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The Indo-Pacific, sometimes known as the Indo-West Pacific or Indo-Pacific Asia, is a biogeographic region of Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, the western and central Pacific Ocean, the seas connecting the two in the general area of Indonesia. It does not include the temperate and polar regions of the Indian and Pacific oceans, nor the Tropical Eastern Pacific, along the Pacific coast of the Americas, a distinct marine realm; the term is useful in marine biology and similar fields, since many marine habitats are continuously connected from Madagascar to Japan and Oceania, a number of species occur over that range, but are not found in the Atlantic Ocean. The region has an exceptionally high species richness, including 3000 species of fish, compared with around 1200 in the next richest marine region, the Western Atlantic, around 500 species of reef building corals, compared with about 50 species in the Western Atlantic; the WWF and Nature Conservancy divide the Indo-Pacific into three realms, each of these into a number of marine provinces.

The Central Indo-Pacific includes the numerous seas and straits connecting the Indian and Pacific oceans, including the seas surrounding the Indonesian archipelago, the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, the north coast of Australia, the seas surrounding New Guinea and central Micronesia, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Tonga. The Central Indo-Pacific, due in part to its central location at the meeting of two oceans, has the greatest diversity of corals and mangroves; the Eastern Indo-Pacific surrounds the volcanic islands of the central Pacific Ocean, extending from the Marshall Islands through central and southeastern Polynesia to Easter Island and Hawaii. The Western Indo-Pacific covers the western and central portion of the Indian Ocean, including Africa's east coast, the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, as well as the coastal waters surrounding Madagascar, the Seychelles, Mascarene Islands and Chagos Archipelago. With the rising involvement of the US in the new growth areas of Asia, the idea of the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor was conceptualized during the US-India Strategic Dialogue of 2013, where Secretary of State John Kerry referred to the potential of the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor, in transforming the prospects for development and investments as well as for trade and transit between the economies of South and Southeast Asia Indo-Pacific economic corridor.

K. Y. Home in his scholarly study has mapped out the potential for various emerging trans-regional corridors in Asia along with the challenges of linking IPEC into the larger web of regional economic integration initiatives taking shape in the region in 2017. Since 2011, the term ‘Indo-Pacific’ is being used in the global strategic/ geopolitical discourse. In its way, the term "Indo-Pacific" can be thought of in the same way as using terms like "Post-Rock" or "World Fusion"; the concept is not new to the geopolitical discourse. The German geopolitician Karl Haushofer first used it in the 1920s in his academic work called "Indopazifischen Raum". Since intermittently, many analysts sought to describe the'geo-economic' connect between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. However, in the contemporary context, beginning the 2000s, analysts began to observe the'security' linkage between the two Oceans. In this context, the term was first used in an article authored by Gurpreet Khurana, carried in the January 2007 issue of the Strategic Analysis journal titled "Security of Sea Lines: Prospects for India-Japan Cooperation".

In the article, the term ‘Indo-Pacific’ refers to the maritime space stretching from the littorals of East Africa and West Asia, across the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean, to the littorals of East Asia. The spirit of the term was picked up by Japan's Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, as reflected in his speech to the Indian Parliament in August 2007 that talked about the "Confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans" as "the dynamic coupling as seas of freedom and of prosperity" in the "broader Asia". From 2010 onwards, the term Indo-Pacific acquired salience within the Indian government and has since been used by India's apex political leadership. From about 2011 onwards, the term has been used by strategic analysts and high-level government/military leadership in Australia and the US to denote said region. However, a formal/ official documented articulation of the term first appeared in Australia’s Defence White Paper, 2013, it has been argued that the concept of the Indo-Pacific may lead to a change in popular "mental maps" of how the world is understood in strategic terms.

In 2013, US officials have begun using the term "Indo-Asia Pacific". This enabled America to maintain its geographic inclusiveness in the new coinage of'Indo-Pacific'; the term's profile was raised when it found mention in the joint statement issued by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and United States President Donald Trump after the former's state visit to the White House on 26 June 2017. "As responsible stewards in the Indo-Pacific region, President Trump and Prime Minister Modi agreed that a close partnership between the United States and India is central to peace and stability in the region. In marking 70 years of diplomatic relations between India and the United States, the leaders resolved to expand and deepen the strategic partnership between the countries and advance common objectives. Above all, these objectives include combatting terrorist threats, promoting stability across the Indo-Pacific region, increasing f

Bark Mitzvah

A Bark Mitzvah is an observance and celebration of a dog's coming of age, like the Jewish traditional Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah. The term has been in use since at least as early as 1958 and Bark Mitzvahs are sometimes held as an adjunct to the festival of Purim for fun; the Bark Mitzvah is a celebration not held in conjunction with a specific age but can occur when the dog turns 13 months or 13 years of age. During some Bark Mitzvahs, dogs wear a tallit, a ritual prayer shawl worn during Jewish religious services and ceremonies. A male dog wears a thin skullcap; the first recorded Bark Mitzvah took place in Beverly Hills California in 1958. According to the Beverly Hills Courier and Janet Salter celebrated the coming of age of their black cocker spaniel Duke of Windsor. Janet coined the term "Bark Mitzvah" on the invitations. Over the next 50 years and Janet threw several more Bark Mitzvahs whenever one of their dogs turned 13. In 1997, the first recorded Bark Mitzvah was celebrated, receiving scrutiny and disapproval from several rabbis.

One rabbi expressed his distaste for Bark Mitzvahs in a letter to the editor of The New York Times, describing the celebration as "nothing less than a desecration of a cherished Jewish tradition" and claiming that Bark Mitzvahs "degrade some of the central principles of Jewish life". Although the idea of the Bark Mitzvah is frowned upon by some, the idea spread throughout the United States, the celebrations have continued to occur; the ceremonies became popular on the East and West Coasts in the early 2000s. As a result, specialty pet stores and dog bakeries now offer special Bark Mitzvah party packages, party favors, gifts. Owner: Mark Nadler Place: Nadler Residence, New York City Date: December 2004 Breed: Wheaten TerrierMark Nadler, a New York cabaret singer, hired party planners and bartenders to ensure a special evening for Admiral Boom; the event was complete with a Bark Mitzvah cake displaying Boom's photograph and his name written in English and Hebrew, satin yarmulkes with Boom's name and date printed inside, a full buffet.

Mark Nadler requested that as a Bark Mitzvah gift to Boom, guests make a donation to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Coverage of the celebration was featured in The New York Times. Owners: Edie and Ed Rudy Place: A local café, Florida Date: October 14, 2005 Breed: PoodleEdie and Ed Rudy celebrated Columbo Rudy's coming of age at a local, outdoor Aventura café. Rabbi Rex Doberman signed a certificate from Congregation Beth Poodle congratulating the canine. Coverage of the event was featured on MSNBC. Owner: David Best Place: Sammy's Roumanian Steakhouse, New York City Date: November 10, 2007 Breed: Parson Russell TerrierDavid Best, CEO of MDea and The Doctor's Channel, hosted this celebration at Sammy's Roumanian, a famous Jewish steakhouse; the event featured live music, traditional Jewish cuisine, various speeches given by Elvis Best himself. In attendance were representatives from various US pharmaceutical companies; as a result, the celebration served as the event of the season in the pharmaceutical industry.

Sex therapist Dr. Ruth helped Elvis celebrate his big day. Coverage of the event was available on YouTube, The Doctor's Channel, AOL; the term is used for a dog-assisted literacy education project, one of several "bark mitzva" projects designed by a Lawrenceville, New Jersey conservative synagogue's religious school to teach children about tzedaka, the Jewish practice of charity. Blessing of animals Guerrero, Diana L.. Blessing of the Animals: A Guide to Prayers & Ceremonies Celebrating Pets & Other Creatures. New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-2967-6. Soul, Lauren.. "Bark Mitzvahs". The Jewish Magazine. June 2008. P. 12

Taoyuan City Council

The Taoyuan City Council is the elected municipal council of Taoyuan City, Republic of China. The council composes of 60 councilors lastly elected through the 2018 Republic of China local election on 24 November 2018; the council was established on 21 January 1951 as Taoyuan County Council. On 25 December 2014, the council was promoted in status to Taoyuan City Council after Taoyuan County becomes a special municipality. Since the local elections in 2014, the Council was composed as follows: First Examination Team Second Examination Team Third Examination Team Fourth Examination Team Fifth Examination Team Sixth Examination Team Procedural Examination Team Discipline Committee Agenda Procedure Division General Affairs Division Legal Affairs Office Information and Library Office Public Relationship Office Accounting Office Personnel Office Tseng Chung-yi Chi Yi-sheng Chi Yi-sheng Taoyuan City Taoyuan City Government

Leucospermum pluridens

Leucospermum pluridens is a large upright evergreen shrub of up to 3 m high assigned to the family Proteaceae. It has leathery, oblong to wedge-shaped leaves of about 7½ cm long and 2½ cm wide incised near the tip with seven to ten teeth, it has yellow carmine coloured flower heads. The 2 cm long bracts have recurved tips. From the center of the perianth emerge long styles that jointly give the impression of a pincushion, it is called Robinson pincushion in Robinson-kreupelhout in Afrikaans. Flowers can be found between December, it occurs in the south of South Africa. Leucospermum pluridens is an upright, evergreen tree-like shrub of up to 3 m in diameter, that emerges from a woody trunk of up to 20 cm in diameter; the trunk and lower branches are covered by a smooth grey bark. Characteristically, young plants branch only sparsely from the stiff upright stem, but older plants develop more branches; the flowering branches are stout and woody, ¾–1 cm across, with a thick grey felty or spiderweb-like covering consisting of short cringy hairs.

The leaves are set alternately and overlapping and leathery, oblong or broadly inverted lance-shaped to wedge-shaped, 5½–10 cm long and 2–3½ cm wide. The tip of the leaf is rounded deeply incised and bears seven to ten prominent rounded teeth; the flowerheads are egg-shaped, about 8 cm high and 6 cm across, seated or have a short stalk individual but sometimes grouped with up to four together on a flowering branch. The common base of the flowers in the same head are narrowly cone-shaped with a pointy tip, 3½–4 cm long and about 1 cm wide; the bracts subtending the head are oval, with a long narrowing and hook-shaped tip, up to 2 cm long, with a row of long hairs along the edges, the inner surface shiny and carmine-coloured in living specimens. The bract subtending the individual flower is cartilaginous in consistency and wraps around the base of the flower, about 1 cm long and 6 mm wide, with long pointed tip that curves inwards and with a row of long hairs along the edges; the perianth is 4-merous.

The lower part of the perianth called tube, that remains merged when the flower is open, is about 10 mm long, cylinder-shaped, somewhat compressed sideways, hairless at its foot and powdery higher up. The middle part is yellow, becoming bright carmine hairy on the inner surface, with long straight hairs between short felty hairs; the claw facing the middle of is hairless near the base. The upper part, which enclosed the pollen presenter in the bud, are broadly lance-shaped with a pointy tip, each about 5 mm long and 2 mm wide, those facing the centre of the head and the sides with in addition long silky hairs; the limb facing the edge of the head is less densely felty than the other three. From the centre of the perianth emerges a slender tapering and the upper part curved to the center of the head, style of 5–6 cm long and about 1½ mm thick; the thickened part at the tip of the style called pollen presenter is orange in the lower half and yellow in the upper half, cone-shaped with a pointy tip, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide long, with a green groove that functions as the stigma across the tip.

The ovary is subtended by four awl-shaped scales of about 2 mm long. Leucospermum pluridens differs from its close relative Leucospermum glabrum because it has felty to spiderweb-like, grey indumentum on the flowering branches, the pointy, narrowly cone-shaped acute common base of the flower head, exceptionally long bracts subtending the flower with a long pointed and recurved tip and edges with a row of long hears and leaves with six to nine deep incisions; as far as we know, Margaret Levyns was the first to collect of the Robinson pincushion in 1938 on the Rooiberg Pass, south of Calitzdorp. Since it can be found on the north facing slopes of the Outeniqua Mountains near the Attaquas Kloof, traveled by Francis Masson, Carl Peter Thunberg and other collectors, it is curious that this striking shrub seems to have been overlooked for a long time. John Patrick Rourke realised it was a new species, which he described in 1970 and called Leucospermum pluridens. Leucospermum pluridens is assigned to section Conocarpodendron.

The species name pluridens is a compounding of the Latin words pluris meaning "many" and dens meaning "teeth". The Robinson pincushion grows on the lower northern slopes of the Outeniqua Mountains near "Klein Moeras Rivier Spruiten", Saffraan Rivier and Kruis Pad, at 500–600 m, on the southeastern slopes of the Rooiberg at an altitude of 750–1050 m. On both locations, the species occur, in the so-called Arid Fynbos, a transitional vegetation type on the interface between fynbos and Karoo; this is most evidently demonstrated at Kruis Pad where this species can be found associated with Aloe ferox and several Cotyledon and Restionaceae on dry, north facing hills. Within the distribution of the Robinson pincushion the average annual precipitation is 250–400 mm; this makes the requirements of L. pluridens quite different from those of its close relative, L. glabrum. The species grows in the Baviaanskloof; the fruits are ripe about two months after flowering. Here they are gathered by ants that carry them to their underground nest, where they remain until they germinate after a fire has removed the overhead vegetation cover.

The Robinson pincushion is considered near threatened. Its distribution is fragmente

Classical limit

The classical limit or correspondence limit is the ability of a physical theory to approximate or "recover" classical mechanics when considered over special values of its parameters. The classical limit is used with physical theories. A heuristic postulate called the correspondence principle was introduced to quantum theory by Niels Bohr: in effect it states that some kind of continuity argument should apply to the classical limit of quantum systems as the value of Planck's constant normalized by the action of these systems becomes small; this is approached through "quasi-classical" techniques. More rigorously, the mathematical operation involved in classical limits is a group contraction, approximating physical systems where the relevant action is much larger than Planck's constant ħ, so the "deformation parameter" ħ/S can be taken to be zero Thus quantum commutators reduce to Poisson brackets, in a group contraction. In quantum mechanics, due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, an electron can never be at rest.

For example, if we consider something large relative to an electron, like a baseball, the uncertainty principle predicts that it cannot have zero kinetic energy, but the uncertainty in kinetic energy is so small that the baseball can appear to be at rest, hence it appears to obey classical mechanics. In general, if large energies and large objects are considered in quantum mechanics, the result will appear to obey classical mechanics; the typical occupation numbers involved are huge: a macroscopic harmonic oscillator with ω = 2 Hz, m = 10 g, maximum amplitude x0 = 10 cm, has S ≈ E/ω ≈ mωx20/2 ≈ 10−4 kg·m2/s = ħn, so that n ≃ 1030. Further see coherent states, it is less clear, how the classical limit applies to chaotic systems, a field known as quantum chaos. Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are treated with different formalisms: quantum theory using Hilbert space, classical mechanics using a representation in phase space. One can bring the two into a common mathematical framework in various ways.

In the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics, statistical in nature, logical connections between quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics are made, enabling natural comparisons between them, including the violations of Liouville's theorem upon quantization. In a crucial paper, Dirac explained how classical mechanics is an emergent phenomenon of quantum mechanics: destructive interference among paths with non-extremal macroscopic actions S » ħ obliterate amplitude contributions in the path integral he introduced, leaving the extremal action Sclass, thus the classical action path as the dominant contribution, an observation further elaborated by Feynman in his 1942 PhD dissertation. One simple way to compare classical to quantum mechanics is to consider the time-evolution of the expected position and expected momentum, which can be compared to the time-evolution of the ordinary position and momentum in classical mechanics; the quantum expectation values satisfy the Ehrenfest theorem.

For a one-dimensional quantum particle moving in a potential V, the Ehrenfest theorem says m d d t ⟨ x ⟩ = ⟨ p ⟩. Although the first of these equations is consistent with the classical mechanics, the second is not: If the pair were to satisfy Newton's second law, the right-hand side of the second equation would have read d d t ⟨ p ⟩ = − V ′, but in most cases, ⟨ V ′ ⟩ ≠ V ′. If for example, the potential V is cubic V ′ is quadratic, in which case, we are talking about the distinction between ⟨ X 2 ⟩ and ⟨ X ⟩ 2, which differ by 2. An exception occurs in case when the classical equations of motion are linear, that is, when V is quadratic and V ′ is linear. In that special case, V ′ and ⟨ V

Kinematic pair

A kinematic pair is a connection between two physical objects that imposes constraints on their relative movement. Franz Reuleaux introduced the kinematic pair as a new approach to the study of machines that provided an advance over the motion of elements consisting of simple machines. Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points and systems of bodies without consideration of the causes of motion. Kinematics as a field of study is referred to as the "geometry of motion". For further detail, see Kinematics. Hartenberg & Denavit presents the definition of a kinematic pair: In the matter of connections between rigid bodies, Reuleaux recognized two kinds. With higher pairs, the two elements are in contact at a point or along a line, as in a ball bearing or disk cam and follower. Lower pairs are those for which area contact may be visualized, as in pin connections, ball-and socket joints and some others. A lower pair is an ideal joint that constrains contact between a surface in the moving body to a corresponding surface in the fixed body.

A lower pair is one in which there occurs a surface or area contact between two members, e.g. nut and screw, universal joint used to connect two propeller shafts. Cases of lower joints: A revolute pair, or hinged joint, requires a line in the moving body to remain co-linear with a line in the fixed body, a plane perpendicular to this line in the moving body maintain contact with a similar perpendicular plane in the fixed body; this imposes five constraints on the relative movement of the links, which therefore has one degree of freedom. A prismatic joint, or slider, requires that a line in the moving body remain co-linear with a line in the fixed body, a plane parallel to this line in the moving body maintain contact with a similar parallel plane in the fixed body; this imposes five constraints on the relative movement of the links, which therefore has one degree of freedom. A screw pair requires cut threads in two links, so that there is a turning as well as sliding motion between them; this joint has one degree of freedom.

A cylindrical joint requires that a line in the moving body remain co-linear with a line in the fixed body. It is a combination of a sliding joint; this joint has two degrees of freedom. A spherical joint or ball and socket joint requires that a point in the moving body remain stationary in the fixed body; this joint has three degrees of corresponding to rotations around orthogonal axes. A planar joint requires; this joint has three degrees of freedom. The moving plane can slide in two dimensions along the fixed plane, it can rotate on an axis normal to the fixed plane. A higher pair is a constraint that requires a curve or surface in the moving body to maintain contact with a curve or surface in the fixed body. For example, the contact between a cam and its follower is a higher pair called a cam joint; the contact between the involute curves that form the meshing teeth of two gears are cam joints, as is a wheel rolling on a surface. It has a line contact. Ball or spherical joint requires that a point in the moving body maintain contact with a point in the fixed body.

This joint has three degrees of freedom. A wrapping/higher pair is a constraint that comprises belts and such other devices. A belt-driven pulley is an example of this pair. In this type of, similar to the higher pair, but having multiple point contact. Hartenberg, R. S. & J. Denavit Kinematic synthesis of linkages, pp 17,18, New York: McGraw-Hill, online link from Cornell University