Indigenous peoples of Siberia

Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people. As a result of the 17th to 19th century Russian conquest of Siberia and the subsequent population movements during the Soviet era, the demographics of Siberia today is dominated by native speakers of Russian. There remain a considerable number of indigenous groups, between them accounting for below 10% of total Siberian population, which are genetically related to indigenous peoples of the Americas. In Kamchatka the Itelmens' uprisings against Russian rule in 1706, 1731, 1741, were crushed. During the first uprising the Itelmen were armed with only stone weapons, but in uprisings they used gunpowder weapons; the Russian Cossacks faced tougher resistance from the Koryaks, who revolted with bows and guns from 1745 to 1756, were forced to give up in their attempts to wipe out the Chukchi in 1729, 1730-1, 1744-7. After the Russian defeat in 1729 at Chukchi hands, the Russian commander Major Dmitry Pavlutsky was responsible for the Russian war against the Chukchi and the mass slaughters and enslavement of Chukchi women and children in 1730-31, but his cruelty only made the Chukchis fight more fiercely.

A war against the Chukchis and Koryaks was ordered by Empress Elizabeth in 1742 to expel them from their native lands and erase their culture through war. The command was that the natives be "totally extirpated" with Pavlutskiy leading again in this war from 1744-47 in which he led to the Cossacks "with the help of Almighty God and to the good fortune of Her Imperial Highness", to slaughter the Chukchi men and enslave their women and children as booty; however this phase of the war came to an inconclusive end, when the Chukchi forced them to give up by killing Pavlutskiy and decapitating him. The Russians were launching wars and slaughters against the Koryaks in 1744 and 1753-4. After the Russians tried to force the natives to convert to Christianity, the different native peoples like the Koryaks, Chukchis and Yukaghirs all united to drive the Russians out of their land in the 1740s, culminating in the assault on Nizhnekamchatsk fort in 1746. Kamchatka today is European in demographics and culture with only 2.5% of it being native, around 10,000 from a previous number of 150,000, due to infectious diseases, such as smallpox, mass suicide and the mass slaughters by the Cossacks after its annexation in 1697 of the Itelmen and Koryaks throughout the first decades of Russian rule.

The genocide by the Russian Cossacks devastated the native peoples of Kamchatka and exterminated much of their population. In addition to committing genocide the Cossacks devastated the wildlife by slaughtering massive numbers of animals for fur. 90% of the Kamchadals and half of the Vogules were killed from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries and the rapid genocide of the indigenous population led to entire ethnic groups being wiped out, with around 12 exterminated groups which could be named by Nikolai Iadrintsev as of 1882. Much of the slaughter was brought on by the fur trade. In the 17th century, indigenous peoples of the Amur region were attacked and colonized by Russians who came to be known as "red-beards"; the Russian Cossacks were named luocha, rakshasa by Amur natives, after demons found in Buddhist mythology. They feared the invaders as they ruthlessly colonized the Amur tribes, invaders who were subjects of the Qing dynasty during the Sino–Russian border conflicts; the Aleuts in the Aleutians in Alaska were subjected to genocide and slavery for the first 20 years of Russian rule, with the Aleut women and children captured and Aleut men slaughtered.

Catherine the Great issued various instructions to prevail humanity in the treatment with indigenous peoples. The regionalist oblastniki was, in the 19th century, among the Russians in Siberia who acknowledged that the natives were subjected to violence of genocidal proportions by the Russian colonization, they claimed. The colonizers used slaughter and disease to bring the natives under their control, some small nomadic groups disappeared, much of the evidence of their obliteration has itself been destroyed, with only a few artifacts documenting their presence remaining in Russian museums and collections. In 1918-1921 there was a violent revolutionary upheaval in Siberia. Russian Cossacks under Captain Grigori Semionov established themselves as warlords by crushing the indigenous peoples who resisted colonization; the Russian colonization of Siberia and conquest of its indigenous peoples has been compared to European colonization in the United States and its natives, with similar negative impacts on the natives and the appropriation of their land.

However Siberian experience was different, as settlement was not resulted to dramatic native depopulation. The Slavic Russians outnumber all of the native peoples in Siberia and its cities except in the Republic of Tuva and Sakha Republic, with the Slavic Russians making up the majority in the Buriat Republic and Altai Republics, outnumbering the Buriat and Altai natives; the Buriat make up only 29% of their own Republic, Altai is only one-third, the Chukchi, Khanti and Nenets are outnumbered by non-natives by 90% of the population. The Czars and Soviets enacted policies to force natives to change their way of life, while rewarding ethnic Russians with the natives’ reindeer herds and wild game they had confiscated; the reindeer herds have been mismanaged to the point of extinction. Classifying the diverse population by language, it includes speakers of the following language families: Uralic Permic Samoyedic (some 70

Millbrook Proving Ground

Millbrook Proving Ground is an English vehicle testing centre located at Millbrook, Bedfordshire. One of the largest vehicle testing centres in Europe, it is near to the Bedford. Modelled on the Milford Proving Ground operated by General Motors in Michigan, Millbrook was opened in the 1960s by the GM subsidiary Bedford before passing over to Vauxhall. Due to the geographical needs of a full testing centre, including both hills and flat land, the traditional choice of a former Royal Air Force airfield was ruled out and many sites around the UK were surveyed before the location at Millbrook was decided upon due to having the benefit of being close to Vauxhall's production site at Luton. Construction of the Proving Ground began in 1968, once the facility opened in 1970 it acted as the testing site for many European GM models from, among others, the Vauxhall and Bedford companies. With Bedford withdrawing from the bus and truck markets in December 1986, Millbrook was put up for sale by GM. In 1988 the site was transferred to a new company, Millbrook Proving Ground Limited as part of Lotus and began to offer its facilities as well to non-GM companies.

With the sale of Lotus in 1993 Millbrook was transferred to GM Holdings UK Limited, as an independently managed company and began to diversify into all aspects of vehicle testing including emission control. In October 2013, the proving ground was purchased by Rutland Partners. In September 2016 it was sold to Spectris; the centre provides vehicle test and development facilities including: Vehicle and system assessment Powertrain development Safety testing. Climate controlled chamber that can simulate conditions from -20 to +50°CThese are staffed by engineering teams who work with manufacturers on their test and development programmes. Millbrook has a wide range of types of test tracks; the most prominent are the: Hill Route – divided into three sections or loops which contain progressively steeper gradients as well as many tight corners. Sometimes seen in motoring television programmes, for example Top Gear the "ski-jump" where it is easy for vehicles to become airborne. Outer and Inner Handling circuits – technical twisty circuits used for extreme testing of vehicle dynamic characteristics.

High Speed Bowl – a two-mile banked circuit used for higher speed testing. The proving ground maintains a high standard of security and secrecy to protect the commercial interests of its customers. Public access is not permitted and the facility is hidden from view. Limited supervised access to the facilities is available through some driver training organisations. Millbrook has been used in the filming of many television programs and films including: Casino Royale Top Gear: Series 6, episode 2 Series 8, episode 1 Series 10, episode 7 Series 12, episode 1 Series 28, episode 2 The Grand Tour: Series 3, episode 9 RadioX - The Chris Moyles Show - Car Roulette Competition Official website Collection of historic documents on the Millbrook Proving Ground

University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center

The University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center holds the unique distinction of being the only comprehensive cancer center in Wisconsin, as designated by the National Cancer Institute, the lead federal agency for cancer research. It is an integral part of both the University of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, it is located in Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center is committed to defeating cancer through the rapid application of groundbreaking research and treatment. Cancer research on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus has a rich history, starting with the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, established in 1940. Dr. Harold Rusch was the first director of the McArdle Laboratory until 1972. After the National Cancer Act of 1971, Dr. Rusch submitted a proposal to create a new comprehensive cancer center at the University of Wisconsin; the resulting Clinical Cancer Center was one of six original NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers and was awarded NCI designation in 1973.

Dr. Paul Carbone was recruited from the NCI in 1975 to lead the UW's Division of Clinical Oncology, after Dr. Rusch's retirement in 1978, Dr. Carbone was named the Director of the Comprehensive Cancer Center. Dr. Carbone led the UW Comprehensive Cancer Center from 1978 to 1997 through a period of exceptional scientific and clinical growth while promoting further interdisciplinary science through collaborations across departments. Dr. John Niederhuber served as UW Comprehensive Cancer Center director from 1997 to 2002, his most notable accomplishment was the consolidation of NCI cancer center support grants for the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research and the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center. This consolidation led to one NCI-designated grant on the UW-Madison campus. Dr. Niederhuber went on to become director of the National Cancer Institute, serving from 2006 to 2010. Following Dr. Niederhuber's departure, Dr. George Wilding served as interim director before being named director in January 2004.

Dr. Wilding guided the UW Comprehensive Cancer Center through tremendous growth from 2004 to 2013, which included over 30 tenured faculty recruitments and $250 million in cancer funding, an emphasis on transdisciplinary research that fostered changes in the management structure, physical growth of facilities and overall multidisciplinary approach. In 2006, the Cancer Center was renamed the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center to honor the legacy of Dr. Carbone. In September 2013, Dr. Howard Bailey became interim director of UW Carbone. Dr. Bailey has been a faculty member since 1994, with near continuous peer reviewed funding, a member of the NCI subcommittee A for Core Grant review since 2012. Dr. Howard Bailey was appointed Director in April 2015. Under Dr. Bailey's leadership and members developed a stronger and deeper communication network. UW Carbone has been successful competing for multi-investigator and central cancer-oriented grants during the previous and current NCI support grant periods.

UW Carbone space is now approaching a three-fold increase to 389,000 square feet of contiguous space on the west end of campus, the administrative and scientific leadership structure has been strengthened through the addition of Associate and Assistant Director roles. Clinical services have grown with continued expansion of clinical facilities and organizational structure. UW Carbone is a matrix cancer center, allowing it to extend its influence through multiple departments and schools on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus. UW Carbone unites physicians and scientists who work together in translating discoveries from research laboratories into new treatments that benefit cancer patients; the center engages with more than 2,300 UW faculty and staff across the UW campus and treats more than 30,000 patients per year. UW Carbone formed the Wisconsin Oncology Network, a regional network to allow community health centers from throughout Wisconsin and northern Illinois to enroll patients in select cancer clinical trials that are open at UW Carbone.

The scientific mission of the UW Carbone Cancer Center is organized around six scientific programs. UW Carbone programs encompass laboratory research, clinical research, population sciences and advanced research training: Developmental Therapeutics: Discovering new targets and therapeutic agents and moving them into clinical trials. Cancer Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms: Discovering novel cancer genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and translating mechanistic insights derived principally from mouse models and primary human cancer samples to human cancer patients. Human Cancer Virology: Researching the viruses that cause 15 to 20 percent of all human cancers, including the viral gene functions that are required both for tumor development and for continued survival of malignant cells in the final tumor. Imaging and Radiation Sciences: Pursuing basic and clinical research involving ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Cancer Prevention and Control: Identifying effective approaches to reduce the burden of cancer for patients, their families, communities through improved prevention, early detection, survival.

Tumor Microenvironment: Studying cancer cell interactions within the context of their local environment. In addition to the scientific mission, outreach – helping the public understand cancer's impact on our daily lives – is a key component of UW Carbone. Programs and affiliations include: Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Designed to reduce the burden of cancer for all in Wis