Indo-Aryan languages

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South Asia
Linguistic classification Indo-European
Proto-language Proto-Indo-Aryan
ISO 639-2 / 5 inc
Linguasphere 59= (phylozone)
Glottolog indo1321[1]
1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one-half of all Indo-European speakers (about 1.5 of 3 billion), and more than half of all Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue. While the languages are primarily spoken in South Asia, pockets of Indo-Aryan languages are found to be spoken in Europe and the Middle East.

The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[2] Bengali (242 million),[3] Punjabi (about 100 million),[4] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[5]



Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Old Indo-Aryan[edit]

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Vedic has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Mitanni-Aryan is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords. The language of the Vedas - commonly referred to as "Vedic Sanskrit" by modern scholars - is only marginally different from reconstructed Proto-Indo-Aryan.

From the Vedic, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Vedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)[edit]

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan[edit]

Dialect continuum[edit]

The Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The Indo-Aryan prakrits also gave rise to languages like Sindhi, Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Odia, Nepali, Marathi, and Punjabi, which are not considered to be part of this dialect continuum.


In the Western Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[6][7] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[8][9][10] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[11] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.


Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[12]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages[edit]


Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[13] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom.[14]


Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[15] and the Armenian language.


The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[16] Romani — spoken mainly in various parts of Europe — is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century. /ref>


Language region map of India, most commonly spoken first language.[17] Right click to see image summary giving 'List of percentage of people speaking as L1'.

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).


Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers
Pashayi - 400,000 speakers

Northern Zone[edit]

Central Pahari
Eastern Pahari

Northwestern Zone[edit]

Dogri-Kangri (Western Pahari)

Western Zone[edit]

Ethnologue lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[18]

  • Marwari - 22 million speakers
  • Rajasthani proper - 20 million speakers
  • Mewati - 3 million speakers
  • Malvi - 5.6 million speakers
  • Dhundari - 9.6 million speakers
  • Harauti - 4.7 million speakers
  • Mewari - 5.1 million speakers
  • Shekhawati - 3 million speakers
  • Bagri - 2.1 million speakers
  • Dhatki - 150,000 speakers
  • Gujarati - 49 million speakers
  • Jandavra - 5,000 speakers
  • Sourashtra - 190,000 speakers
  • Aer - 100 speakers
  • Vaghri - 10,000 speakers
  • Vasavi - 1.2 million speakers
  • Koli - 1.4 million speakers
    • Parkari Koli - 250,000 speakers
    • Kachi Koli - 500,000 speakers
    • Wardiyara Koli - 542,000 speakers
Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
Domari - 4 million speakers

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)[edit]

Indic, Central Zone

Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi
Eastern Hindi

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.

Eastern Zone[edit]

These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa Prakrit. The most widely-spoken languages in this family are Bengali with 250 million speakers, Bhojpuri with 40 million speakers, and Odia with 33 million speakers. The Eastern Nagari script is the most widely used script, and is used for the Bengali-Assamese languages, and for Maithili and Angika which use the Tirhuta and Anga Lipi variations of the script respectively. The Kaithi script was once a commonly used script used for the Bhojpuri language and Magahi language but has now been replaced by the Devanagari script. The Odia script is used for the Odia language,[19] Sylheti Nagari script (closely related to the Kaithi script) is used for Sylheti and Hanifi script is used for the Rohingya language (along with Perso-Arabic, Latin and Burmese script).

Tharu - 1.9 million speakers
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) - 33 million speakers

Southern Zone languages[edit]

This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.


Insular Indic[edit]

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.


The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:


Chinali–Lahul Lohar[21]

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.


The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.



Stop positions[22][edit]

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, //, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, //, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, //, /t/, /ts/, //, /k/ E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, //, /k/ Romani
//, /ʈ/, /k/ (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti
//, /t/ Chittagonian


Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.


The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
m n
(f) s ʃ x (fʲ)
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ʂ ɕ
z ʐ ʑ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
w j
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ʃ
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l
ɾʱ lʱ
[w] [j]
p t k
b d ɡ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
ʈ (tʃ) k
b ɖ (dʒ) ɡ
m n ŋ
f s (ʃ) x
z ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s (ʃ)
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
([w]) ([j])
p t k
b d g
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[w] [j]
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language and dialect[edit]

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[24]

Language comparison chart[edit]

English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki
beautiful sundara sundar futaro sundar sundar sohnā suhɳā šundor,sudarshon shundor sondar chand, sundar suhnar, khapsoorat sundara sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra
blood rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta khūn, rakta, lahū lahū, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu roxto, lou ratth rakt, ragat khūn, lahū rakta, Lohu, Rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat
bread rotika, polika paũ, roṭlā falko chapāti, poli, bhākarī chapātī, roṭī roṭi pʰulko, maanī (pau-)ro̊ŧi ruti tçhot roti, rot, polo, poli, chapati, pav roṭī pauruṭi Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti roṭi, sohāri paan, roti roṭī, paũroṭi, manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha
bring anayati lā-v lajyo ān- lā- lyā ɖe an, an- an- ann haad lāv- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ān ghenna lyaunu anel ghin aa, Lai aa
brother bhrātṛ, bandhu, sahodara bhāi beero, bhayo, veer bhau, bandhu bhāī prā, pāh bʱau bhai, bhaiya bai, baiya boéy bhav, bhau bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bhaīyā sahodarayā, bæyā bhāi (younger)
dāi, dāju, dādā, dājai (elder
phral bhrā, vīr, lala
come āgachchhati āv- av- ā- ā, āo, ājā ach aš- a- vall yo, ye āv- āsantu, ās-, ā- āsun, Aa ah- abhin,āu enna, ena āunu āgachcha āvel āo
cry roditi, rauti, krandati raḍ- rodno, roosno raḍ- rō- rō- rōaɳ kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann xand-, xañ- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- aňdanawa, haňdanawa runu rodanam rovel rovanra
dark andhaḥkāra andhārũ gairo andhār, kāḷokh andhera hanerā ôndʱah ondhokar, ãdhar andair anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anhār, anhera andhāra, Andhakara andhār andhar, ôndhôkar anhār aňduru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhakāra andhakaaro kalo andhara
daughter duhitṛ, putrī chhokḍi sagi, sago, chori lek, mulagī, poragī beṭi dʱī dʱī meye, beṭi furi, zi koor dhuv dhiyā, beṭi, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhiā duva, dū, diyaniya chhori chhai Dhee
day divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara ɖīhn din, diboš din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din dives denh, jehara
do kṛ-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- xor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu kerel karo
door dvāra, kapāṭa darvāzo, kerel kivand dār, darvāzā darvāzā, kavad būha, dar, darvāza darvāzo dorja, dur dorza, doroza darwaaz, dār, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darvājā, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza kebār dora, dwāraya dhoka vudar buha, dar
die mṛ-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- mor-, mori za- marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu merel marna
egg aṇḍa, ḍimba iṇḍũ ando aṇḍa anḍā aṇḍā aṇɖo, bedo đim dim, enda, boida thool ande, motto anḍā anḍā, ḍimba anḍā, ḍim, Gaar kôni anḍā bittharaya, biju aṇḍā anro anda, aana
salt kṣāra, sala, lavaṇa mithu loon lavan/meeth namak lūn/nūn namak lūn lobon, nun lobon, nun, nimox noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn nūn lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon
earth pṛthvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitrī pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn dhartī dhartī prithibi, duniya, dhora duniai, dunya, zomin daertī (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti
eye netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu āñkh aankharli ḍoḷā, netra āñkh akh akh chokh, āñkhi, noyon souk aéchh dolo āñkh ākhi ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ānkhā yakh akh
father pitṛ, janaka, tāta bāp baap, kaako pitā, vaḍil, bāba bāp piyō, pite, pita piu, baba baba, abba, bap abba, abbu, baba, baf mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan bāp, bābuji, pitāji bāpa, bābā bāpā, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) bābū piyā, thātthā buwā, bāu, pitā dad abbā, piyoo
fear bhaya, bhīti, traasa bik, ḍar bhau bhītī, bhaya, ghābar- ḍar, ghabrāhat ḍar, bhau ɖapu bhoy, đor dor dar bhay ḍar ḍara, Bhaya ḍar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bhīthiya dar dar, trash darr
finger añguli, añguliyaka āñgḷi aangli bōt anguli, ungli ungal, ungli āngur angul, onguli angul ungij bot, aangal anguri ānguthi āngthi aŋuli āngur äňgili aunlā angusht ungil
fire agni, bhujyu agni, jvaḷa baste āg, agni, jāḷ, vistava āg agg bāh agoon agun agénn, nār ujo (from Sanskrit udyota), aag, agni āgh agni, nia Joye, nia zui āig agni, gini, gindara āgo manta yag bhaa
fish matsya māchhli maachhali māsā machhlī machhī machhī mach maas gāda nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri māchha māch mass māch masun, mathsya, mālu māchā machho machhey
food bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), āhāra, etc. anna, khorāk, poshaṇ khaano, lyojibhaya jēvana, bhojan, anna, āhār khānā, bhojan khānā khādho, ann, māni khabar, khani xani khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan khādya, bhojana, āhāra āhāra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khenāi āhāra, kæma, bojun, bhojana khānā, anna, āhār xal roti-tukkur, khanra
go gachchhati, yāti jā- jā- jā- jā- jā- vaɲ ja- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) jāntu, Ja- jāun, Ja- zu-, za- jāhin yanna, yana janu, jā jal vanj
god deva, īśvara, parmeśvara, devata, bhagavān, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān isar, bavji, dai dev, parmeshwar, ishwar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā pagvān, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā, sāin, mālik rob, khoda rob, xuda dai, divta, bagvān, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagvān, mālik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan Maphru, bhagbān, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagvān devi, dēvathāvā bhagawān, deutā, ishwor devel rab, mālik
good shobhna, uttama sārũ chokho chāngle, chhān, uttama achhā changa suʈʰo bhalo bala rut (moral "good"), jān (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bhāla Bane, bhāl bhal neek, neeman hoňdhai, hoňda raamro, asal lachho, mishto changa
grass tṛṇa, kusha ghāsthāro chaaro gavata ghās ghāh ghãhu ghaš gash, gah dramunn tan (from Prakrit tiṇa, Sanskrit tṛṇa) ghās ghāsa Jhaar, ghāns ghãh ghās, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo char ghā
hand hasta hāth haat hāt hāth hath hatʰu haat aat atth haat hāth hāta hāt, Bahu hat hāth atha, hasthaya hāt vast hat
head śira, mastaka, kapāla, mūrdhā māthũ sir, maatha ḍoke, munḍake, mastaka, tāḷke sir, shīsh sir, sīs matʰo matha, shir matha kalla maate (from Prakrit matthao, Sanskrit Mastaka) sīr, šīs, kapār munḍa Mud mur, matha māth, mūri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer shero ser
heart hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hruday, kāḷij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor dil, ontor ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu ilo Dil
horse ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga ghoḍũ ghodo ghoda ghoṛa koṛa ghoɽʱo ghoɍa ghuɍa gur ghodo ghoṛa ghoda ghoda ghůra ghodā ashvaya, thuranga ghodā khoro, grast ghora
house gṛha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar kār ghôr ɡʱar, jaɡʱah ghor ghor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar
hunger bubuksha, kshudhā bhukh bhukh bhūk bhūkh pukh bhūkhayal bhukh, khida bhuk bo'tchh bhuk bhūkh bhoka bhok bhuk bhūkh kusagini, badagini bhok bokh bhuk
language bhāshā, vāNī bhāshā boli, zaban bhāshā bhāshā, zabān, baat boli, zabān, pasha ɓoli, bhasha, zabān bhaša basha, zobān, maat booyl, zabān bhasha, bhas bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhāsā bhaxa bhāshā bhashawa, basa bhāshā chhib boli, zaban
laugh (v.) hāsa, smera has- has- hās- hãs- hassa kʰillu haš, hãš ash- assun has- has- hãs- hās- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu asal khill
life jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav jīvan, jīv jīvan, zindagī jindrī, jīvan, jind zindagī ɉibon, zindegi zibon, zindegi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, prāna jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi jivipen zindgey
moon chandramā, soma, māsa chandra, chāndo chaan, chando chandra chandramā, chandā, chānd chann, chānd chanɖ cãd, condro, chand sand tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, saňdu, haňda chandramā, juun chhon chandr
mother janani, mātṛ mā, bā mai, ma āi, māi mā, mata, mai māo, amma ma, amma, ammu ma, amma, ammu maeyj amma, mai matāri, māi, amma mā, bou ai, ma mawa, amma, matha, mæni āmā, muwā, mumā, mātā dai amma, maa
mouth ās, mukha moḍhũ, mukha moondo tond, mukha mūñh mūñh, mukh mūñh, vāt mukh muk mūñh tond, mukh mūñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh mūh mukha, kata mukh, thutuno
name nāma nām naam nāv nām nālo nam naam naav naav nā, nām nāma, nā nam nām nama, nāmaya nām nav
night raatri, rajani, nishā, naktam, etc. rāt, rātri, nishā raati, raat rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāt rat, ratri, nishi rait, ratri, shob raath raat, ratri rāt rāti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati rāit rāthriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri raat
open uttana, udhatita khullũ khulyuda ughad, khol khulā khulla, khol khol khulā kulā khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khullā kholā kholā khula khujal harinna khulla rat khulla
peace shānti shānti, shāntatā shaanti shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman, sakūn shānti, aman, sukoon šanti shanti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay sānti-sakoon, aman sānti sānti xanti shānti sāmaya, shāntiya shaanti kotor aman, sakoon
place stapana, sthala, bhu, sthāna jagyā, sthaļ jageh sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah thāñ, asthān jaɠah, thāñ ɉaega, sthan, zomin zega, zaga, zomin jaay jaag, thal jagah jāgā jāgā thai tthām sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal than jaga
queen rāni, rājpatni rāṇi, madhurāṇi raani rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, malka rāɳi rani rani māhraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani rāni, begam rāṇi rāṇi rani rāni räjina, dēvi, bisawa rāni rani, thagarni ranri, malka
read pathati, vachana vānch- baanch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paɽʱ- poṛh- foṛh- parun vajji/vaach paṛh- paḍh- paḍdh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh- chaduvu parhnra, parh
rest vishrāma ārām aaraam vishrānti ārām arām ārām aram, bišrom araam araam aaraam rām ārām, bisrām thāk, bisrām aram, zirôni arām vishrāma, viwēka ārām, bishrām Araam
say vadati, braviti, brūté, bōl- bōl- bōl-, mhaṇ-, sāng- bōl, ākh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- xo- bōl- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- kũhantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah bāj pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu phenel bol, aakh
sister svasṛ, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhaginī, bahīṇ behn pēn bēɳ bon, apa, didi boin, afa baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhauṇi bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi phen bheinr
small alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra nāhnũ nāhnũ lahān, laghu chhoṭā nikka, chhoṭā nanɖo cho̊ŧo huru lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kudā saano, chhoto tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta
son sunu, putra chhokḍo choora, betoo mulgā, porgā bēṭā put, puttar puʈ chele, put, bēṭā fua, fut, bēṭā nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua Po, Pila put (putek) pūt puthra, puthā, puthu chhora, putra chhavo putr
soul ātmā, atasa ātmā aatma ātmā ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ruh āthmā atma, jeev rūh ātmā ātmā atma ātmā ātmā ātmā di rooh
sun sūrya sūraj, sūrya suraj sūrya sūrya, sūraj sūraj siju šurɉo surzo, shurzo siri surya sūraj sūrjya sūrjya beli beri, sūrj ira, hiru, sūrya sūrya, ghām kham sijh
ten dasha das das dahā das das, daha ɖaha doš dosh duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das desh dah
three trī, trayah, trīNi (neut. nom. pl.) traṇ tiin tīn tīn tin, traiy ʈeh tin teen t're teen tīn tini tīn tini tīn thuna tin trin trai
village grāma gāñḍu gaaon, dhaani gāv, khēda gāoñ pinḍ, gāñ ɠoʈʰ gram, ga gau gām ganv gāoñ-dehāt, jageer gān, grāma gān gaû gām gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti
want ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- pāhijē, havē chāh- chāh- kʰap, chāh- cha- sa-, lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- chāh- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- chāhi oone, awashyayi chāhanā, ichhya kamel, mangel chah
water pāniya, jala pāṇi paani pāṇi pāni, jal pāni, jal pāṇi pani, ɉol fani poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal pāni pāṇi, jala pāyeṇ pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän pāni, jal pani panri
when kada, ched kyahre kadine kēvhā, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ kaɖahn kokhon, kobe kumbala, khobe karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadhāda, kedinada kahile kana kadanr
wind pavana, vāyu, vātā havā, pavan havaa vāra havā, pavan havā, paun. vah havā bataš, haoa batash tshath, hava vaar hāvā pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh basāt hulan, sulan, pavana, nala hāwā, batās balval hava, phook
wolf vrka, shvaka shiyāl bheriyo kōlha bhēṛhiyā pēṛhiyā ɡidʱar nekre, shiyal hiyal vrukh kolo bhērhiyā gadhiyā Kulia xiyal siyār vurkaya bwānso ruv baghiyaar
woman nāri, vanitā, strī, mahilā, lalanā mahilā, nāri lugai, aurat bāi, mahilā, stree aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri naar, mutiyar māi mohila, nari, stri beti, mohila zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, nāri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri kānthāwa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahilāwa, lalanāwa, liya, laňda, vanīthāwa mahilaa, naari, stree juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani
year varsh, shārad varash saal, uun varsh sāl, baras, varsh sāl, varah sāl bocchor, shal, boshor, bosor, sāl váreeh varas sāl, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha bersh saal
yes / no hyah, kam / na, ma hā / nā hon/koni hōy, hō, hā / nāhi, nā hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ, āho / nā, nahīñ hā/ na hæ, ho, oi / na ii, oe / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa hāñ / nā han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na
yesterday hyah, gatadinam, gatakāle (gai-)kāl(-e) kaal kāl kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) kāla, rāth kaal kālh (gata-)kāli gala kāli (zuwa-)kali kāilh īyē hijo ij kal
English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Kosli Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

English Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala
who kün, kai ke koṇ, koṇa kōṇa kaun kauna xe ko kavuda
what ki, kih ki śũ kāya kya ki čhā kita ke
where kót, keni kothay, koi kuṭhe kahan kithe xoi, xano kithé kaham koheda
when ketia, kahani kokhon, kobe kyāre kadhī kab kadom kumbela, kunbala, xobe kahile, kab kavada
why kio, kelei keno kyun kiun xene, kitarlagi kina æyi
how kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore kemon, kibhabe kasē kaise kive kila, xemne kasari
English Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala

Personal pronouns[edit]

English Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Rajasthani Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Kamatapuri Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki
i aham moi ami huṁ maiṁ maa mui, ami aav mui haum mu͂ haum ma
we ami amra ame āmhī ham asīṁ asā amra aami hami aame hāmī
you (inf) toi tui tu tu tui tu taṁ
you (mid frm) tumi tumi tame tūmhī tum tumi tume timī
you (frm) apüni apni āp āpaṅ āp tāhā afne tumi aapaNa tapāīṁ
you (inf, pl) tohõt tora Not used
you (mid frm, pl) tümalük tomra tumlog tumitain, tumra tumi tumemaane timīharū
you (frm, pl) apünalük apnara āplog afnain, afnara tumi aapaNamaane tapāīṁharū
he (mid frm) xi śe who ho he to se ū
she (mid frm) tai śe who huā tai ti se ū
he (frm) teü, tekhet tini ve tain se unī
she (frm) teü, tekhet tini tain se unī
they (mid frm) xihõt õra wohlog huā tara taani semaane unīharū, tinīharū
they (frm) teülük, tekhetxokol tara ve tara semaane unīharū, tinīharū
English Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Rajasthani Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Kamatapuri Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
  3. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
  4. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6. 
  6. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6. 
  7. ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ... 
  8. ^ "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  10. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  11. ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
  12. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
  13. ^ Matras (2012)
  14. ^ "History of the Romani language". 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  Encyclopedia Iranica
  16. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  18. ^
  19. ^ Ray, Tapas S. (2007). "Chapter Eleven: "Oriya". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
  20. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  21. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  22. ^ Masica (1991:94–95)
  23. ^ Masica (1991:95–96)
  24. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23–27.

Further reading[edit]

  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links[edit]