The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is the world's oldest operational automobile race. Better known as the Indy 500 or the Indianapolis 500, it is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana; the event is held over Memorial Day weekend in late May. It is contested as part of the IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel open-cockpit formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing"; the name of the race is shortened to Indy 500, the track itself is nicknamed the "Brickyard", as the racing surfacing was paved in brick in the fall of 1909, with a yard of brick remaining exposed at the start/finish line. The event billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world including the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans; the official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to 300,000.
It shares its date with NASCAR's 600-mile event at Charlotte, with drivers having completed both events in one day before in a so-called Double Duty. The inaugural race was won by Ray Harroun; the event celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, the 100th running was held in 2016. The event was put on hiatus twice, from 1917 to 1918 due to World War I and from 1942 to 1945 due to World War II. Simon Pagenaud is the current champion; the most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser Sr. and Rick Mears, each of whom have won the race four times. The active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six; the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 18 total wins and 18 poles. Penske has five wins at the IndyCar Grand Prix, held on the combined road course; the event is steeped in tradition, in pre-race ceremonies, post-race celebrations, race procedure. The most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the 33-car field lining up three-wide for the start, the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk.
Unique is that qualifying requires the driver to complete four, rather than one, timed laps and qualifying itself has a separate weekend. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at a 2.5-mile oval circuit. The track is a rounded-rectangle, with four distinct turns of identical dimensions, connected by four straightaways. Drivers race 200 laps, counter-clockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles. Since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend; the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend is considered one of the most important days on the motorsports calendar, as it is the day of the Indianapolis 500, Coca-Cola 600, the Monaco Grand Prix. Practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race, while miscellaneous preliminary testing is held as early as April. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece.
The event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2018, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport. Dallara is at present the sole chassis supplier to the series. Firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider; the race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Similar to NASCAR's Daytona 500, the Indianapolis 500 is held early in the IndyCar Series season.
That is unique to most sports where major events are at the end of the respective season. The Indy 500 is the sixth event of the 17-race IndyCar schedule. From the 1970s to the 1990s, Indianapolis was the second or third race of the season, as late as the 1950s, it was sometimes the first championship event of the year. Due to the high prestige of the Indianapolis 500—rivaling or surpassing the season championship—it is not uncommon for some teams and drivers to focus on preparing for that race during the early part of the season, not focus on the championship battle until after Indy. Due to safety issues such as aquaplaning, the race is not held in wet conditions. In the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, the track is sufficiently dried. If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race and declare the results official if more than half of the scheduled distance has been completed; the Indianapolis 500, as well as other IndyCar Series races, does not utilize the green–white–checker finish in case of a late-race yellow.
The race can be finished under caution. However, officials may call for a late-race red flag to ensure a green-
Yugoslavia was present at the Eurovision Song Contest 1989, held in Lausanne and won the competition for the first time. The Yugoslavian national final to select their entry, Yugoslav Final 1989, was held on 4 March 1989 at the Grand Hall of the Serbian National Theatre in Novi Sad, was hosted by Dina Čolić and Boško Negovanović; the winning song was chosen by the votes of 8 regional juries. Each TV studio had to choose 1 song that entered straight into the competition and submitted few more songs from which the rest 8 songs were chosen. Riva was the twenty-second and last performer following Germany, their song "Rock Me" won the contest with a score of 137 points. However, according to author and historian John Kennedy O'Connor in The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History it was a unexpected win and BBC TV commentator Terry Wogan described it as "the death knell" for the contest. Eurovision Song Contest 1989 Yugoslavian National Final 1989
Aggie Muster is a tradition at Texas A&M University which celebrates the camaraderie of the school while remembering the lives of Aggies who have died those in the past year. Muster began on April 21, 1903, as a day for remembrance of fellow Aggies. Muster ceremonies today take place in 320 locations globally; the largest muster ceremony occurs on the Texas A&M campus. The "Roll Call for the Absent" commemorates Aggies and current students, who died that year. Aggies light candles, friends and families of Aggies who died that year answer “here” when the name of their loved one is “called”. Campus muster serves as a 50th-year class reunion for the corresponding graduating class; some non-campus muster ceremonies do not include the pageantry of the campus ceremony, might consist of a barbecue. On June 26, 1883, alumni of Texas A&M University gathered together to "live over again their college days, the victories and defeats won and lost upon the drill field and in the classroom." The same year, the Ex-Cadets Association established the "Roll Call for the Absent".
The event grew into a loosely organized annual tradition, but did not have a permanent date set aside until several decades when it merged with a different tradition. In 1889, Texas A&M administrators declared; each year on San Jacinto Day, the cadets would have a field competition. In 1903, then-A&M President Davis Houston encountered much student resistance to the idea of cancelling the holiday. Houston agreed to retain the holiday as long as the students promised to use it for constructive purposes. Beginning April 21, 1903, the tradition of Aggie Muster merged with the Texas Independence celebration, featuring athletic events and banquets to honor alumni. For the next 15 years, the event would occur unchanged as a day of play and fellowship. In 1918, with many alumni away involved in World War I and unable to return to campus, A&M President Bizzell encouraged alumni and the student body to gather wherever they were on April 21, becoming the first Aggie administrator to support the tradition.
In the early 1920s, as Aggies returned from the war and settled throughout Texas, regional A&M clubs formed to reunite alumni. With the proliferation of these groups, the Muster tradition began to have a more formal atmosphere. In 1923, the student radio station WTAW broadcast a statewide program for over two dozen Aggie groups who had gathered at points across Texas; the March 1923 Texas Aggie urged, "If there is an A&M man in one-hundred miles of you, you are expected to get together, eat a little, live over the days you spent at the A&M College of Texas."The tradition of reading aloud the roll call of the dead began in 1924, with the addition of the song "Taps" in 1927. The following year, 23 alumni were added to the roll call. During the Great Depression, Aggies continued to celebrate April 21, calling it "A. and M. Day", using the gathering to help raise money to support students and alumni, as well as advancing a job-placement plan; the most well-known Aggie Muster took place during World War II in 1942 on the Philippine island of Corregidor.
At this time, Corregidor was the last American stronghold against the Japanese forces in the Philippines, Japanese artillery and warplanes were attacking. An estimated 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island in one five-hour stretch. The American artillery commander on Corregidor was Brigadier General George F. Moore, a 1908 graduate of Texas A&M. With the help of Major Tom Dooley, class of 1935, Moore gathered the names of 25 other Aggies under his command. Despite the fierce fighting as the Japanese laid siege to the island, on April 21, 1942, Moore held a roll call—known as muster in army terms—calling the names of each of the Aggies under his command. Only 12 of the 25 survived the POW camps to which the survivors were sent. Dooley told a United Press correspondent about the gathering, the reporter sent an article back to the USA about the 25 Aggies who had "Mustered"; the story captured the imagination of the country and "helped boost American spirits at a time a lift was badly needed."
Lt. Col. William A. Hamilton, Jr. Class of 1940, recognized as the last living survivor of the "Muster on the Rock", died on January 4, 2018, at age 99. Association of Former Students Executive Secretary E. E. McQuillen, Class of 1920, is given credit for refocusing San Jacinto Day as a remembrance for fallen Aggies, he changed the April 21, 1943, celebration to be the first known as an Aggie Muster and sent packets to each A&M club, Aggie Moms club, to military bases around the world with a detailed program of events for April 21. It included greetings from the Muster Poem; the response was overwhelming, with 10,000 Aggies worldwide mustering in 500 locations. The following year, McQuillen added a list of deceased Aggies to the packets, asking each local group to choose names from the list and call them aloud during their ceremony, "as each name is called a comrade will answer'Here'."In April 1945, just eight weeks after Corregidor had been recaptured by the Allies, three Aggies conducted a Muster "on the Rock".
They wrote letters home to McQuillen to let him know about their impromptu Muster. A year on April 21, 1946, an larger Muster occurred on Corregidor. With the war now over, A&M held a special Victory Homecoming Muster on Easter morning in 1946. Over 15 thousand Aggies gathered at Kyle Field to listen to a speech by General Dw