The Indo-Aryan languages, or Indic languages, are a major language family native to northern Indian subcontinent and presently found all across South Asia. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. In the early 21st century, Indo-Aryan languages were spoken by more than 800 million people in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Moreover, there are large immigrant and expatriate Indo-Aryan speaking communities in Northwestern Europe, Western Asia, North America and Australia. There are about 219 known Indo-Aryan languages in the world. Modern Indo-Aryan languages are descended from Old Indo-Aryan languages such as early Sanskrit, through Middle Indo-Aryan languages; the largest in terms of L1 speakers are Hindustani, Punjabi, Gujarati, Odia, Maithili and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million. Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages.
It is intended to reconstruct the language of the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan, directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic. Dates indicate only a rough time frame. Proto-Indo-Aryan Old Indo-Aryan early Old Indo-Aryan: Vedic Sanskrit late Old Indo-Aryan: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit Mitanni Indo-Aryan Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrits, Early Buddhist texts early Middle Indo-Aryan: e.g. Ashokan Prakrits, Gandhari, middle Middle Indo-Aryan: e.g. Dramatic Prakrits, Elu late Old Indo-Aryan: e.g. Abahattha Early Modern Indo-Aryan: e.g. early Dakhini and emergence of the Dehlavi dialect The earliest evidence of the group is from Mitanni Indo-Aryan. The only evidence of it is specialised loanwords. Vedic Sanskrit was used in the ancient preserved religious hymns of the Rigveda, the earliest Vedic literature. From Vedic Sanskrit, "Sanskrit" developed as the prestige language of culture and religion as well as the court, etc.
Modern Sanskrit is a continuation of Classical Sanskrit and is mutually unintelligible with Vedic Sanskrit. Mitanni inscriptions show some Middle Indo-Aryan characteristics along with Old Indo-Aryan, for example sapta in Old Indo-Aryan becomes satta. According to S. S. Misra this language can be similar to Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit which might not be a mixed language but an early middle Indo-Aryan occurring much before Prakrit. Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects continued to evolve; the oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Apabhraṃśa is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning the 6th to 13th centuries; some of these dialects showed considerable literary production. The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries.
Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire, Persian became influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani; this Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Hindustani. In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by Dehlavi-based Hindustani. Hindustani was influenced by Persian, with these and Sanskrit influence leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language; this state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.
Today it is understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia and one of the most known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna and the Ashvins are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika, panza, satta, na, vartana (vartana, "turn", round in the horse
State Police is a 1938 American action film directed by John Rawlins and written by George Waggner. The film stars John'Dusty' King, William Lundigan, Constance Moore, Larry J. Blake, J. Farrell MacDonald and David Oliver; the film was released on March 1938, by Universal Pictures. When his son is expelled from college, Colonel Clarke, head of the State Police, assigns him to the patrol of Sergeant Dan Prescott as Private Smith. "Smith" makes a play for his girl Helen Evans. During a shutdown of unprofitable coal mines at Minersburg, the gang of racketeer "Trigger" Magee levies tribute on the miners who are mining coal for their own use. Magee kills Albert Morgan for opposing him, Dan gets order to arrest Magee and clean up the situation. "Smith" quits the force and becomes involved with the gangsters headquartered at "The Oaks," a notorious resort ran by Helen's brother Jack. The latter double-crosses is killed by him. Magee is arrested and makes "Smith" a prisoner and beats him unconscious for refusing to phone his father to call off the police hunt.
Miners, led by Joe Palmer and Charlie, organize to clean out the gangsters while Dan's troopers are closing in. John'Dusty' King as Sgt. Dan Prescott William Lundigan as Pvt. Smith / Bill Clarke Constance Moore as Helen Evans Larry J. Blake as Trigger Magee J. Farrell MacDonald as Charlie Wheeler David Oliver as Cpl. Duffy Ted Osborne as Jack Evans Pierre Watkin as Col. C. B. Clarke Guy Usher as Hughes Charles C. Wilson as Capt. Halstead Eddy Waller as Const. Higgins Sam Flint as Deputy Joe Palmer State Police on IMDb
Stephen E. Harding is a British biochemist specialising in biomolecular hydrodynamics. Harding is Professor of Applied Biochemistry at the University of Nottingham, has been the Director of the National Centre of Macromolecular Hydrodynamics since its foundation in 1987 and is a member of the Centre for the Study of the Viking Age. Besides developing and applying hydrodynamic methodology to biomolecules, Harding's notable work includes finding remarkable protein-like behaviour of carbohydrates and the discovery of high levels of Scandinavian genes in the ancestral population of coastal North West England, he is now part of the Saving Oseberg research team - finding natural polymer consolidants to replace the decayed cellulose and lignin in all the perilously fragile artefacts of the Oseberg Viking ship and in August 2017 appointed an adjunct Professor of the University of Oslo. In 1991 he became a junior medallist of the Royal Society of Chemistry and in 2002 awarded a DSc from the University of Oxford.
For his scientific and historical investigation of the Vikings in North West England, where he hails from, he was, in 2011, made a Knight of the 1st class of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit by King Harald of Norway for his "outstanding service in the interests of Norway". He gave the 2016 Hakon Hakonsson Lecture at Largs, the 2017 Svedberg lecture. Bowden, Georgina R.. "Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in Northwest England". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25: 301–309. Doi:10.1093/molbev/msm255. PMC 2628767. PMID 18032405. Heinze, Thomas. D. Michaelis, Nico. 50: 8602-8604. Harding, Stephen E. "The Svedberg Lecture 2017. From nano to micro: the huge dynamic range of the analytical ultracentrifuge for characterising the sizes and interactions of molecules and assemblies in Biochemistry and Polymer Science", European Biophysics Journal. 47: 697-707 Wakefield, Jennifer M. K.. A.. European Biophysics Journal. 47: 769–775 Full list of publications: Google Scholar Harding, Stephen E..
J.. C.. Analytical ultracentrifugation in polymer science. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0851863450. Cavill, Paul. Wirral and Its Viking Heritage. English Place-Name Society. ISBN 978-0-904889-59-8. Harding, Stephen. Viking Mersey: Scandinavian Wirral, West Lancashire and Chester. Countyvise Limited. P. 240. ISBN 978-1-901231-3-42. Harding, Stephen. Viking DNA: The Wirral and West Lancashire Project. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-466590-85-4. Harding, Stephen E.. Ingimund's Saga: Viking Wirral. Chester University Press. ISBN 978-1908258304. Harding, Stephen. Science and the Vikings; the Hakon Hakonsson Lecture, 2016. Largs & District Historical Society. ISBN 978-1-527207-0-66. Harding, Stephen. 2nd Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1482246971. Full list of books: Amazon.co.uk Stephen Harding at the School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham Stephen Harding at the Centre for the Study of the Viking Age National Centre of Macromolecular Hydrodynamics Stephen Harding at the University of Oslo