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Indianapolis Public Library

The Indianapolis Public Library is the public library system serving the citizens of Marion County, United States and its largest city, Indianapolis. The library was founded in 1873 and has grown to include a Central Library building, located adjacent to the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, 23 branch libraries spread throughout the county; the library circulates nearly 16 million items. The Central Library building was designed by architect Paul Philippe Cret and completed in 1917. In 2001 the Indianapolis-based architectural firm of Woollen and Partners was commissioned to renovate the historic building; the planned $100 million project included replacing a five-story addition with a new, six-story curved-glass and steel facility and atrium that connected to the Cret building. Construction problems caused construction to be temporarily halted in 2004; the Central Library houses the Nina Mason Pulliam Indianapolis Special Collections Room containing a variety of archival adult and children's materials, both fiction and nonfiction books by local authors, scrapbooks, manuscripts, autographed editions, newspapers and realia.

The collection features Kurt Vonnegut, May Wright Sewall, the Woollen family, James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington. Besides the Central Library, The Indianapolis Public Library operates twenty-three branch libraries and provides bookmobile services. In April 2016, the boards of the Indianapolis and the Beech Grove public libraries voted to merge, with the Beech Grove library becoming the 23rd branch library of the Indianapolis library system on June 1, 2016. In 2014 the library board received approval from the Indianapolis City-County Council to begin issuing $58.5 million in bonds to renovate and relocate existing branches and construct new ones. As of February 2018, the Southport, East Washington, Warren branches had been renovated, with renovations at the Wayne and Lawrence branches scheduled for 2019 and 2021, respectively; the Eagle branch will be relocated to 3905 Moller Road in 2019, the Brightwood branch will be relocated to 25th Street and Sherman Drive, the Glendale branch to a new location in 2022.

Groundbreaking for a new branch at 6201 Michigan Road was held on November 3, 2017, with completion expected in 2018. New branches in Perry Township and in Lawrence will open in 2019 and 2020. Berry, S. L. Stacks: A History of the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library. Indianapolis: Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library Foundation, 2011. Downey, Lawrence J. A Live Thing in the Whole Town: The History of the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library, 1873-1990. Indianapolis: Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library Foundation, 1991. Jean Preer. "Counter Culture: The World as Viewed from Inside the Indianapolis Public Library, 1944–1956". In Christine Pawley. Libraries and the Reading Public in Twentieth-Century America. Print Culture History in Modern America. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299293238. IndyPL website

Vortex generator

A vortex generator is an aerodynamic device, consisting of a small vane attached to a lifting surface or a rotor blade of a wind turbine. VGs may be attached to some part of an aerodynamic vehicle such as an aircraft fuselage or a car; when the airfoil or the body is in motion relative to the air, the VG creates a vortex, which, by removing some part of the slow-moving boundary layer in contact with the airfoil surface, delays local flow separation and aerodynamic stalling, thereby improving the effectiveness of wings and control surfaces, such as flaps, elevators and rudders. Vortex generators are most used to delay flow separation. To accomplish this they are placed on the external surfaces of vehicles and wind turbine blades. On both aircraft and wind turbine blades they are installed quite close to the leading edge of the aerofoil in order to maintain steady airflow over the control surfaces at the trailing edge. VGs are rectangular or triangular, about as tall as the local boundary layer, run in spanwise lines near the thickest part of the wing.

They can be seen on vertical tails of many airliners. Vortex generators are positioned obliquely so that they have an angle of attack with respect to the local airflow in order to create a tip vortex which draws energetic moving outside air into the slow-moving boundary layer in contact with the surface. A turbulent boundary layer is less to separate than a laminar one, is therefore desirable to ensure effectiveness of trailing-edge control surfaces. Vortex generators are used to trigger this transition. Other devices such as vortilons, leading-edge extensions, leading-edge cuffs delay flow separation at high angles of attack by re-energizing the boundary layer. Examples of aircraft which use VGs include the Embraer 170 and Symphony SA-160. For swept-wing transonic designs, VGs alleviate potential shock-stall problems. Many aircraft carry vane vortex generators from time of manufacture, but there are aftermarket suppliers who sell VG kits to improve the STOL performance of some light aircraft.

Aftermarket suppliers claim that VGs lower stall speed and reduce take-off and landing speeds, that VGs increase the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders, thereby improving controllability and safety at low speeds. For home-built and experimental kitplanes, VGs are cheap, cost-effective and can be installed quickly. Owners fit aftermarket VGs to gain benefits at low speeds, but a downside is that such VGs may reduce cruise speed slightly. In tests performed on a Cessna 182 and a Piper PA-28-235 Cherokee, independent reviewers have documented a loss of cruise speed of 1.5 to 2.0 kn. However, these losses are minor, since an aircraft wing at high speed has a small angle of attack, thereby reducing VG drag to a minimum. Owners have reported that on the ground, it can be harder to clear snow and ice from wing surfaces with VGs than from a smooth wing, but VGs are not prone to inflight icing as they reside within the boundary layer of airflow. VGs may have sharp edges which can tear the fabric of airframe covers and may thus require special covers to be made.

For twin-engined aircraft, manufacturers claim that VGs reduce single-engine control speed, increase zero fuel and gross weight, improve the effectiveness of ailerons and rudder, provide a smoother ride in turbulence and make the aircraft a more stable instrument platform. Some VG kits available for light twin-engine airplanes may allow an increase in maximum takeoff weight; the maximum takeoff weight of a twin-engine airplane is determined by structural requirements and single-engine climb performance requirements. For many light twin-engine airplanes, the single-engine climb performance requirements determine a lower maximum weight rather than the structural requirements. Anything that can be done to improve the single-engine-inoperative climb performance will bring about an increase in maximum takeoff weight. In the US from 1945 until 1991, the one-engine-inoperative climb requirement for multi-engine airplanes with a maximum takeoff weight of 6,000 lb or less was as follows: All multi-engine airplanes having a stalling speed V s 0 greater than 70 miles per hour shall have a steady rate of climb of at least 0.02 2 in feet per minute at an altitude of 5,000 feet with the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines operating at not more than maximum continuous power, the inoperative propeller in the minimum drag position, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the most favorable position … where V s 0 is the stalling speed in the landing configuration in miles per hour.

Installation of vortex generators can bring about a slight reduction in stalling speed of an airplane and therefore reduce the required one-engine-inoperative climb performance. The reduced requirement for climb performance allows an increase in maximum takeoff weight, at least up to the maximum weight allowed by structural requirements. An increase in maximum weight allowed by structural requirements can be achieved by specifying a maximum zero fuel weight or, if a maximum zero fuel weight is specified as one of the airplane's limitations, by specifying a new h

James Platt (MP)

James Platt was a British Radical politician and manufacturer. Alongside his brother John, Platt was a partner in the world's largest machine-making firm, Platt Brothers. In 1854, the Platt brothers bought out the Hibberts' interest. Platt was active in local politics, taking a leading role in campaigning for Oldham to be incorporated as a municipal borough; this happened in 1849, with Platt being elected as one of the town's first councillors, holding that position until 1852 when he was defeated. However, he returned to the council in 1853, chosen as an alderman in 1856, he was active on educational issues,noting that "ignorance is... the parent and perpetuation of error and misery". His council career aided his parliamentary career, allowing him to be elected Radical MP for Oldham in 1857. Supporters of the incumbent Radical William Johnson Fox approached both Platt and his brother in 1856 to stand for election, with James accepting. However, local divisions led to a rival candidate John Morgan Cobbett standing in the radical interest.

During campaigning, Platt emphasised his local roots, said he supported extension of education, the ballot, shorter parliaments, the redistribution of seats, universal suffrage, disestablishment of the church, admission of Jews to Parliament. During the course of the campaign, it became apparent Platt would succeed in taking second place, with Fox pushed into third, leading Platt to offer to retire in favour of Fox; this was not pursued. However, Platt's tenure was cut shot by his accidental death just four months later. Platt was killed after a shooting accident on Saddleworth Moor while on an excursion with Oldham mayor Josiah Radcliffe and Joshua Radcliffe, both of whom were his relatives; the trio left Ashway Gap, Platt's hunting Lodge, at around 11:00 on 29 August 1857 but, at around 13:15 when in a gully, Josiah Radcliffe, who had presided over Platt's election, stumbled causing his gun to fire, the bullet hitting Platt in the calf of his right leg. Although Platt was bandaged, he suffered extensive blood loss and, after being moved to his home in Ashway Gap, he died between 14:00 and 15:00.

His death a "gloom" over the local population. After his death, although he had only made three contributions to Parliament, Platt was celebrated in the media—including the Manchester Examiner and The Times—as a "rising man" who would have been to "distinguish himself greatly". Platt was laid to rest in a tomb at Chadderton Cemetery in Oldham on 2 September 1857, his brother, John Platt, followed his footsteps into the seat, elected as a Liberal for the same seat at the 1865 general election. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr James Platt

Panzerkorps GroƟdeutschland

The Panzerkorps Großdeutschland was a German panzer corps in the Wehrmacht which saw action on the Eastern Front in 1944/1945 during World War II. On September 28, 1944 the OKH ordered the creation of Panzer Corps Grossdeutschland, it was planned to contain enlarged corps troops and several panzer divisions. To achieve this, parts of the Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland were, while the division retained its status, used as base for the Generalkommando Panzerkorps Großdeutschland. Units for the staff and the corps troops were: Remnants of the 18th Artillery Division Artillerie-Division-Stab 18 Divisions-Nachrichten-Abteilung 88 Div. Nachschubtruppen 88 Remnants of the XIII Army Corps Elements of the Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland III. Grenadier Regiment Großdeutschland Elements of the Panzer-Grenadier-Division Brandenburg III. Jäger Regiment 1 Brandenburg Elements of the Wehrkreiskommando I Feldpostamt z.b. V. 605 With the addition of the Panzer-Grenadier-Division Brandenburg the corps had its first structure with two active divisions.

The first commander of the corps was General der Panzertruppe Dietrich von Saucken, the former commander of the XXXIX Panzer Corps. Still in the forming phase during the looming of the Soviet Vistula–Oder Offensive the staff and the Brandenburg Division were ordered to Poland, while the Division Großdeutschland was detached to Eastern Prussia; the corps never fought as a unified body, during the retreat towards the west its composition changed. When von Saucken was promoted to command the 2nd Army in February he was succeeded by General der Panzertruppe Georg Jauer, who commanded the corps's 20. Panzer-Grenadier-Division. Never surrendering at-large the corps was dismissed on war's end on May 8, 1945. Heavy Panzer Battalion Großdeutschland Corps Fusilier Regiment Großdeutschland I. Fusilier Btln. II. Fusilier Btln. Regimental Support Company Panzer Field-Replacement Rgt. Großdeutschland 44th Panzer Signals Battalion 500th Artillery Brigade Staff Observation Battery 500th Panzer Artillery Regiment 500th Pioneer Regimental Staff 500th Panzer Pioneer Btln.

500th Reconnaissance Company 500th Staff Escort Company 500th Sound Ranging Platoon 500th Mapping Detachment 500th Military Police Detachment 500th Supply Regiment Generalmajor Gerd-Paul von Below Division Staff z.b. V. 615 687th Pioneer Brigade 3093rd Fortress Machine-Gun Btln. 3094th Fortress Machine-Gun Btln. 3095th Fortress Machine-Gun Btln. 1485th Fortress Infantry Btln. Infantry Battalion z.b. V. 500 Generalmajor Max Lemke Division Staff Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Regiment 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Regiment 2 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Regiment Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Artillery Regiment 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Fusilier Btln. 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Reconnaissance Btln. 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Pioneer Btln. 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Signals Btln. 1 Hermann Göring Fallschirm-Panzer Field-Replacement Btln. 1 Hermann Göring Military Police Detachment Field Post Office 1 Hermann Göring Supply Detachment 1 Hermann Göring Generalmajor Hermann Schulte-Heuthaus Division Staff Brandenburg Jäger Regiment 1 Brandenburg Jäger Regiment 2 Brandenburg Panzer Regiment Brandenburg I.

Panzer Btln. II. Panzer Btln. Tank Destroyer Btln. Brandenburg Armoured Artillery Regiment Brandenburg Armoured Flak Artillery Btln. Brandenburg Armoured Reconnaissance Btln. Brandenburg Panzer Pioneer Btln. Brandenburg Panzer Signals Btln. Brandenburg Field-Replacement Btln. Brandenburg Supply Regiment Brandenburg Generalmajor Georg Scholze Division Staff 76th Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 90th Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 8th Panzer Btln. 20th Artillery Regiment 284th/285th Flak Artillery Btln. 120th Armoured Reconnaissance Btln. 20th Anti-Tank Btln. 20th Field-Replacement Btln. 20th Armoured Signals Btln. 20th Supply Regiment General Dietrich von Saucken General Georg Jauer Books Websites

Brough of Birsay

The Brough of Birsay is an uninhabited tidal island off the north-west coast of The Mainland of Orkney, Scotland, in the parish of Birsay. It is located around 13 miles north of Stromness and features the remains of Pictish and Norse settlements as well as a modern light house; the island is accessible on foot at low tide via a natural causeway. It is separated from the mainland by a 240-metre stretch of water at high tide: the Sound of Birsay; the Norse settlement has been removed by coastal erosion, the cliffs are reinforced by concrete rip-rap to prevent further damage. The Old Norse name for the island was "Byrgisey" which means fort island, gives the parish its name. Brough, means fort; the earliest settlement on the island is thought to have been in the 6th century by Christian missionaries. In the 7th and 8th centuries it was a significant Pictish fortress, but by the 9th century the Picts had been displaced by Norsemen; the Pictish settlement is attested by an important collection of artifacts.

Notable among these are a group of moulds for fine metalworking, showing that bronze brooches and other ornaments were being manufactured on the site in the eighth century. The enclosure round the Norse church overlies a Pictish graveyard, an important Pictish carved stone was found in pieces in this enclosure during site clearance; the most interesting Pictish artifact found is a stone slab showing three figures and some additional Pictish symbols. It is not known what the subject of this carving is, but it shows aristocratic Picts as they wished to be perceived; this early eighth century slab shows a striking procession of three Picts dressed in long robes and bearing spears and square shields. Above the figures are parts of four Pictish symbols. Two simple cross-incised slabs grave-markers, were found in the graveyard, are Pictish or early medieval in date; the extensive remains of an excavated Norse settlement and church overlay the earlier Pictish settlement. Before Kirkwall became the centre of power in the 12th century, Birsay was the seat of the rulers of Orkney.

According to the Orkneyinga saga the main residence of Jarl Thorfinn the Mighty was located in Birsay. At this time the first Bishop of Orkney was appointed and his cathedral, known as "Christchurch," which housed the remains of Saint Magnus on the site of the present day Saint Magnus Kirk, nearby on the Mainland, it was once thought that Earl/Jarl Thorfinn's hall could have been located on the brough but it is today thought to have been nearby on the Mainland. Today, many of the remains of the settlement are visible; the most significant being the remains of a fine, though small Romanesque church. This was dedicated to St. Peter; the church has a semi-circular apse and there are the remains of stone benches for the congregation lining the walls. The red sandstone altar was reconstructed in the 1930s. An enclosure wall surrounding the kirk separated the graveyard from the houses beyond; the church has an interesting shape. There is some evidence of an earlier Pictish church on the same site; the church was a place of pilgrimage until the Middle Ages.

The remains of adjoining buildings round three sides of an open court suggest that it may once have been a small monastery. There were a number of Norse dwellings, some of them of considerable size indicating substantial wealth, they included long houses, featuring both heating and drainage systems and some indications that saunas were present. Although not all the houses were in use at the same time, there was a significant community living here; the site, the objects found there, have been central to debates about the nature of Pictish-Norse relations in Northern Scotland. The site is in the care of Historic Scotland; the unmanned Brough of Birsay Lighthouse lighthouse is on the Brough. Sea bird breeding colonies can be found on the brough. List of islands of Scotland Gurness List of Orkney islands Finds from the Brough of Birsay in the National Museum of Scotland Historic Environment Scotland. "Brough of Birsay, settlements and related remains". Historic Environment Scotland: Visitor guide


Satpalsa is a village in Mayureswar II CD Block in Rampurhat subdivision of Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal. 23.91678°N 87.795734°E / 23.91678. The Mayurakshi flows nearby; the northern portion of Rampurhat subdivision is part of the Nalhati Plains, a sub-micro physiographic region, the southern portion is part of the Brahmani-Mayurakshi Basin, another sub-micro physiographic region occupying the area between the Brahmani in the north and the Mayurakshi in the south. There is an occasional intrusion of Rajmahal Hills, from adjoining Santhal Parganas, towards the north-western part of the subdivision. On the western side is Santhal Parganas and the boder between West Bengal and Jharkhand can be seen in the map. Murshidabad district is on the eastern side. A small portion of the Padma River and the border with Bangladesh can be seen in the north-eastern corner of the map.96.62% of the population of Rampurhat subdivision live the rural areas and 3.38% of the population live in the urban areas.

Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the area. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map; as per the 2011 Census of India, Satpalsa had a total population of 963 of which 502 were males and 461 were females. Population below 6 years was 100; the total number of literates in Satpalsa was 702. Satpalsa High School is a Bengali-medium co-educational school, with facilities for teaching from class VI to class XII, it was established in 1958. Satpalsa Rural Hospital at PO Basudebpur has 30 beds