately beautiful and earnest." Although Ashante Infantry of Toronto Star said a turn-off of the song was the "Mafia" tag by the production team, Midi Mafia, at the beginning of the song, she called "Down to Earth" one of the best tracks on the album. After praising Bieber's delivery of "poignant lines" in the song, Monica Herrera of Billboard said "it's hardly a stretch to imagine Bieber racking up more hits in the next decade to come." On the week ending December 5, 2009, due to digital sales after the release of My World, "Down to Earth" debuted on the US Billboard Hot 100 and the Canadian Hot 100. The song debuted at number forty-three on the Hot Digital Songs chart in the US, therefore consecutively appeared at number seventy-nine on the Hot 100.
In Canada, it debuted at number sixty-one. It dropped off both charts the following week. In both territories it was the highest non-previously released song from My World to appear on the charts. In the United Kingdom, after the release of My World, "Down to Earth" appeared at number 149 on the UK Singles Chart. Songwriting - Justin Bieber, Kevin Risto, Waynne Nugent, Mason Levy, Carlos Battey, Steven Battey Production - Midi Mafia, MdL Vocal recording - Chris Krauss Vocal production - Kevin Risto Guitar - Tim Stewart Mixing - Jaycen-Joshua Fowler and Dave Pensado, assisted by Giancarlo Lino. Source Since May 2013 RIAA certifications for digital singles include on-demand audio and/or video song streams in addition to downloads. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics