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Indigenous people of New Guinea

The indigenous peoples of New Guinea called Papuans, are Melanesians. There is genetic evidence for two major historical lineages in New Guinea and neighboring islands: a first wave from the Malay archipelago 50,000 years ago when New Guinea and Australia were a single landmass called Sahul, much a wave of Austronesian people from the north who introduced Austronesian languages and pigs about 3,500 years ago, who left a small but significant genetic trace in many coastal Papuan peoples. Linguistically, Papuans speak languages from the many families of non-Austronesian languages which are found only on New Guinea and neighboring islands, as well as Austronesian languages along parts of the coast and developed creoles such as Tok Pisin and Papuan Malay; the term "Papuan" is used in a wider sense in linguistics and anthropology. In linguistics, "Papuan languages" is a cover term for the diverse mutually unrelated non-Austronesian language families spoken in Melanesia, the Torres Strait Islands and parts of Wallacea.

In anthropology, "Papuan" is used to denote the diverse aboriginal populations of Melanesia and Wallacea prior to the arrival of Austronesian-speakers, the dominant genetic traces of these populations in the current ethnic groups of these areas. In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et al. found that the Papuan people have among the highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM Haplogroup D, at 59.4% occurrence of the 6,000-year-old allele. While it is not yet known what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to increase. Main Y-DNA Haplogroups of Papuan people are Haplogroup K2b1 and Haplogroup C1b2a with a significant minority of them belong to Haplogroup O-M175; the following indigenous peoples live within the modern borders of Papua New Guinea. Austronesian-speaking groups are given in italics. Aboriginal Australians Indigenous Australians Koteka Tribal Assembly Moluccans Negrito Papua conflict Proto-Australoid Stéphane Breton Torres Strait Islanders between New Guinea and mainland Australia.

Media related to People of Papua New Guinea at Wikimedia Commons


Manikata is a small village in the limits of Mellieħa in the northwestern part of Malta. It oversees the farming areas in the valley between il-Manikata. Population 539, Families 40; the main industry of Manikata is farming. The valleys around this village are rich in produce. All year round the fields are tended and the produce is enjoyed by many. Grapes, potatoes, melons, water melons, oranges, pomegranates and many other crops are seen in the fields. There are many beekeepers in this area. Translates into “Apple’s Spring”, it is located just east of one of three bays carved out of the cliffs. It is situated at the bottom of Wied tal-Pwales The sea is deep blue and aquamarine water interspersed with emerald and white stretches of sand. Golden Bay is another one of the few sandy beaches located on the southern coast of Malta; the sand at the edge of the water at this bay is peppered with small pebbles and reaching the water can be tricky. The water here can be quite rough at times; as you swim away from the beach, the currents can be quite strong.

This is one of the best places for sunsets on the Maltese islands. The water shimmers. A lot of cart ruts are found around Manikata; these date to a period between the Bronze Age and the Roman Era. One particular line of cart ruts surfaces from under the trees in the Miżieb area, proceeds towards the parish church and goes towards the cliffs hanging above Mejjiesa Bay. In the area of Il-Ġnien ta’ Għajn Tuffieħa there are the remains of Roman baths that formed part of a rural villa. Nearer to Manikata there are several Roman tombs; some of them have been obliterated when people cut across the cliff side to level the ground and make space for their fields. Other tombs are found in caves and have been modified by subsequent cave inhabitants to be used as storage space; some tombs were used as air-raid shelters during World War Two. During the Middle Ages, the lands at Għajn Tuffieħa and Manikata were used for the cultivation of crops and fruit trees. Fields belonged to land owners from the capital city and its suburb, Rabat.

The farmers inhabited the caves in the vicinity. The caves housed sheep and oxen. People used to come here to collect fire wood. A night watch was kept over the sea cliffs of Għajn Tuffieħa by men from Mosta forming part of the civil corps called Dejma. On the 18th of May 1565 the Turkish fleet anchored in the bays around Manikata, namely Mejjiesa, Mixquqa, Għajn Tuffieħa and Ġnejna; the following day it arrived at Marsaxlokk Bay to the South East where Turkish soldiers landed to begin their assault on Birgu, the general headquarters of the Order. In 1637, Grand Master Lascaris came to Għajn Tuffieħa to lay the foundation stone of Għajn Tuffieħa Tower. Grand Master Lascaris built other watch towers at Ġnejna and Binġemma, he built Saint Agatha's Tower, the red tower dominating Mellieħa Bay. Towards the end of the Order’s reign, coastal entrenchments were built over Mixquqa Bay, near modern-day Golden Sands Hotel; these were meant to prevent enemy troops from landing on the sandy beach below From 1902 onwards, a number of farmers in Manikata and Għajn Tuffieħa lost a vast amount of agricultural land, taken over by the Admiralty for the construction of a Royal Marines Training Centre.

The Għajn Tuffieħa Camp consisted of shooting ranges and residential quarters for soldiers, their families and camp officials. During World War One the camp was covered in tents and used as a military hospital to cure wounded soldiers that were brought here from the war front. People from Manikata used to work in this emergency hospital as nurses. In 1935 Benito Mussolini, the Fascist ruler of Italy, invaded Abbisinia in Africa; the British suspected. So, they built; these were camouflaged with rubble walls. Two such beach posts were built in Manikata in 1935, one near Għajn Tuffieħa Tower and one near the Razzett tal-Qasam; when the Second World War broke out, more beach posts were built along the coast. These were provided with a search light. Over Għajn Tuffieħa Gardens, an anti-aircraft battery was built. Due to the presence of the Admiralty camp, Manikata was a target during air-raids; the residents used to take shelter in caves or in Roman tombs. Manikata is home to about 1000 inhabitants. New houses and villas have been built recently.

People from different parts of the Maltese islands have come to live here in search of serenity and beautiful surroundings. Many local villagers are part-time farmers, their fields are found in the surrounding areas known as il-Ġnien ta’ Għajn Tuffieħa, il-Wilġa ta’ Għajn Tuffieħa, il-Miżieb and ix-Xagħra l-Ħamra. Every last Sunday in August the parish celebrates the feast of St. Joseph. On the eve of the parish feast, the local community celebrates Lejla Sajfija għaż-Żiffa, a Summer Breeze Night, where the villagers put their best talents and products on show, including songs, paintings, hand crafts, fruits, wine, olive oil... In the north-east of the Manikata church there is a medium barren land called Tal-Qargħa; this land contains a number of archaeological remains cart-ruts, old quarry and walls built of large stones. In the land there is a girna and in the west of the structure there is a wall some 8 metres long and in it there are

Neuregulin 2

Neuregulin 2 known as NRG2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NRG2 gene. Neuregulin 2 is a novel member of the neuregulin family of differentiation factors. Through interaction with the ErbB family of receptors, NRG2 induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal and other types of cells; the gene consists of 12 exons and the genomic structure is similar to that of neuregulin 1, another member of the neuregulin family of ligands. NRG1 and NRG2 mediate distinct biological processes by acting at different sites in tissues and eliciting different biological responses in cells; the gene is located close to the region for demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease locus, but is not responsible for this disease. Alternative transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described

Brittany Apartment Building

The Brittany Apartment Building is a historic apartment building in downtown Cincinnati, United States. A Queen Anne structure constructed in 1885, it is a six-story rectangular structure with a flat roof, built with brick walls and elements of wood and sandstone, it was built by the firm of Thomas Emery's Sons, Cincinnati's leading real estate developers during the 1880s. It is one of four large apartment complexes erected by the Emerys during the 1880s. Both the Lombardy and the Brittany were built in 1885 according to designs by Samuel Hannaford. Among the distinctive elements of the Brittany's architecture are the massive chimneys on each end of the building; the exterior of the building is covered with decorative pieces, such as a comprehensive cornice with boxed pediments, plentiful brick pilasters and corbelling, prominent bay windows. In 1980, the Brittany Apartment Building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, due to its well-preserved historic architecture. Dozens of other properties in Cincinnati, including the Lombardy Apartment Building, were added to the Register at the same time as part of a multiple property submission of buildings designed by Samuel Hannaford.

Eight months the portion of Ninth Street between Vine and Race Streets was added to the Register as the Ninth Street Historic District, the Brittany Apartments were named one of the district's dozens of contributing properties. The building has been redone as housing 15 units of luxury condominiums. Owner's website


The Kyosei-kai is a yakuza group based in Hiroshima, with an estimated 280 active members and 470 semi-active members. The Kyosei-kai is the largest yakuza organization in the Chugoku region; the Kyosei-kai was formed in May 1964 from seven yakuza clans united by bakuto Tatsuo Yamamura. The Kyosei-kai is known for its history of fierce conflicts with various other yakuza groups, therefore, the Kyosei-kai is thought to be most responsible for creating Hiroshima's "town of violence" image. Notably the Kyosei-kai has been in conflict with the Yamaguchi-gumi, the largest yakuza syndicate, since the early 1960s; the Kyosei-kai was a leading member of two anti-Yamaguchi federations, the Kansai Hatsuka-kai and the Nishinippon Hatsuka-kai, has formed a new anti-Yamaguchi federation named the Gosha-kai since 1996 with three other Chugoku-based organizations, the Kyodo-kai, the Asano-gumi, the Goda-ikka, the Shikoku-based Shinwa-kai. The Battles Without Honor and Humanity yakuza film series is based on actual 20th-century yakuza conflicts engaged in by Hiroshima yakuza syndicates the events leading up to the formation of the Kyosei-kai.

1st: Tatsuo Yamamura 2nd: Takeshi Hattori 3rd: Hisashi Yamada 4th: Isao Okimoto 5th: Atsumu Moriya

Allan C. Spradling

Allan C. Spradling is an American scientist and principal investigator at the Carnegie Institution for Science and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute who studies egg development in the model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, he is considered a leading researcher in the developmental genetics of the fruit fly egg and has developed a number of techniques in his career that have led to greater understanding of fruit fly genetics including contributions to sequencing its genome. He is an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University and at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Spradling obtained an A. B. in physics from the University of Chicago and a Ph. D. in cell biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Spradling and fellow American geneticist Gerald M. Rubin are considered pioneers in the field of genetics for their work in the early 1980s with their idea to "attach" a gene to a Drosophila transposon, P elements, known to insert itself into fruit fly's chromosomes.

From this research came work from other scientists on transposons as a tool for genetic alterations in organisms. In 2003 Spradling was awarded the Beadle Medal and in 2008 Spradling was awarded the Gruber Prize in Genetics for his work on the Drosophila genome and continues his work in investigating novel technological approaches to genetics, egg development and stem cells