Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. It is the second installment in the Indiana Jones franchise and a prequel to the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, featuring Harrison Ford reprising his role as the title character. After arriving in India, Indiana Jones is asked by desperate villagers to find a mystical stone and rescue their children from a Thuggee cult practicing child slavery, black magic and ritualistic human sacrifice in honor of the goddess Kali. Executive producer and co-writer George Lucas made the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the villains again. After three rejected plot devices, Lucas wrote a film treatment that resembled the film's final storyline. Lawrence Kasdan, Lucas' collaborator on Raiders of the Lost Ark, turned down the offer to write the script, Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz were hired as his replacements, with the screenplay based upon the 1939 film Gunga Din; the film was released to financial success but initial reviews were mixed, criticizing its dark tone.
However, critical opinion has improved since 1984, citing the film's imagination. In response to some of the more violent sequences in the film, with similar complaints about Gremlins, Spielberg suggested that the Motion Picture Association of America alter its rating system, which it did within two months of the film's release, creating a new PG-13 rating. Released to the cinemas in the USA on May 23, 1984, the film was followed by Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989. In 1935, Indiana Jones narrowly escapes the clutches of a crime boss in Shanghai, China. With his eleven-year-old Chinese sidekick Short Round and the nightclub singer Willie Scott in tow, Indy flees Shanghai on an airplane that, unbeknownst to them, is owned by Lao Che. While the three of them are asleep on the plane, the pilots dump the fuel and parachute out, leaving the plane to crash over the Himalayas. Indy and Willie discover the sabotage and narrowly manage to escape by jumping out of the plane on an inflatable raft just before it crashes into the mountainside.
They ride down the mountain slopes and fall into a raging river arriving at the village of Mayapore in northern India. The impoverished villagers believe the three to have been sent by Shiva to retrieve the sacred lingam stone stolen from their shrine, as well as the community's missing children, from evil forces in the nearby Pankot Palace. During the journey to Pankot, Indy hypothesizes that the stone may be one of the five fabled Sankara stones that promise fortune and glory; the trio receive a warm welcome from the Prime Minister of Chattar Lal. The visitors are allowed to stay for the night as guests, during which they attend a lavish but grotesque banquet given by the young Maharaja, Zalim Singh. Lal rebuffs Indy's questions about the villagers' claims and his theory that the ancient Thuggee cult is responsible for their troubles; that night, Indy is attacked by an assassin, leading Indy and Shorty to believe that something is wrong. After Indy kills the assassin, they discover a series of tunnels hidden behind a statue in Willie's room and set out to explore them, overcoming a number of booby-traps along the way.
The trio reach an underground temple where the Thuggees worship Kali with human sacrifice. They watch as the Thuggees chain one of their victims in a cage, the high priest Mola Ram uses his evil magic to rip out the victim's still beating heart. While the victim is still alive, he is lowered into a lava pit, burning him alive, with his heart held in Mola Ram's hand burning as well, they discover that Mola Ram, who has plans for world domination, the Thuggees are in possession of three of the five Sankara stones, which were hidden in the catacombs by a priest when the British invaded, have enslaved the children to mine for the last two, as well as to mine jewels to fund their operations. As Indy tries to retrieve the stones, he, Shorty are captured and separated. Indy is whipped and forced to drink a potion called the Blood of Kali, causing him to enter a trance-like state and mindlessly serve the Thuggees. Willie is prepared for sacrifice, while Shorty is whipped and put to work in the mines alongside the children.
Shorty breaks free and escapes back into the temple, where he burns Indy with a torch to bring him back to his senses. After fighting off the guards and defeating Lal, Indy stops Willie's cage and cranks it out of the pit just in time to save her from the fire, while Mola Ram escapes via a trapdoor under the Sankara stones' altar. Indy retrieves the stones, the three return to the mines to free the children; as Indy fights a hulking overseer, Singh—also under Mola Ram's control—tries to cripple him with a voodoo doll. Shorty knocks the doll away and burns him to break the trance, a restored Indy escapes and leaves the overseer to die in a steamroller. Singh tells Shorty how to get out of the mine; the trio escape from the temple in a mine cart, pursued by Thuggees, while Mola Ram orders a huge water cistern dumped in an attempt to flood them out. After escaping the deluge, they are again ambushed by Mola Ram and his henchmen on a rope bridge high above a crocodile-infested river. Indy cuts the bridge in half with a sword, leaving everyone to hang on for their lives.
As he and Mola Ram struggle over the stones, he invokes the name of Shiva by proclaiming him to be a traitor, causing them to glow white-hot. Mola Ram burns his hand on the stones, causing him to lose his grip and fall to be devoured alive by the crocodiles down below.
Khushab Nuclear Complex is a plutonium production nuclear reactor and heavy water complex situated 30 km south of the town of Jauharabad in Khushab District, Pakistan. The heavy water and natural uranium reactors at Khushab are a central element of Pakistan's program to produce plutonium and tritium for use in compact nuclear warheads. Khushab Nuclear Complex, like that at Kahuta, is not subject to International Atomic Energy Agency inspections. Four operating reactors have capacities variously reported at between 40 MWth to 50 MWth, as high as 70 MWth. In total, they are estimated to be capable of producing 44 kg of weapons grade plutonium annually. Plutonium production and nuclear reprocessing facilities are being expanded at Khushab, New Labs and Chashma. Pakistan's first indigenous nuclear reactor was commissioned at Khushab in March 1996; the Khushab Nuclear Complex was conceived and planned by the chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Munir Ahmad Khan, who began work on the 50 MWth Khushab-I reactor and heavy water plant in 1986.
He appointed nuclear engineer Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Dr. N. A. Javed, both from the PAEC, as the Project-Directors for the reactor and the heavy water plant respectively. According to a Pakistani press report this reactor began operating in early 1998. Based on the success of these projects and the experience and capability gained during their construction, onsite construction work on the second unit began around 2001 or 2002. In February 2010 Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani and senior military officers attended a ceremony at the Khushab complex for what is believed to be the completion of the second reactor. There has been little to no government comment on the complex or other aspects of the nuclear weapons program since the late 1990s. Judging by external appearance all but the first reactor are identical in design. Khushab-I was commissioned in March 1996 and had gone critical and begun production by early 1998. Construction of Khushab-II started in 2001, it was complete by 2010.
The construction of Khushab-III started in 2006 and was complete by 2013. Similar to the other three completed reactors, Khushab-III is a 50 MWth heavy water reactor producing 11-15 kilograms of plutonium a year for Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme. Construction of Khushab-IV started in 2011. In January 2015 the reactor was believed to be operational. A further reactor has been speculated on. Space-based surveillance has not turned up signs that work has begun yet on any fifth plutonium reactor at Khushab, although construction of major facilities continues; the heavy water plant is estimated to be able to produce between 50 and 100 tons of heavy water per year. Munir Ahmad Khan Khushab Jauharabad Pakistan Plutonium Production Reactor at Khushab Nuclear Site Pakistans Nuclear Ambitions Khushab Complex
Vasily Makarovich Shukshin was a Soviet Russian writer, actor and film director from the Altay region who specialized in rural themes. Vasiliy Makarovich Shukshin was born on 25 July 1929 to a peasant family in the village of Srostki in Altai Krai, USSR, now Altai Krai, Russia. In 1933, his father, Makar Leont'evich Shukshin, was arrested and executed during Soviet collectivization, his mother, Maria Sergeyevna, had to look after the survival of the entire family. By 1943 Shukshin had finished 7 years of village school and entered an automobile technical school in Biysk. In 1945, after two and a half years at the school, but before finishing, he quit to work in a kolkhoz. In 1946 Shukshin left his native village and worked as a metal craftsman at several enterprises in the trust Soyuzprommekhanizatsiya: at the turbine plant in Kaluga, at the tractor plant in Vladimir, etc. In 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy, he first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet a radio operator on the Black Sea.
In 1953 he was returned to his native village. Having passed an external exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian, a school principal in Srostki. In 1954 Shukshin entered the directors department of the VGIK, studied under Mikhail Romm and Sergei Gerasimov, graduated in 1960. While studying at VGIK in 1958, Shukshin had his first leading role in Marlen Khutsiyev's film Two Fedors and appeared in the graduation film by Andrei Tarkovsky. In 1958 Shukhin published his first short story "Two on the cart" in the magazine Smena, his first collection of stories Сельские жители was published in 1963. That same year, he became staff director at the Gorky Film Studio in Moscow, he wrote and directed Живёт такой парень. The film premiered in 1965, winning top honours at the All-Union Film Festival in Leningrad and the Golden Lion at the XVI International Film Festival in Venice. Shukshin was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, was designated Distinguished Artist of the RSFSR.
Shukshin main interest lay in the situation of ordinary, simple people in the present-day Soviet Union. He laced his films both with a melancholy tone. Since 1964, he was married to actress Lidiya Fedoseyeva, who appeared in several of his films, they have a daughter, a TV presenter. Shukshin died on 2 October 1974, on the motor ship Dunai, on the Volga river, while filming They Fought for Their Country, he is buried in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. I Want to Live, Progress Publishers, 1978. Snowball Berry Red and Other Stories, Ardis Publishers, 1979. Short Stories, Raduga Publishers, 1990. Roubles in Words, Kopeks in Figures, Marion Boyars, 1994. Stories from a Siberian Village, Northern Illinois University Press, 1996. Vasili Shukshin on IMDb Vasily Shukshin: Personality and Legend О чувашских корнях выдающегося писателя